ISSN 2223-0386 printed version
ISSN 2309-9003 online version



Scope and policy

Editorial policy

  1. Yesterday and Today is a national journal for research in especially the fields of history teaching and research related findings to improve the teaching of History. With the North-West University as custodian this Journal is edited and published in the School of Basic Science, Vaal Triangle Faculty of North-West University in South Africa.
  2. Contributions may be in the humanities (theoretical discourses) or from education (practical workshops or focused content with a firm theoretical basis). Articles, in which an interdisciplinary collaboration between the humanities and education are explored, are most welcome.
  3. Regionally editorial content can be based on empirical research in Southern Africa.
  4. Authors can make individual contributions or submit work, done in teams.
  5. The Yesterday and Today strives towards becoming a peer reviewed journal by 2011-2012. Contributions of authors will from 2009 be subject to review by two or more reviewers in disciplines used in the research and writing of an article.
  6. Language of the journal: Articles must be in English only whereas abstracts can be in any of the 11 official languages of South Africa.
  7. Abstracts: Contributions must be accompanied by an abstract of not more than 250 words in the language in which the article is written OR in another language of preference as indicated in point 6.
  8. Titles of articles: The titles of articles should preferably not exceed 20 words.
  9. Names of authors: The names of authors and their institutional affiliation must accompany all contributions. Authors also have to enclose their telephone and fax numbers, email addresses and postal addresses.
  10. The Harvard or footnote reference system: The choice of reference system of authors will be respected by the editorial management. References must be clear, lucid and comprehensible for a general academic audience of readers. Some guidelines for the Harvard reference system and the conventional footnote system of references are provided on the last pages of the journal. The most recent Yesterday&Today could also serve as a basis for guiding writers.
  11. Illustrations: Editorial material, with illustrations, photographs, tables and graphs are welcome. The illustrations should however be of a high-density quality (high resolution, minimum of 200dpi). Should the files be large, they have to be posted in separate emails and appropriately numbered in sequence.
  12. Articles should be posted to the editor electronically at . Notification of receipt of material will take place within 48 hours.
  13. Text format: Text must be in 12pt text, with double spacing. Text should preferably be in Microsoft Word.
  14. The length of articles should preferably not exceed 8 000 to 10 000 word or 15 to 20 journal pages.
  15. Articles that have been published previously in other journals may not be republished in the Yesterday&Today journal.

Download Policy


Form and preparation of manuscripts

For general style, the footnote or Harvard reference technique for article contributions are recommended. The use of correct citation methods and acknowledgement of authors' work is a prerequisite. One hard copy of the entire issue will be sent to a contributor of an article. Page fees will be charged if the contributor of an article is not a member of the SASHT.


The footnote method for references and the Harvard method is accepted in articles for Yesterday & Today.


Footnote references should be placed at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be numbered sequentially throughout the article and starting with 1.

Archival sources/published works/authors referred to in the text should be cited in full in the first footnote of each new reference. Thereafter it can be reduced to a shorter footnote reference. Do not refer to the exact same source and page numbers in footnotes that follow each other.

The use of the latin word "Ibid" is not allowed. Rather refer to the actual reference again (its shortened version) on the rest of a page(s) in the footnote section.

The first letter of most words in titles of books, articles, chapters, theses, dissertations and papers/manuscripts should be capitalised. Only the first letter of the surname of authors should be capitalized, not the complete surname.

No names of authors, in full, is allowed. The following practical examples may help:

Examples of an article in a journal

R Siebörger, Incorporating human rights into the teaching of History: Teaching materials,Yesterday&Today, 2, October 2008, pp. 1-14.

S Marks, "Khoisan resistance to the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries",Journal of African History, 3(1), 1972, p. 76.

Example of a shortened version of an article in a journal

From: P Erasmus, "The 'lost' South African tribe – rebirth of the Koranna in the Free State", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.

To: P Erasmus, "The 'lost' South African tribe...", New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.

[Please note: only the title of the article is shortened]

Examples of a reference from a book

WF Lye & C Murray, Transformations on the Highveld: The Tswana and the Southern Sotho (Cape Town, David Phillip, 1980), pp. 7, 10.

JJ Buys, Die oorsprong en migrasiebewegings van die Koranna en hulle rol in die Transgariep tot 1870 (Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein, 1989), pp. 33-34.

[Please note the reference variety to page numbers used]

Example of a shortened version of a reference from a book

From: JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement: Calvinism, the Congregational Ministry , and reform in New England between the Great Awakenings (Washington, Christian University Press, 1981), p. 23.

To: JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement..., p. 23.

Example of a reference from a chapter in a book

S Brown, "Diplomacy by other means: SWAPO's liberation war", C Leys, JS Saul,

Namibia's liberation struggle: The two-edged sword (London, Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 19-39.

Shortened version:

S Brown, "Diplomacy by other means...", C Leys, JS Saul, Namibia's liberation struggle..., pp. 19-39.

Example of a reference from an unpublished dissertation/thesis

MJ Dhlamini, "The relationship between the African National Congress and the Pan Africanist Congress, 1959-1990" (Ph.D, NWU, 2006), pp. 4,8,11.

Examples of a reference from a newspaper

P Coetzee, "Voëlvlugblik ATKV 75 op ons blink geskiedenis", Die Transvaler, 6 Januarie 2006, p. 8.


Zululand Times, 19 July 1923.

Archival references:

  • Interview(s)

  • Provide at least key details such as: Name of interviewee and profession; the interviewer and profession and date of interview

  • Example of interview reference

  • K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K Kotzé (CEO, Goldfields, Johannesburg Head Office)/E Schutte (Researcher, NWU, School of Basic Science), 12 March 2006.

