SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

SIBANDA, OS. Comparative analysis of access to patented HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical medicines through the Canadian and EU trips flexibilities measures: are they efficacious or overly burdensome and ineffective measures?. PER [online]. 2012, vol.15, n.2, pp.01-34. ISSN 1727-3781.

    Amollo R "Revisiting the Trips Regime: Rwanda-Canadian ARV Drug Deal 'Tests' the WTO General Council Decision" 2009African Journal of International and Comparative Law240-269 [ Links ]

    Bhattacharya R "Are Developing Countries Going Too Far on TRIPS? A Closer Look at the New Laws in India" 2008 Va J Int'l L 395-421 [ Links ]

    Bluestone K "Safeguarding Developing Countries' Rights to Affordable Medicines for HIV/AIDS: How Effective are International Trade Rules?" 2001 Tropical Medicine and International Health 161-162 [ Links ]

    Chirwa DM "The Right to Health in International Law: Its Implications for the Obligations of State and Non-state Actors in Ensuring Access to Essential Medicine" 2003 South African Journal of Human Rights 541-566 [ Links ]

    Collins J "The Pharmaceutical Companies Versus AIDS Victims: A Classic Case of Bad Versus Good? A Look at the Struggle between Intellectual Property Rights and Access to Treatment" 2001 Syracuse J Int'l L159-183 [ Links ]

    Cornides J "European Union Adopts Regulation on Compulsory Licensing of Pharmaceutical Products for Exports" 2007 JWIP70-77 [ Links ]

    El-Said M "TRIPS-Plus Implications for Access to Medicines in Developing Countries: Lessons from Jordan-United States Free Trade Agreement" 2007 JWIP438-475 [ Links ]

    Gumedze S "HIV/AIDS and Human rights: The role of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights" 2004 AJHR181-200 [ Links ]

    Hassim A, Heywood M and Berger J Health and Democracy: A Guide to Human Rights, Health Law and Policy in Post-Apartheid South Africa(Siberink Cape Town 2007) [ Links ]

    Heyns C and Killander M Compendium of Key Human Rights Documents of the African Union 3rded(Pretoria University Press Pretoria 2007) [ Links ]

    Keiser J, Utzinger J, Caldas de Castro M, Smith T.A, Tanner M, and Singer B.H "Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa and Implications for Malaria Control" 2004 American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene118-127 [ Links ]

    Kirby M "The Never-ending Paradoxes of HIV/AIDS and Human Rights" 2004 AJHR163-180 [ Links ]

    Lindstrom B "Scalling Back TRIP-Plus: An Analysis of Intellectual Property Provisions in Trade Agreements and Implications" 2010 International Law and Politics 917-980 [ Links ]

    Ng E and Kohler J "Finding Flaws: The Limitations of Compulsory Licensing for Improving Access to Medicines" 2008 Health Law Journal 143-172 [ Links ]

    Ngwena C "AIDS in Africa: Access to Health Care as a Human Right" 2002 SAPL1-21 [ Links ]

    Sasjack S "Demanding Individually Safe Drugs Today: Overcoming the Cross-labelling Legal Hurdle to Pharmacogenomics" 2008 AJLM 7-40 [ Links ]

    Savoie B "Thailand's Test: Compulsory Licensing in an Era of Epidemiologic Transition" 2007 Va J Int'l L211-248 [ Links ]

    Sibanda O "Parallel importation and compulsory licensing in Kenya and South Africa as measures to access HIV/AIDS medicine" 2009 Acta Academica183-206 [ Links ]

    Singh, Govender and Reddy 2005Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy [ Links ]

    Singh JA, Govender M and Reddy N "South Africa a Decade after Apartheid: Realising Health through Human Rights" 2005 Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy355-388 [ Links ]

    Tsoose CI "The Impact of HIV/AIDS Regarding Informal Social Security: Issues and Perspectives from a South African Context" 2010 PELJ407-447

    [ Links ]

    Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology, 37thParl 3d session, No. 004 (26 February 2004)

    [ Links ]

    Apotex 2008 Canadian Company Receives Final Tender Approval From Rwanda For Vital AIDS Drug 20080507.asp (date of use 25 February 2011) [ Links ]

