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Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe

versión On-line ISSN 2224-7912
versión impresa ISSN 0041-4751

Tydskr. geesteswet. vol.49 no.3 Pretoria  2009

 

Calvijn uit de anonimiteit op de disputatie van Lausanne (Oktober 1536)

 

Calvin's step into public at the Disputation of Lausanne (October 1536)

 

 

EA de Boer

Departement Ekklesiologie, Fakulteit Teologie, Universiteit van die Vrystaat

 

 


ABSTRACT

Hierdie artikel gaan in op die profiel van die jong Calvyn toe hy tydens die bekende Disputasie van Lausanne (Oktober 1536) vir die eerste keer sy stem in die openbaar laat hoor het. Dit word nagegaan in die ter saaklike primêre bronne. Daaruit blyk dat Calvyn hom vóór die Disputasie van pseudonieme ter wille van anonimiteit bedien het - in Basel én in Ferrara, Italie. In Genève (1536) is hy as professor in die Nuwe Testamentiese Grieks aan die Collège de Rive met sy tradisie van Skrifuitleg verbind. Daarnaas (en later) het hy predikant geword. Behalwe dus dat hy deeglik in Latyn geskool was (deur Cordier), het hy 'n begronde leksikografiese kennis van Grieks bekom (o.a. by Wolmar en Grynaeus). Daarom is hy aangestel vir Nuwe Testamentiese Grieks. Dit het ook die basis voorsien vir sy projek om Nuwe Testamentiese kommentare uit te gee. In die derde plek het hy ook onderrig in Hebreeus meegemaak, ten minste by Sebastian Münster en later by Michel Cop. Deeglik voorbereid het hy Farel tydens die Disputasie teologies en kerkhistories bygestaan. Deur in die openbaar tot die diskussie toe te tree, het hy nou uit die anonimiteit getree en as Johannes Calvyn hom teologies in eie reg en openlik onderskei.

Trefwoorde: Calvyn, Disputasie van Lausanne, Calvyn se opvoeding


ABSTRACT

This article concentrates on the profile of the young Calvin when he emerged from the shadows of anonymity during the Disputation of Lausanne in October 1536. Who was he at that point in time? The contemporary and primary sources indicate that after his flight from France he used pseudonyms (Charles d'Espeville, Carolus Passelius and Martianus Lucianus). He also concealed his authorship of the Institution (1536) in Basel as well as during his stay at Ferrarra in Italy. In Geneva (1536) he was appointed professor of New Testament Greek and linked up with the Collège de Rive with its longstanding tradition of exposition of Scriptures. Afterwards he was also called as pastor for the city.
His position in New Testament Greek points in the direction of his competence and skills in Greek. Evidently he was well educated in Latin - especially by Cordier. His study of Greek is not well documented. He was taught Greek by Wolmar and Grynaeus. His knowledge of this language was more lexicographic than grammatical or semantic. This, however, provided him with the foundation to commence with his intended project of the exposition of New Testament books in published commentaries. In addition, he learned Hebrew from Sebastian Münster and Michel Cop. Later on, before his travel to Ferrara, Calvin said in connection with his time in Basel that he was there "incognitus." Keeping his authorship of the Institutes a secret may be modesty or perhaps fear. In Ferrara he did not mention a word that he was the author of the Institutes and of the letter to the King.
Thoroughly prepared, he provided assistance to Farel during the Disputation in thelogical and church historical matters. By publicly participating in the discussion he now left his anonymity and distinguished himself theologically in his own right. As lecturer of New Testament Greek in Geneva he went with Farel to Laussane to attend the Disputation scheduled for the beginning of October 1536. Since his appointment in Geneva, at least until January 1537, he served in an academic capacity and not as pastor. Calvin lectured on Greek (text: the New Testament) during the afternoons. It is possible that Simon Grynaeus might have influenced Calvin's skills in Greek, resulting in the fact that his first commentary (on the book of Romans) was dedicated to Simon Grynaeus. His training in Latin and Hebrew respectively occupied the second and third place in his education.
After his appointment his first presentation impressed not only because of the ease with which he quoted sources and pages, but also because of the content of his argument - for example, in his refutation of the doctrine of transubstantiation (Terullianus, Pseudo-Chrysostomos, Augustinus). In a similar event later on he was equally impressive with quotations from Augustine. The question whether or not Calvin was influenced by Farel is briefly discussed.
In most of the Calvin biographies he is acclaimed for his accurate and extensive citations from the church fathers as he got involved in the debates. Careful analysis of the sources suggests that he and Farel prepared themselves in advance for the theological disputation and that Calvin had insight in the text of Farel's report. Of greater historical importance is the fact that Calvin, by participating in the Disputation, stepped into public life and distinguished himself openly as a theologian in his own right and with his own complete identity.