  • Example of shortened interview reference (after it has been used once in article)

  • K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K. Kotzé/E Schutte , 12 March 2006.

  • Example of an Electronic Mail - document or letter

  • E-mail: W Pepler (Bigenafrica, Pretoria/E van Eeden (Researcher), 22 October 2006.

  • National archives (or any other archive)

  • National archiving (NA), Pretoria, Department of Education (DE), Vol.10, Reference 8/1/3/452: Letter, K Lewis (Director General) / P Dlamini (Teacher, Springs College), 12 June 1960.

    [Please note: after one reference to the National Archives or Source Group, It can be abbreviated to e.g. NA or DE]

  • A source accessed on the Internet

  • A Dissel, "Tracking transformation in South African prisons", Track Two, 11(2), April 2002 (available at, as accessed on 14 Jan. 2003), pp. 1-3.

  • A source from conference proceedings
  • First reference to the source:

    D Dollar, "Asian century or multi-polar century?" (Paper, Global Development Network Annual Conference, Beijing, January 2007), p. 7.

    B Sautmann, "The forest for the trees: Trade investment and the China-in-Afrika discourse"(Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: Race, relations and reflections, Centre for Sociological Research, University of Johannesburg, 28 July 2007), p. 7.

    Shortened version:

    D Dollar, "Asian century..." (Paper, GDN Conference, 2007), p. 7.

    B Sautmann, "The forest for the trees: ..." (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: ..., University of Johannesburg [or UJ]), p. 7.



Photographs, sketches, tables, diagrams; graphics, maps etc should be numbered consecutively (Eg. Figure 1-4; Sketch 1-2; Diagram 1-3; Photo 1-6).

The appropriate positioning of the illustration should be indicated in the text. Original copies should be clearly identified on the back. High quality scanned versions are always welcome.

Authors, PLEASE obtain copyright and reproduction rights on photographs and other illustrations.

The Harvard method

(Adapted for the Y&T by Prof Schoeman, Unisa)

References in the text

References are cited in the text by the author'(s) surname(s) and the year of publication in brackets, separated by a comma: e.g. (Weedon, 1977:13).

If several articles by the same author and from the same year are cited, the letters a, b, c, etc. should be added after the year of publication: e.g. (Fardon, 2007a:23).

Page references in the text should follow a colon after the date: e.g. (Bazalgette, 1992:209-214).

In works by three or more authors the surnames of all authors should be given in the first reference to such a work. In subsequent references to this work, only the name of the first author is given, followed by the abbreviation et al.: e.g. (Ottaro et al., 2005:34).

If reference is made to an anonymous item in a newspaper, the name of the newspaper is given in brackets: e.g. (The Citizen, 2010).

For personal communications (oral or written) identify the person and indicate in brackets that it is a personal communication: e.g. (B Brown, pers. comm.).

Ensure that dates, spelling and titles used in the text are accurate and consistent with those listed in the references.

List all references chronologically and then alphabetically: e.g. (Scott 2003;

Muller 2006; Meyer 2007)

List of references

Only sources cited in the text are listed, in alphabetical order, under References.

Bibliographic information should be in the language of the source document, not in the language of the article.

References should be presented as indicated in the following examples. See the required punctuation.

  • Journal articles:

  • Surname(s) and initials of author(s), year of publication, title of article, unabbreviated title of journal, volume, issue number in brackets and page numbers: e.g. Shepherd, R 1992. Elementary media education. The perfect curriculum. English Quarterly, 25(2):35-38.

  • Books:

  • Surname(s) and initials of author(s) or editor(s), year of publication, title of book, volume, edition, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Mouton, J 2001. Understanding social research. Pretoria: JL van Schaik.

  • Chapters in books:  

  • Surname(s) and initials of author(s,) year of publication, title of chapter, editor(s), title of book, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Masterman, L 1992. The case of television studies. In: M Alvarado & O Boyd-Barrett (eds). Media education: an introduction. London: British Film Institute.

  • Unpublished theses or dissertations:

  • Fardon, JVV 2007. Gender in history teaching resources in South African public school. Unpublished DEd thesis. Pretoria: Unisa.

  • Anonymous newspaper references:

  • Daily Mail 2006. World Teachers' Day, 24 April.

  • Electronic references:

  • Published under author's name: Marshall, J 2003. Why Johnny can't teach. Reason, December. Available at Accessed on 10 August 2010.

  • Website references: No author:

  • These references are not archival, and subject to change in any way and at any time. If it is essential to present them, they should be included in a numbered endnote and not in the reference list.

  • Personal communications:

  • Normally personal communications are not always retrievable. If retrievable, it should be cited as follows: Personal interview, K Kombuis (Journalist-singer)/S van der Merwe (Researcher), 2 October 2010


Manuscripts submission

Articles should be posted to the editor electronically at Notification of receipt of material will take place within 48 hours.

Manuscripts, (2 per author) in any of the official languages, not exceeding fifteen pages, double spacing (12 font) and accompanied by a CD disk in Word, or send electronically in Word to the Editor of Yesterday&Today, are welcome. A summary/ abstract must also be included in a different language to that of the manuscript. Contributors are asked to write clearly and simply and to avoid technical terms as far as possible. The language of all articles must be edited by a professional language editor. The use of informative subheadings is important. Applicable maps, illustrations, and any other visuals are welcome. Please send in a jpeg or pdf format.


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© 2015 The South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT)

Yesterday and Today, School of Basic Sciences, North West University, P O Box 1174, Vanderbijlpark, Gauteng, ZA, 1900, +27 16 910 3465