Scope and policy
Form and preparation of manuscripts
For general style, the footnote or Harvard reference technique for article contributions are recommended. The use of correct citation methods and acknowledgement of authors' work is a prerequisite. One hard copy of the entire issue will be sent to a contributor of an article. Page fees will be charged if the contributor of an article is not a member of the SASHT.
HARVARD OR FOOTNOTE REFERENCES - SOME GUIDELINES
The footnote method for references and the Harvard method is accepted in articles for Yesterday & Today.
Footnote references should be placed at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be numbered sequentially throughout the article and starting with 1.
Archival sources/published works/authors referred to in the text should be cited in full in the first footnote of each new reference. Thereafter it can be reduced to a shorter footnote reference. Do not refer to the exact same source and page numbers in footnotes that follow each other.
The use of the latin word "Ibid" is not allowed. Rather refer to the actual reference again (its shortened version) on the rest of a page(s) in the footnote section.
The first letter of most words in titles of books, articles, chapters, theses, dissertations and papers/manuscripts should be capitalised. Only the first letter of the surname of authors should be capitalized, not the complete surname.
No names of authors, in full, is allowed. The following practical examples may help:
Examples of an article in a journal
R Siebörger, Incorporating human rights into the teaching of History: Teaching materials,Yesterday&Today, 2, October 2008, pp. 1-14.
S Marks, "Khoisan resistance to the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries",Journal of African History, 3(1), 1972, p. 76.
Example of a shortened version of an article in a journal
From: P Erasmus, "The 'lost' South African tribe – rebirth of the Koranna in the Free State", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.
To: P Erasmus, "The 'lost' South African tribe...", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.
[Please note: only the title of the article is shortened]
Examples of a reference from a book
WF Lye & C Murray, Transformations on the Highveld: The Tswana and the Southern Sotho (Cape Town, David Phillip, 1980), pp. 7, 10.
JJ Buys, Die oorsprong en migrasiebewegings van die Koranna en hulle rol in die Transgariep tot 1870 (Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein, 1989), pp. 33-34.
[Please note the reference variety to page numbers used]
Example of a shortened version of a reference from a book
From: JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement: Calvinism, the Congregational Ministry , and reform in New England between the Great Awakenings (Washington, Christian University Press, 1981), p. 23.
To: JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement..., p. 23.
Example of a reference from a chapter in a book
S Brown, "Diplomacy by other means: SWAPO's liberation war", C Leys, JS Saul et.al,
Namibia's liberation struggle: The two-edged sword (London, Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 19-39.
S Brown, "Diplomacy by other means...", C Leys, JS Saul et.al, Namibia's liberation struggle..., pp. 19-39.
Example of a reference from an unpublished dissertation/thesis
MJ Dhlamini, "The relationship between the African National Congress and the Pan Africanist Congress, 1959-1990" (Ph.D, NWU, 2006), pp. 4,8,11.
Examples of a reference from a newspaper
P Coetzee, "Voëlvlugblik ATKV 75 op ons blink geskiedenis", Die Transvaler, 6 Januarie 2006, p. 8.
Zululand Times, 19 July 1923.
Provide at least key details such as: Name of interviewee and profession; the interviewer and profession and date of interview
K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K Kotzé (CEO, Goldfields, Johannesburg Head Office)/E Schutte (Researcher, NWU, School of Basic Science), 12 March 2006.
K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K. Kotzé/E Schutte , 12 March 2006.
E-mail: W Pepler (Bigenafrica, Pretoria/E van Eeden (Researcher), 22 October 2006.
National archiving (NA), Pretoria, Department of Education (DE), Vol.10, Reference 8/1/3/452: Letter, K Lewis (Director General) / P Dlamini (Teacher, Springs College), 12 June 1960.
[Please note: after one reference to the National Archives or Source Group, It can be abbreviated to e.g. NA or DE]
A Dissel, "Tracking transformation in South African prisons", Track Two, 11(2), April 2002 (available at http://ccrweb.ccr.uct.ac.za/two/11-2transformation.html, as accessed on 14 Jan. 2003), pp. 1-3.
First reference to the source:
D Dollar, "Asian century or multi-polar century?" (Paper, Global Development Network Annual Conference, Beijing, January 2007), p. 7.