Key concepts: Calvin, Disputation of Lausanne, Calvin's Education


 

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

1 COR 4/4 (verschijnt in 2009)
2 COR 6/1, ep. 16, 19, 22.
3 CO 31, 23.
4 Simon Grynaeus schrijft hem op 15 maart 1537 in verband met ondersteuning van de liefdesverklaring van Sinapius aan Françoise: 'Ook jij hebt haar, zoals ik begrijp, vriendschappelijk leren kennen (Eam, quantum intelligo, etiam tu familiariter nosti; Herminjard IV, 205 (ep. 619)).
5 Mirjam van Veen, Calvijn (Kampen, 2006), 27.
6 Beza/Colladon, Vie de Calvin (1564): "Adonc il accorda de demeurer, non pas pour prescher mais pour lire en Theologie. Et advint tout ceci l'an 1536 au commencement de Septembre, mais un peu apres il fut aussi esleu Pasteur. Estant ainsi declare Pasteur et Docteur en ceste Eglise avec legitieme election et approbation, il dressa un brief formulaire de confession et de discipline ..." (Co 21, 58f). Nog op 5 februari 1537 vraagt de raad van Genève aan de baljuw van Thonon om de terugkeer van Eli Couraulx 'nostre prescheur', die daar hulpdiensten verrichtte. Ook worden Pierre Viret (die in Lausanne werkt, maar nog als predikant van Genève beschouwd wordt) en Guillaume Farel genoemd. Dan schrijft de raad: 'Zonder de genoemde meester Eli zitten we bijna zonder prediking' (sans le dit Maistre Élye, sumes presque sans sermon; Herminjard 4, 179 (ep. 607). Calvijn werd dus nog niet als prediker genoemd.
7 Beza, Vita Calvini (1575): "delectus non concionator tantum (hoc autem primum recusarat), sed etiam sacrarum literarum doctor, quod unum admittbat, est designatus anno Domini MDXXXVI mense Augusto" (Co 21, 125f). Verderop over de disputatie van Lausanne: "cui Calvinus quoque interfuit, celebratus est".
8 Registres du Conseil de Genève à l'Époque de Calvin vol I (1536), ed. Paule Hochuli Dubois (Genève, 2003), 130.
9 Maistre Guillaume Pharel, prescheur de l'Évangile, et Jehan Caulvin, Lecteur en la Saincte Escripture à Genève'; Herminjard 4, 274 (ep. 650); CO 10/2, 119 (ep. 73); COR 6/1, 244 (ep. 46).
10 Herminjard 4, 293 (ep 657); CO 10/2, 125 (ep. 76); COR 6/1, 264 (ep. 50). Capito's brief van 1 december 1536 is geadresseerd aan 'D. Calvino, sacras literas et Christum docenti Gebennis' (Herminjard 4, 116; ep. 585).
11 Herminjard 4, 259 (ep. 642); CO 10/2, 114 (ep. 70); COR 6/1, 236 (ep.44).
12 Farel werd ook om zijn kennis van het Hebreeuws hooggeacht. Zo trachtte Oswald Myconius hem in 1542 voor het onderwijs in het Hebreeuws te werven (Hermindjard VII, 419).
13 'Et quant à l'autre leceon qui est en Grec du nouveau testament, Iehan Caulvin la fait à deux heures apres mydi', L'ordre et la manière d'enseigner en la Ville de Geneve au College (Genève: Jean Girard, 1538) in: E.-A. Betant, Notice sur le College de Rive, suivie de l'Ordre & maniere d'enseigner en la Ville en Geneve au College avec la description de la ville de Geneve (Genève, 1866); Charles Borgeaud, Histoire de l'Université de Genève vol.1 L'Academie de Calvin 1559-1798 (Genève, 1900), 17. De Ordonnaces ecclésiastiques van 1541 zouden vermelden: "Le degré plus prochain au ministre et plus adjoingt au gouvernement de l'esglise est la lecture de theologie don't il sera bon qu'il y en ayat au vieil et nouveau testament" (Registres de la compagnie des Pasteurs de Genève au temps de Calvin, vol. 1 (1546-1553) ed. Jean-François Bergier (Genève, 1964), 6).
14 'Et quant aux lectures de Grec nous avons ordinairement le nouveau testament, & le viel pour cells d'Ebrieu, & avec ce tousiours on list de la Grammaire tant en Grec qu'en Ebrieu', L'ordre et la maniere d'enseigner en la Ville de Geneve au College (Genève: Jean Girard, 1538).
15 'Doctoris primum, deinde pastoris munere in ecclesia illa functus sum' (CO 5, 386; OS I, 458).
16 T.H.L. Parker, John Calvin (London, 1975), 21.
17 CO 12, 365 (ep. 814), 8 augustus 1546. Vgl. André Malan Hugo, Calvijn en Seneca. Een inleidende studie van Calvijns Commentaar op Seneca, De Clementia, anno 1532 (Groningen-Djakarta, 1957), 14v.
18 Vgl. COR 6/1, 50v (ep. 4).
19 COR 6/1, 41 (ep. 1).
20 COR 6/1, 73 (ep. 11). Vgl. Parker, John Calvin, 29; Hugo, Calvijn en Seneca, 29.
21 Calvin's Commentary on Seneca's De Clementia, ed. Ford Lewis Battles - André Malan Hugo (Leiden, 1969), 46.
22 Commentary on Seneca, 200 ad n.5v; vgl. Parker, John Calvin, 32.
23 COR 6/1, 105-13 (ep. 20). Vertaling in John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion - 1536 edition, ed. Ford Lewis Battles (Grand Rapids MI, 1978), 373-77.
24 M.A. van den Berg, Vrienden van Calvijn. Een amicale biografie (Utrecht, 2006), 83-91; Cornelis Augustijn, Christoph Burger, Frans P. van Stam, 'Calvin in the Light of the Early Letters', Calvinus Praeceptor Ecclesiae. Papers of the International Congress on Calvin Research Princeton 2002, ed. Herman J. Seldernuis (Genève, 2004) [THR 388]139-47.
