Template guidelines for writing an article
- Font type: Adobe Garamond Pro (throughout document)/Arial (if the first font type is unavailable).
- Font size in body text: 12 pt.
- Author’s details: ONLY provide the following: Title, Campus and University and email address
Title: 10pt, regular font; Campus and University: 10pt, italics; and email address: 10pt, regular font. (Consult previous articles published in the Y&T journal as an example or as a practical guideline). Example: Dr. Pieter van Rensburg, Vaal Triangle Campus, North–West University, firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Abstract: The abstract should be placed on the first page (where the title heading and author’s particulars appear). The prescribed length is between a half and three quarters of a page.
The abstract body: Regular font, 10pt.
- Keywords: The keywords should be placed on the first page below the abstract.
The word ‘Keywords:’ 10pt, bold, underline.
Each keyword must start with a capital letter and end with a semi–colon (;). Example: Meters; People; etc. (A minimum of six keywords is required).
- Heading of article: 14pt bold.
- Main headings in article: ‘Introduction’ – 12pt, bold.
- Sub–headings in article: ‘History ...’ – 12pt, bold, italics.
- Third level sub–headings: ‘History ...’ – 11pt, bold, underline.
- Fourth level sub–headings: ‘History ...’ – 11pt, bold, italics, underline.
- Footnotes: 8pt, regular font; BUT note that the footnote numbers in the article text should be 12pt.
The initials in a person’s name (in footnote text) should be without any full stops. Example: LC du Plessis and NOT L.C. du Plessis.
- Body text: Names without punctuation in the text. Example: “HL le Roux said” and NOT “H.L. le Roux said”.
- Page numbering: Page numbering in the footnote text should be indicated as follows:
Example: p. space23 – p. 23. / pp. 23–29.
- Any lists in the body text should be 11pt, and in bullet format.
- Quotes from sources in the body text must be used sparingly. If used, it must be indented and in italics (10pt). Quotes less than one line in a paragraph can be incorporated as part of a paragraph, but within inverted commas; and NOT in italics. Example: An owner close to the town stated that: “the pollution history of the river is a muddy business”.
- Indents (in body text) must be in double inverted commas: “...and she” and NOT ‘...and she’.
- Images: illustrations, pictures, photographs and figures: Submit all pictures for an article in jpeg, tiff or pdf format in a separate folder, and indicate where the pictures should be placed in the manuscript’s body text.
Example: Image 1: ‘Image title’ (regular font, 10pt) in the body text.
Sources of all images should also be included.
Example: Source: ‘The source’ (regular font, 9 pt.). Remember to save and name pictures in the separate folder accordingly.
Important note: All the images should be of good quality (a minimum resolution of 200dpi is required; if the image is not scanned).
- Punctuation marks should be placed in front of the footnote numbers in the text.
Example: the end.1 NOT ...the end1.
- Single spacing between the sentences in the footnote.
- Dates: All dates in footnotes should be written out in full. Example: 23 December 2010; NOT 23/12/2010. [For additional guidelines see the Yesterday & Today Reference guidelines.]
- Language setting in Microsoft Word as English (South Africa); do this before starting with the word processing of the article. Go to ‘Review’, ‘Set Language’ and select ‘English (South Africa)’.
The Footnote or Harvard reference methods – some guidelines
Both the Footnote reference method and the Harvard reference method are accepted for articles in Yesterday&Today.
The footnote reference method
Footnote references should be placed at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be numbered sequentially throughout the article and starting with 1. Archival sources/published works/authors referred to in the text should be cited in full in the first footnote of each new reference. Thereafter, it can be reduced to a shorter footnote reference. Do not refer to the exact same source and page numbers in footnotes that follow each other.
The use of the Latin word “Ibid” is not allowed. Rather refer to the actual reference again (its shortened version) on the rest of a page(s) in the footnote section.
The first letter of most words in the titles of books, articles, chapters, theses, dissertations and papers/manuscripts should be capitalised. Only the first letter of the surname of authors should be capitalized, not the complete surname. No names of authors, in full, is allowed. The following practical examples serve as guideline:
Examples of an article in a journal
R Siebörger, Incorporating human rights into the teaching of History: Teaching materials, Yesterday&Today, 2, October 2008, pp. 1–14.
S Marks, “Khoisan resistance to the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteen centuries”, Journal of African History, 3(1), 1972, p. 76.
Example of a shortened version of an article in a journal
P Erasmus, “The ‘lost’ South African tribe rebirth of the Koranna in the Free State”, New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.
P Erasmus, “The ‘lost’ South African tribe…”, New Contree, 50, November 2005, p. 77.
[Please note: only the title of the article is shortened]
Examples of a reference from a book
WF Lye & C Murray, Transformations on the Highveld: The Tswana and the Southern Sotho (Cape Town, David Phillip, 1980), pp. 7, 10.
JJ Buys, Die oorsprong en migrasiebewegings van die Koranna en hulle rol in die Transgariep tot 1870 (Universiteit van die Vrystaat, Bloemfontein, 1989), pp. 33–34.
[Please note the reference variety to page numbers used]
Example of a shortened version of a reference from a book
JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement: Calvinism, the Congregation– al Ministry , and reform in New England between the Great Awakenings (Washington, Christian University Press, 1981), p. 23.
JA Conforti, Samuel Hopkins and the New Divinity Movement…, p. 23.
Example of a reference from a chapter in a book
S Brown, “Diplomacy by other means: SWAPO’s liberation war”, C Leys, JS Saul et.al, Namibia’s liberation struggle: The two–edged sword (London, Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 19–39.
