SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

RIVERS-MOORE, NA; MANTEL, S  and  DALLAS, HF. Prediction of water temperature metrics using spatial modelling in the Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.2, pp. 167-176. ISSN 1816-7950.

    BOGAN MT and LYTLE DA (2007) Seasonal flow variation allows "time-sharing" by disparate aquatic insect communities. Freshwater Biol. 52 290-304. [ Links ]

    BROWN GW and KRYGIER JT (1970) Effects of clearcutting on stream temperature. Water Resour. Res. 6 1133-1139. [ Links ]

    CITY OF CAPE TOWN (2009) Table Mountain Group Aquifer -Exploratory Phase Ecological and Hydro(geo)logical Monitoring Project. Preliminary Data Analysis Report - Volume A. Prepared by the Table Mountain Group Aquifer - Ecohydrological Monitoring Alliance (GEOSS, Freshwater Consulting Group, Coastec and the Soil Doctor). [ Links ]

    CLARK LABS (2009) Idrisi Taiga v. 16.02. Clark University, Worcester MA. URL: http://www.clarklabs.org. [ Links ]

    CLARKE KR and GORLEY RN (2001) PRIMER v5: User Manual/ Tutorial. PRIMER-E Ltd., Plymouth, UK. [ Links ]

    CLASKA ME and GILBERT JJ (1998) The effect of temperature on the response of Daphnia to toxic cyanobacteria. Freshwater Biol. 39 221-232 [ Links ]

    COLWELL RK (1974) Predictability, constancy, and contingency of periodic phenomena. Ecology 55 1148-1153. [ Links ]

    DALLAS HF and RIVERS-MOORE NA (2012) Water Temperatures and the Ecological Reserve. WRC Report, Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. [ Links ]

    DE MOOR FC (2010) Personal communication, 29 March 2010. Dr FC de Moor, Albany Museum and Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Somerset Street, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. [ Links ]

    DWAF (DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY, SOUTH AFRICA) (2005) RQS River coverage - 1: 500000. Institute for Water Quality Studies, Private Bag X313, Pretoria, 0001. URL: http://www.dwa.gov.za/iwqs/gis_data/RHPdata.asp (Accessed 28 August 2010). [ Links ]

    DUNHAM J, SCHROETER R and RIEMAN B (2003) Influence of maximum water temperature on occurrence of Lahontan Cutthroat trout within streams. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 23 1042-1049. [ Links ]

    EATON JG and SCHELLER RM (1996) Effects of climate on fish thermal habitat in streams of the United States. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41 1109-1115. [ Links ]

    ELLIOTT JM (1994) Quantitative Ecology and the Brown Trout. Oxford University Press, Oxford. [ Links ]

    ESTERBY SR (1996) Review of methods for the detection and estimation of trends with emphasis on water quality applications. Hydrol. Proc. 10 127-149. [ Links ]

    HARRIS JH and SILVEIRA R (1999) Large-scale assessments of river health using an Index of Biotic Integrity with low diversity fish communities. Freshwater Biol. 41 235-252. [ Links ]

    HARRIS NM, GURNELL AM, HANNAH DM and PETTS GE (2000) Classification of river regimes: a context for hydroecology. Hydrol. Proc. 14 2831-2848. [ Links ]

    HART BT and CAMPBELL IC (1994) Ecological classification scheme for Australia. In: Uys MC (ed.). Classification of rivers, and environmental health indicators. Proceedings of a joint South African/ Australian workshop, February 7-14 1994, Cape Town, South Africa. WRC Report No. TT 63/94. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. [ Links ]

    JACKSON HM, GIBBINS CN and SOULSBY C (2007) Role of discharge and temperature variation in determining invertebrate community structure in a regulated river. River Res. Appl. 23 651-669. [ Links ]

    JOHNSON SL (2003) Stream temperature: scaling of observations and issues for modelling. Hydrol. Proc. 17 497-499. [ Links ]

    KING J, BROWN C and SABET H (2003) A scenario-based holistic approach to environmental flow assessments for rivers. River Res. Appl. 19 619-639. [ Links ]

    KLEYNHANS CJ, THIRION C and MOOLMAN J (2005) A Level I river ecoregion classification system for South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Report No. N/0000/00/REQ0104. Resource Quality Services, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    McCUNE B and MEFFORD MJ (1999) Multivariate analysis of ecological data v. 4.17. MJM Software , Gleneden Beach, Oregon. [ Links ]

    MOHSENI O, ERICKSON TR and STEFAN HG (1999) Sensitivity of stream temperatures in the United States to air temperatures projected under a global warming scenario. Water Resour. Res. 35 3723-3733. [ Links ]

    MOOLMAN J (2006) Slope classification of southern African rivers. URL: http://www.dwaf.gov.za/iwqs/gis_data/RHPdata.htm (Accessed 27 August 2010). [ Links ]

    MOOLMAN J (2008) River long profiles aid in ecological planning. PositionlT 2008 Jan/Feb 43-47. [ Links ]

    NELITZ MA, MACISAAC EA and PETERMAN RM (2007) A science-based approach for identifying temperature-sensitive streams for rainbow trout. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage. 27 405-424. [ Links ]

    O'KEEFFE JH, KING J and EEKHOUT S (1994) The characteristics and purposes of river classification. In: Uys MC (ed.) Classification of rivers, and environmental health indicators. Proceedings of a Joint South African/Australian Workshop, February 7-14 1994, Cape Town, South Africa. WRC Report No. TT 63/94. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. [ Links ]