25 COR 6/1, 186-89 (ep. 35).
26 COR 6/1, 187(ep. 35), vooal r. 11-12.
27 CO 13, 525 (ep. 1345).
28 CO 7, 306. Vgl. Max Engammare, 'Joannes Calvinus trium linguarum peritus?', in: Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance 58 (1996), 35-60.
29 E.A. de Boer, John Calvin and the Visions of Ezekiel. Historical and hermeneutical Studies in John Calvin's 'sermons inédits', especially on Ezek. 36-48 [Kerkhistorische bijdragen 21] (Leiden, 2004), 84v., 99. Vgl. ook John D. Currid, Calvin and the Biblical Languages Fearn, 2006).
30 Registres de la Compagnie des Pasteurs de Genève, ed. Olivier Fatio - Olivier Labarthe, vol. 3 (1565-1574) [THR 57] (Genève, 1969), 11; vgl. De Boer, John Calvin and the Visions, 98.
31 Vgl. Francis Higman, 'La Dispute de Lausanne, carrefour de la Réformation française (1988)', in: Lire et découvrir. La circulation des idées au temps de la Réforme [THR 326] (Genève, 1998), 605-18.
32 CO 9, 877.
33 J. Marius J. Lange van Ravenswaay, Augustinus totus noster. Das Augustinverständnis bei Johannes Calvin [FKD 45] (Göttingen, 1990), 68: 'Augustin lässt sich in Calvins Beiträgen an neun Stellen belegen. Auffallend ist die eher freie Wiedergabe der Augustinstellen mit der Heraushebung einiger Kernaussagen. Dabei schlägt sich jedoch die sorgfältige Sichtung und Interpretation des Textes im Argumentstionsduktus nieder'.
34 E.M. Braekman, 'Les interventions de Calvin', in: La dispute de Lausanne 1536. La théologie réformée après Zwingli et avant Calvin, E. Junod e.a. (Lausanne, 1988), 170-77.
35 Anthony N.S. Lane: "it seems clear that he had to present it unexpectedly and from memory" (John Calvin Student of the Church Fathers (Edinburgh, 1999), 25-28).
36 [Guillaume Farel], Recueil et conclusion, faicte sur les articles disputez en la disputation publicque faicte à Genève, commanceant le trenteiesme jour de may mil cinq cens trente cinq et finissant le vingt quatreiesme juing oudict an [1535], ed. Hans Helmut Eßer, Reformierte Bekenntnisschriften 1/2 (1535-49), (Neukirchen, 2006), 11-31).
37 "Nempe saepe ita loquimur, ut Pascha propinquante dicamus crastinam vel perendinam Domini pas-sionem, cum ille ante tam multos annos passus sit, nec omnino nisi semel illa passio facta sit. Nempe ipso die dominico dicimus: "Hodie Dominus resurrexit", cum ex quo resurrexit tot anni transierint. Cur nemo tam ineptus est, ut nos ita loquentes arguat esse mentitos ..." (Augustin, Epist. 23 (98, 9); Ccsl 31A, 233, ll. 186-91; Mpl 33, 363, ll. 47-59). Cf. Inst. (1543) IV 17, 11 (Os V, 352, ll. 23 - 354 ll. 2).
38 [Farel], Recueil et conclusion, 25. Met verwijzing naar 'De consecra. distin. Secunda' : Decretum Gratiani, pars III, De consecratione, dist. II, c. 42, ed. J. Friedberg, Corpus Iuris Canonici, vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1879), 1328v.
39 Arthur Piaget, Les Actes de la Dispute de Lausanne 1536 (Neuchâtel, 1928), 210, 221. Vervolgens ook Pierre Caroli, kort voordat Calvijn opnieuw het woord nam, onder verwijzing naar de canon over Berengarius (a.w., 328, 330) waarna ook Farel in 1535 verwezen had.
40 'Venons à l'interpretation des parolles de Jésus Christ : Cecy est mon corps. Tertullian au livre quatriesme contre Marcion explique ces parolles ainsi : Cecy est le signe et figure de mon corps. S. Augustin dit, Le Seigneur ná point fait doute de dire, Cecy est mon corps, quand il ne donnoit que le signe de son corps. [...] A ce propos nous pourrions joindre l'article de l'Ascension, avec plusieurs autres sentences de S. Augustin : lesquelles nous obmettons, craignang d'estre longs' (ed. Hans Helmut Eßer, Reformierte Bekenntnisschriften 1/3 (1550-58), (Neukirchen, 2007), 391).
41 Over de vraag of Calvijn een eigen florilegium aangelegd had zie: Anette Zillenbiller, Die Einheit der katholischen Kirche. Calvins Cyprianrezeption in seinen ekklesiologischen Schriften [VIEGM 151] (Mainz, 1993), 51-54, 94-100.
42 Braekman, 'Les interventions de Calvin', 177.
43 Viret, Instruction chrétienne (1564): "Et pourtant, Tertullian qui a été des plus prochains du temps des Apôtres, a exposé ces paroles: Ceci est mon corps: "Ceci est la figure de mon corps" (655).
44 Viret, Instruction chrétienne (1564): "et Saint Augustin: "Ceci est le signe de mon corps"; qui vaut tout autant, comme si l'un et l'autre disait: "Ceci signifie et représente mon corps"[Mt 26.26]. Il y a beaucoup de manières de parler qui approchent cettes-ci ès livres des anciens Docteurs de l'Église desquels je pourrais alléguer beaucoup de témoignages à ce propos, s'il est de besoin" (655).
45 In de 1559 editie voegt Calvijn de woorden "teste Augustino [epist. ad Dardadum]" toe (OS V, 376).