S Brown, “Diplomacy by other means…”, C Leys, JS Saul et.al, Namibia’s liberation strug– gle…, pp. 19–39.
Example of a reference from an unpublished dissertation/thesis
MJ Dhlamini, “The relationship between the African National Congress and the Pan Afri– canist Congress, 1959–1990” (Ph.D, NWU, 2006), pp. 4, 8, 11.
Examples of a reference from a newspaper
P Coetzee, “Voëlvlugblik ATKV 75 op ons blink geskiedenis”, Die Transvaler, 6 Januarie 2006, p. 8.
Zululand Times, 19 July 1923.
Provide at least key details such as: Name of interviewee and profession; the interviewer and profession and date of interview
- Example of interview reference
K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K Kotzé (CEO, Goldfields, Johannesburg Head Office)/E Schutte (Researcher, NWU, School of Basic Science), 12 March 2006.
- Example of shortened interview reference (after it has been used once in article)
K Rasool (Personal Collection), interview, K. Kotzé/E Schutte , 12 March 2006.
- Example of an Electronic Mail – document or letter
E–mail: W Pepler (Bigenafrica, Pretoria/E van Eeden (Researcher), 22 October 2006.
- National archives (or any other archive)
National archiving (NA), Pretoria, Department of Education (DE), Vol.10, Reference 8/1/3/452: Letter, K Lewis (Director General) / P Dlamini (Teacher, Springs College), 12 June 1960.
[Please note: After the first reference to the National Archives or Source Group for exam– ple, it can be abbreviated to e.g. NA or DE]
- A source accessed on the Internet
A Dissel, “Tracking transformation in South African prisons”, Track Two, 11(2), April 2002 (available at http://ccrweb.ccr.uct.ac.za/two/11–2transformation.html, as accessed on 14 Jan. 2003), pp. 1–3.
A source from conference proceedings
First reference to the source:
D Dollar, “Asian century or multi–polar century?” (Paper, Global Development Network Annual Conference, Beijing, January 2007), p. 7.
B Sautmann, “The forest for the trees: Trade investment and the China–in–Afrika discourse” (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: Race, relations and reflections, Centre for Sociological Research, University of Johannesburg, 28 July 2007), p. 7.
D Dollar, “Asian century…” (Paper, GDN Conference, 2007), p. 7.
B Sautmann, “The forest for the trees: ...” (Paper, Public Seminar: China in Africa: ..., University of Johannesburg [or UJ]), p. 7.
The appropriate positioning of the image should be indicated in the text. Original copies should be clearly identified on the back. High quality scanned versions are always welcome.
Authors, PLEASE obtain copyright and reproduction rights on photographs and other illustrations.
Copyright on all material in Yesterday&Today rests within the Editorial Advisory Committee of Yesterday&Today.
The Harvard reference method
References in the text
References are cited in the text by the author’(s) surname(s) and the year of publication in brackets, separated by a comma: e.g. (Weedon, 1977:13).
If several articles by the same author and from the same year are cited, the letters a, b, c, etc. should be added after the year of publication: e.g. (Fardon, 2007a:23).
Page references in the text should follow a colon after the date: e.g. (Bazalgette, 1992:209–214).
In works by three or more authors the surnames of all authors should be given in the first reference to such a work. In subsequent references to this work, only the name of the first author is given, followed by the abbreviation et al.: e.g. (Ottaro et al., 2005:34).
If reference is made to an anonymous item in a newspaper, the name of the news– paper is given in brackets: e.g. (The Citizen, 2010).
For personal communications (oral or written) identify the person and indicate in brackets that it is a personal communication: e.g. (B Brown, pers. comm.).
Ensure that dates, spelling and titles used in the text are accurate and consistent with those listed in the references.
List all references chronologically and then alphabetically: e.g. (Scott 2003; Muller 2006; Meyer 2007).
List of references
Only sources cited in the text are listed, in alphabetical order, under References.
Bibliographic information should be in the language of the source document, not in the language of the article.
References should be presented as indicated in the following examples. See the required punctuation.
- Journal articles
Surname(s) and initials of author(s), year of publication, title of article, unabbreviated title of journal, volume, issue number in brackets and page numbers: e.g. Shepherd, R 1992. Elementary media education. The perfect curriculum. English Quarterly, 25(2):35–38.
Surname(s) and initials of author(s) or editor(s), year of publication, title of book, volume, edition, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Mouton, J 2001. Understanding social research. Pretoria: JL van Schaik.
- Chapters in books
Surname(s) and initials of author(s), year of publication, title of chapter, editor(s), title of book, place of publication and publisher: e.g. Masterman, L 1992. The case of television studies. In: M Alvarado & O Boyda–Barrett (eds). Media education: an introduction. London: British Film Institute.
- Unpublished theses or dissertations
Fardon, JVV 2007. Gender in history teaching resources in South African public school. Unpublished DEd thesis. Pretoria: Unisa.
- Anonymous newspaper references
Daily Mail 2006. World Teachers’ Day, 24 April.
- Electronic references
Published under author’s name:
Marshall, J 2003. Why Johnny can’t teach. Reason, December. Available at http:// www.reason.com/news/show/29399.html. Accessed on 10 August 2010.
Website references: No author:
These references are not archival, and subject to change in any way and at any time If it is essential to present them, they should be included in a numbered endnote and not in the reference list.
- Personal communications
Normally personal communications should always be recorded and retrievable. It should be cited as follows:
Personal interview, K Kombuis (Journalist–singer)/S van der Merwe (Researcher), 2 October 2010.