B Sautmann, "The forest for the trees: Trade investment and the China-in-Afrika discourse"(Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: Race, relations and reflections, Centre for Sociological Research, University of Johannesburg, 28 July 2007), p. 7.
D Dollar, "Asian century..." (Paper, GDN Conference, 2007), p. 7.
B Sautmann, "The forest for the trees: ..." (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: ..., University of Johannesburg [or UJ]), p. 7.
Photographs, sketches, tables, diagrams; graphics, maps etc should be numbered consecutively (Eg. Figure 1-4; Sketch 1-2; Diagram 1-3; Photo 1-6).
The appropriate positioning of the illustration should be indicated in the text. Original copies should be clearly identified on the back. High quality scanned versions are always welcome.
Authors, PLEASE obtain copyright and reproduction rights on photographs and other illustrations.
The Harvard method
(Adapted for the Y&T by Prof Schoeman, Unisa)
References in the text
References are cited in the text by the author'(s) surname(s) and the year of publication in brackets, separated by a comma: e.g. (Weedon, 1977:13).
If several articles by the same author and from the same year are cited, the letters a, b, c, etc. should be added after the year of publication: e.g. (Fardon, 2007a:23).
Page references in the text should follow a colon after the date: e.g. (Bazalgette, 1992:209-214).
In works by three or more authors the surnames of all authors should be given in the first reference to such a work. In subsequent references to this work, only the name of the first author is given, followed by the abbreviation et al.: e.g. (Ottaro et al., 2005:34).
If reference is made to an anonymous item in a newspaper, the name of the newspaper is given in brackets: e.g. (The Citizen, 2010).
For personal communications (oral or written) identify the person and indicate in brackets that it is a personal communication: e.g. (B Brown, pers. comm.).
Ensure that dates, spelling and titles used in the text are accurate and consistent with those listed in the references.
List all references chronologically and then alphabetically: e.g. (Scott 2003;
Muller 2006; Meyer 2007)
List of references
Only sources cited in the text are listed, in alphabetical order, under References.
Bibliographic information should be in the language of the source document, not in the language of the article.
References should be presented as indicated in the following examples. See the required punctuation.
Surname(s) and initials of author(s), year of publication, title of article, unabbreviated title of journal, volume, issue number in brackets and page numbers: e.g. Shepherd, R 1992. Elementary media education. The perfect curriculum. English Quarterly, 25(2):35-38.
Surname(s) and initials of author(s) or editor(s), year of publication, title of book, volume, edition, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Mouton, J 2001. Understanding social research. Pretoria: JL van Schaik.
Surname(s) and initials of author(s,) year of publication, title of chapter, editor(s), title of book, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Masterman, L 1992. The case of television studies. In: M Alvarado & O Boyd-Barrett (eds). Media education: an introduction. London: British Film Institute.
Fardon, JVV 2007. Gender in history teaching resources in South African public school. Unpublished DEd thesis. Pretoria: Unisa.
Daily Mail 2006. World Teachers' Day, 24 April.
Published under author's name: Marshall, J 2003. Why Johnny can't teach. Reason, December. Available at http://www.reason.com/news/show/29399.html. Accessed on 10 August 2010.
These references are not archival, and subject to change in any way and at any time. If it is essential to present them, they should be included in a numbered endnote and not in the reference list.
Normally personal communications are not always retrievable. If retrievable, it should be cited as follows: Personal interview, K Kombuis (Journalist-singer)/S van der Merwe (Researcher), 2 October 2010
Articles should be posted to the editor electronically at email@example.com. Notification of receipt of material will take place within 48 hours.
Manuscripts, (2 per author) in any of the official languages, not exceeding fifteen pages, double spacing (12 font) and accompanied by a CD disk in Word, or send electronically in Word to the Editor of Yesterday&Today, are welcome. A summary/ abstract must also be included in a different language to that of the manuscript. Contributors are asked to write clearly and simply and to avoid technical terms as far as possible. The language of all articles must be edited by a professional language editor. The use of informative subheadings is important. Applicable maps, illustrations, and any other visuals are welcome. Please send in a jpeg or pdf format.
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