    OLDEN JD and NAIMAN RJ (2010) Incorporating thermal regimes into environmental flows assessments: modifying dam operations to restore freshwater ecosystem integrity. Freshwater Biol. 55 86-107. [ Links ]

    ODEQ (OREGON DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY) (1995) Water quality standards review. Department of Environmental Quality Standards & Assessment Section, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Portland, Oregon. [ Links ]

    PAAIJMANS KP, JACOBS AFG, TAKKEN W, HEUSINKVELD BG, GITHEKO AK, DICKE M and HOLTSLAG AAM (2008) Observations and model estimates of diurnal water temperature dynamics in mosquito breeding sites in western Kenya. Hydrol. Proc. 22 4789-4801. [ Links ]

    POFF NL and ZIMMERMAN JKH (2010) Ecological responses to altered flow regimes: a literature review to inform the science and management of environmental flows. Freshwater Biol. 55 194-205. [ Links ]

    POOLE GC and BERMAN CH (2001) Pathways of human influence on water temperature dynamics in stream channels. Environ. Manage. 27 787-802. [ Links ]

    POOLE G, RISLEY J and HICKS M (2001) Spatial and temporal patterns of stream temperature (revised). Issue paper 3. United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA-910-D-01-003. [ Links ]

    RSA (REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA) (1998) National Water Act. Act No. 36 of 1998. Pretoria, South Africa. [ Links ]

    RICHTER BD, BAUMGARTNER JV, POWELL J and BRAUN DP (1996) A method for assessing hydrologic alteration within ecosystems. Conserv. Biol. 10 1163-1174. [ Links ]

    RICHTER BD, BAUMGARTNER JV, WIGINGTON R and BRAUN DP (1997) How much water does a river need? Freshwater Biol. 37 231-249. [ Links ]

    RICHTER BD (2009) Re-thinking environmental flows: From allocations and reserves to sustainability boundaries. River Res. Appl. DOI: 10.1002/rra.1320. [ Links ]

    RIVERS-MOORE NA and GOODMAN PS (2010) River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation planning in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Afr. J. Aquat. Sci. 35 61-72. [ Links ]

    RIVERS-MOORE NA, HUGHES DA and DE MOOR FC (2008a) A model to predict outbreak periods of the pest blackfly Simulium chutteri Lewis (Simuliidae, Diptera) in the Great Fish River, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. River Res. Appl. 24 132-147. [ Links ]

    RIVERS-MOORE NA, HUGHES DA, MANTEL S and HILL TR (2008b) First steps in the development of a water temperature model framework for refining the ecological Reserve in South African rivers. Water SA 34 (5) 1-12. [ Links ]

    RIVERS-MOORE NA and JEWITT GPW (2007) Adaptive management and water temperature variability within South African rivers: What are the management options? J. Environ. Manage. 82 39-50. [ Links ]

    RIVERS-MOORE NA, JEWITT GPW and WEEKS DC (2005) Derivation of quantitative management objectives for annual instream water temperatures in the Sabie River using a biological index. Water SA 31 473-481. [ Links ]

    SCHULZE RE (ed.) (2006) South African Atlas of Climatology and Agrohydrology. WRC Report No. 1489/1/06. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. [ Links ]

    STATSOFT, INC. (2003) STATISTICA (data analysis software sys-tem), Version 6. URL: http://www.statsoft.com. [ Links ]

    STODDARD JL, LARSEN DP, HAWKINS CP, JOHNSON RK and NORRIS RH (2006) Setting expectations for the ecological condition of streams: The concept of reference condition. Ecol. Appl. 16 1267-1276. [ Links ]

    SULLIVAN K, TOOLEY J, CALDWELL JE and KNUDSEN P (1990) Evaluation of prediction models and characterisation of stream temperature regimes in Washington. Timber/Fish/Wildlife Rep. No. TFW-WQ3-90-006. Washington Dept. Nat. Resources, Olympia, Washington. 224 pp. [ Links ]

    SULLIVAN K, MARTIN DJ, CARDWELL RD, TOLL JE and DUKE S (2000) An analysis of the effects of temperature on salmonids of the Pacific Northwest with implications for selecting temperature criteria. Sustainable Ecosystems Institute, Portland, Oregon. URL: http://www.sei.org/downloads/reports/salmon2000.pdfX Accessed 10 September 2010). [ Links ]

    US EPA (1977) Temperature criteria for freshwater fish: protocol and procedures. Ecological Research Series. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory, Duluth, Minnesota. EPA-600/3-77-061. 130 pp. [ Links ]

    VANNOTE RL and SWEENEY BW (1980) Geographic analysis of thermal equilibria: A conceptual model for evaluating the effect of natural and modified thermal regimes on aquatic insect communities. Am. Nat. 115 667-695. [ Links ]

    VEGTER JR (1995) Geology map of South Africa with simplified lithostratigraphy for geohydrological use. (Simplified lithostratigraphy digitised by A Havenga, Council for Geosciences, 1994). WRC Report No. TT 74/95. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa. [ Links ]

    WARD JV (1985) Thermal characteristics of running waters. Hydrobiologia 125 31-46. [ Links ]

    WEBB BW, HANNAH DM, MOORE RD, BROWN LE and NOBILIS F (2008) Recent advances in stream and river temperature research. Hydrol. Proc. 22 902-918. [ Links ]

    WENGER SJ, LUCE CH, HAMLET AF, ISAAK DJ and NEVILLE HM (2010) Macroscale hydrologic modelling of ecologically relevant flow metrics. Water Resour. Res. 46 WO9513. doi:10.1029/2009WR008839. [ Links ]