SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

BOLOGO, V; MAREE, JP  and  CARLSSON, F. Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the removal of metals and sulphate from mine water. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.1, pp.23-28. ISSN 1816-7950.

    ADLEM CJ, MAREE JP and DU PLESSIS P (1991) Treatment of sulphate-rich mining effluents with the barium hydroxide process and recovery of valuable by-products. Proc. 4th International Mine Water Assoc. Congress, 25-30 September 1991, Ljubljana (Slovenia)-Portschach (Austria). 211-222. [ Links ]

    APHA (1989) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (17th edn.). American Pubic Heath Association, New York. [ Links ]

    BARBES HJ and ROMBERGER SB (1968) Chemical aspects of acid mine drainage. J. Water Poll. Contr. Fed. 40 (3) 371-384. [ Links ]

    BOSMAN DJ, CLAYTON JA, MAREE JP and ADEM CJ (1990). Removal of sulphate from mine water with barium sulphide. Mine Water Env. 9 (1-4) 149-163. [ Links ]

    CHAMBER OF MINES RESEARCH ORGANISATION (1988) New desalination program on stream. R&D News CM, October 1988. [ Links ]

    DU PREEZ A and MAREE JP (1994) Pilot-scale biological sulphate and nitrate removal utilizing producer gas as energy source. Proc. 7th International Symposium on Anaerobic Digestion, Cape Town, South Africa, 23-28 January. 190-204. [ Links ]

    HLABELA PS, MAREE JP and BRUINSMA D (2007) Barium carbonate process for sulphate and metal removal from mine water. Mine Water Environ. 26 (1) 14-22. [ Links ]

    HLABELA PS (2009) The integrated barium carbonate process for sulphate removal from acid mine water. Ph.D. thesis (Chemical Engineering), North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus). 152 pp. [ Links ]

    KUN E (1972) A report on the reduction of the sulphate content of acid mine drainage by precipitation with barium carbonate. Internal Report, Anglo American Research Laboratories, Project D/3/W/1. [ Links ]

    LIDE DR (1992) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (73rd edn.). CRC Press, Boca Raton. [ Links ]

    LOEWENTHAL RE, WIECHERS HNS, MARAIS GvR (1986) Softening and Stabilization of Municipal Waters. WRC Report No. TT 24/86. Water Research Commission, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    MAREE JP (1989) Treatment of water (BaS process), Republic of South Africa (Patent No. 90/1889), 28 November ), Canada (Patent No: 2 012 266 8) and United States of America (Patent No. 5,035,807). [ Links ]

    MAREE JP, BOSMAN DJ and JENKINS GR (1989) Chemical removal of sulphate, calcium and heavy metals from mining and power station effluents. Proc. 1st Biennial Conf. of the Water Inst. Of Southern Africa, 29 to 30 March 1989, Cape Town. [ Links ]

    MAREE JP, LEIBOWITZ A and DODS D (1990) Sulphate wastes. Symposium on Removal of Sulphate from Mine Water, Water Inst. Of Southern Africa, 8 June 1990, Rustenburg Platinum Mines and Base Mineral Refinery Club, Rustenburg. [ Links ]

    MAREE JP, HLABELA P, NENGOVHELA R, GELDENHUYS AJ, MBHELE N, NEVHULAUDZI T and WAANDERS FB (2004) Treatment of mine water for sulphate and meta removal using barium sulphide. Mine Water Env. 23 (4) 195-203. [ Links ]

    MAREE JP and LOUW WF (2010) Treatment of water (magnesiumbarium-oxide process). Provisional patent application 2011/02173 (25 March 2010), Republic of South Africa. [ Links ]

    PULLES W, HOWIE D, OTTO D and EASTON J (1996) A Manual on Mine Water Treatment and Management Practices in South Africa. Appendix Vol. 1: Literature reviews. WRC Report No. 527/1/96. Water Research Commission, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    RAMSAY IJ (1998) Process for the treatment of water streams. South African patent application, Number 98/4724. [ Links ]

    SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARD (SANS) 241:2006: Drinking water, Edition 6.1. SABS Standards Division, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    SILLEN G and MARTELL AE (1964) Stability constants of metal ligand complexes, Spec. Pub. 17. The Chemical Society, London. [ Links ]

    TRUSLER GE, EDWARDS RI, BROUCKAERT CJ and BUCKLEY CA (1988) The chemical removal of sulphates. Proc. 5th National Meeting of the S.A. Institute of Chemical Engineers, 15-16 August 1988, Pretoria. W3-0-W3-11. [ Links ]

    USEPA (2011) Water: Drinking Water Contaminants. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. URL: (Accessed 11-01-2011). [ Links ]

    VOLMAN R (1984) The use of barium sulphide to remove sulphate from industrial effluents. M.Sc. Thesis (Chem. Eng.), University of Stellenbosch. [ Links ]

    WEAST RC (1971) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (52nd edn.). The Chemical Rubber Co., Boca Raton. p. B107. [ Links ]

    WILSENACH JT (1986) Cost estimate for barium sulphate reduction. Internal report, Div. of Water Technology, CSIR, Project No. 620/2616/6. [ Links ]

    ZVINOWANDA CM, MAREE JM and VAN DER WALT B (2010) Temporary neutralization plant. Rand Uranium, April 2010. Progress Report No 1. [ Links ]