    African Union 2003 Maputo Declaration on Malaria, HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Other Related Infectious Diseases. Assembly, Second Ordinary Session, 1-0 - 12 July 2003, Maputo Mozambique unity_to_union/pdfs/au/assembly/moz03decl.pdf (date of use 6 December 2011) [ Links ]

    Bubela T and Morin J 2010 Lost in Translation: The Canadian Access to Medicine from Transnational Activism to Domestic Implementation (date of use 6 December 2011) [ Links ]

    Cohen-Kohler JC, Esmail LC and Cosio AP 2007 "Canada's Implementation of the Paragraph6 Decision: Is it Sustainable Public Policy?" 2007 Globalization and Health (date of use 12 January 2010) [ Links ]

    Competition Commission 2004 Towards a free and fair economy for all:GSK and BI issue anti-retroviral licences AttachedFiles/MyDocuments/March-04-Newsletter.pdf (date of use 19 December 2011) [ Links ]

    Commission on Intellectual Property Rights 2002 Integrating Intellectual Property Rights and Development Policy (date of use 6 December 2011) [ Links ]

    European Union 2006 Regulation (EC) No 816/2006 of the European Parliament and the Council of 17 May 2006, Official Journal of European UnionL157 (date of use 5 February 2011) [ Links ]

    European Union 2004 Regulation (EC) No 726/2004of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004,Official Journal of the European Union reg_2004_726/reg_2004_726_en.pdf (date of use 7 January 2010) [ Links ]

    European Commission 2009 Communication from the Commission: Executive Summary of the Pharmaceutical Sector Inquiry Report (date of use 7 January 2010) [ Links ]

    Froneman M 2000 Beyond Our Means: The Cost of Treating HIV/AIDS in the Developing World (date of use 17 June 2009) [ Links ]

    Hestermeyer HP 2007 "Canadian-made Drugs for Rwanda: The First Application of the WTO Waiver on Patents and Medicines" 2007 American Society of International Law (date of use 9 January 2011) [ Links ]

    Human Rights Working Group on HIV/AIDS and Public Health: McGill University 2007 Canada's Access to Medicines Regime (CAMR) Consultation Submission (24 January 2007) (date of use 10 November 2010) [ Links ]

    Li X 2008 The Impact of Higher Patent Protection for Pharmaceutical Industries under the TRIPS Agreement - A Comparative Study of China and India, United Nations University Research Paper No 2008 (date of use 10 November 2010) [ Links ]

    Love JP 2007 "Some Recent Examples of the Use of Compulsory Licenses on Patent" 2007 Knowledge Ecology International (date of use 10 November 2010) [ Links ]

    Masungu SF, Villanueva S and Blasetti R 2004 Utilizing TRIPS Flexibilities for Public Health Protection through South - South Regional Framework (date of use 15 December 2011) [ Links ]

    Medicins Sans Frontiers 2006 Neither Expeditious, Nor a Solution: The WTO August 30 Decision is Unworkable REP_JCPA_en.pdf (date of use 15 December 2011) [ Links ]

    Saggi K 2007 Trade-Related Policy Coherence and Access to Essential Medicine (date of use 5 December 2011) [ Links ]

    South African Litigation Center 2011 Litigation Manual Series Equal Rights for All: Litigating Cases of HIV-related Discrimination (date of use 6 December 2011) [ Links ]

    Schoofs M 1999AIDS, the Agony of Africa: Ending the Epidemic www.village (date of use 13 January 2011) [ Links ]

    Statistics South Africa 2010 Mid-year Population Estimates (date of use 5 December 2011) [ Links ]

    United Nations 2001 Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS, United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV, 25-27 June 2001 (date of use 5 December 2011) [ Links ]

    UNESCO-IIEP 2002 The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education and Institutionalizing Preventive Education (date of use 15 November 2010) [ Links ]

    United States Federal Drug Administration Date Unknown Electronic Orange Book - Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalents (date of use 18 December 2010) [ Links ]

    World Health Organisation 2007 Model List for Essential Medicines, 15thList, March 2007 (date of use 5 January 2011) [ Links ]

    World Trade Organisation 2011 Protocol Amending the TRIPS Agreement Status of Acceptance, IP/C/W/490/Rev.8,6 October 2011 (date of use 29 November 2011) [ Links ]