 

 

Erik Alexander de Boer (1957) onderrig Klassieke Tale en Patristiek aan die Teologiese Universiteit in Kampen, Nederland. Hy is ook professor vir die Geskiedenis van die Reformasie aan die Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. Hierbenewens is hy navorsingsgenoot (departement Kerkgeskiedenis) van die Universiteit van die Vrystaat in Bloemfontein, Suid-Afrika. Sy proefskrif (Université de Genève, 1999) is in twee volumes gepubliseer: John Calvin on the Visions of Ezekiel. Historical and Hermeneutical Studies in John Calvin's sermons inédits, especially on Ezek. 36-48 (Kerkhistorische Bijdragen, vol. 21) (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2004); Supplementa Calviniana, vol. X/3: Sermons sur le Livre des Revelations du prophete Ezechiel. Chapitres 36-48, ed. Erik A. de Boer - Barnábas Nagy (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 2006). 'n Kritiese uitgawe van Johannes Calvyn se Epistolae duae (1537), voorberei in samewerking met dr. F.P. van Stam, is gedurende Junie 2009 gepubliseer as COR 4/4. Sy huidige navorsing fokus op 'n kritiese uitgawe en monografie van die "congrégations", die weeklikse byeenkoms van die predikante met die oog op Skrifstudie en bespreking van die belydenis soos dit navolging gevind het in Genève gedurende die 16de eeu.

Erik Alexander de Boer (1957) teaches Classical Languages and Patristics at the Theological University in Kampen, the Netherlands, and he is also Professor of the History of the Reformation at the Free University in Amsterdam. In addition, he is a research fellow at the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South-Africa. His thesis (Université de Genève, 1999) was published in two volumes: John Calvin on the Visions of Ezekiel. Historical and Hermeneutical Studies in John Calvin's sermons inédits, especially on Ezek. 36-48 (Kerkhistorische Bijdragen, vol. 21) (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2004); Supplementa Calviniana, vol. X/3: Sermons sur le Livre des Revelations du prophete Ezechiel. Chapitres 36-48, ed. Erik A. de Boer - Barnabas Nagy f (Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 2006). The critical edition of John Calvin's Epistolae duae (1537), prepared together with Dr. F.P. van Stam, was published in June 2009 as COR 4/4. His current research focuses on a critical edition and monograph on the "congregations", the weekly gathering of the Company of Pastors for the study of Scripture and discussion on doctrine, as held in Geneva during the 16th century.

 

 

APPENDIX

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