SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

AZIZPOUR, Aidin  and  HASSANI, Yashar. Clinical evaluation of general anaesthesia in pigeons using a combination of ketamine and diazepam. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2012, vol.83, n.1, pp.01-04. ISSN 2224-9435.

    1. Forbes NA. Avian anesthesia. Vet Q. 1998;20:265-266. [ Links ]

    2. Athar M, Shakoor A, Muhammad G, Sarwar MN, Chaudhry NI. Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Acta Vet Hung. 1996;44:357-361. PMid:9055460 [ Links ]

    3. Christense J, Fosse RT, Halvorsen OJ, Moril I. Comparison of various anesthetic regimens in the domestic fowl. Am J Vet Res. 1987;48:1649-1657. [ Links ]

    4. Harrison, GJ. Anesthesiology. In: Harrison J, Harrison LR, editors. Clinical avian medicine and surgery. 7th edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1986; p. 520-545. [ Links ]

    5. Samour JH, Jones DM, Knight JA, Howlett JC. Comparative studies of the use of some injectable anesthetic agents in birds. Vet Rec. 1984;115:6-11. PMid:6464345 [ Links ]

    6. Hall LW, Clarke KW, Trim CM. Principles of sedation, analgesia and premedication. In: Hall LW, Clarke KW, Trim CM, editors. Veterinary anesthesia. 10th edn. Oxford: Elsevier Ltd, 2001; p. 292-316. [ Links ]

    7. Krajka A, Juranova R. Anesthesia in poultry. Vet Med. 1994;39:23-27. [ Links ]

    8. Machin KL, Caulkett NA. Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol and a medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine combination in Mallard ducks. Am J Vet Res. 1998;59:598- 602. [ Links ]

    9. Durrani UF, Arif khan M, Saleem ahmad S. Comparative efficacy (sedative and anesthetic) of detomidine, ketamine and detomidine, ketamine cocktail in pigeons (Columba tivia). Pakistan Vet J. 2008;28:115-118. [ Links ]

    10. Durrani UF, Ashraf M, Khan MA. A comparison of the clinical effects associated with xylazine, ketamine, and a xylazine, ketamine cocktail in pigeons (Cotumba tivia). Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2009;33:413-U7. [ Links ]

    11. Patrick R. Anesthesia, analgesia and monitoring. Paper presented at: The North American Veterinary Conference; 2005 Jan 08-12; Orlando, USA. [ Links ]

    12. Valverde A, Bienzle D, Smith DA, Dyson DH, Valliant AE. Intraosseous cannulation and drug administration for induction of anesthesia in chickens. Vet Surg. 1993;22:240-244. PMid:8362509 [ Links ]

    13. Wright M. Pharmacologic effects of ketamine and its use in veterinary medicine. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1982;180:1462-1470. PMid:6124527 [ Links ]

    14. Atalan G, Uzun M, Demirkan S, Yildiz S, Cenesiz M. Effect of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine anesthesia and atipamezole on heart and respiratory rate and cloacal temperature of domestic pigeons. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2002;49:281-285.,PMid:12227468 [ Links ]

    15. Lumeij JT, Deenik JW. Medetomidine, ketamine and diazepam-ketamine anesthesia in racing pigeons (Cotumba tivia domestica): A comparative study. J Avian Med Surg. 2003;17:191-196. [ Links ]

    16. Zamani Moghadam A, Bigham Sadegh A, Sharifi S, Habibian S. Comparison of intranasal administration of diazepam, midazolam and xylazine in pigeons: Clinical evaluation. Iran J Vet Sci Technol. 2009;1:19-26. [ Links ]

    17. Lees P. Sedatives. In: Lees P, editor. Veterinary applied pharmacology and therapeutics. 5th edn. Oxford: Baillière Tindall, 1991; p. 337-339. [ Links ]

    18. Varner J, Clifton KR, Poulos S, Broderson JR, Wyatt RD. Lack of efficacy of injectable ketamine with xylazine or diazepam for anesthesia in chickens. Lab Anim. 2004;33:36-39. [ Links ]

    19. Bateson AN. Basic pharmacologic mechanisms involved in benzodiazepine tolerance and withdrawal. Curr Pharm Des. 2002;8:5-21. PMid:11812247 [ Links ]

    20. Paul-Murphy JR, Brunson DB, Miletic VA. Technique for evaluating analgesia in conscious perching birds. Am J Vet Res. 1999;60:1213-1217. PMid:10791932 [ Links ]