SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

SAMKOVA, E. et al. Animal factors affecting fatty acid composition of cow milk fat: a review. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.42, n.2, pp. 83-100. ISSN 0375-1589.

    Agabriel, C., Coulon, J.B., Journal, C. & Rancourt, B. de, 2001. Chemical composition of herd milk and farming system in the Massif Central. Prod. Anim. 14, 119-128 (in French, English abstract). [ Links ]

    Ákerlind, M., Holtenius, K., Bertilsson, J. & Emanuelson, M., 1999. Milk composition and feed intake in dairy cows selected for high and low milk fat percentage. Livest. Prod. Sci. 59, 1-11. [ Links ]

    Arnould, V.M.R. & Soyeurt, H., 2009. Genetic variability of milk fatty acids. J. Appl. Genet. 50, 29-39. [ Links ]

    Auldist, M.J., Johnston, K.A., White, N.J., Fitzsimons, W.P., Boland, M.J., 2004. A comparison of the composition, coagulation characteristics and cheesemaking capacity of milk from Friesian and Jersey dairy cows. J. Dairy Res. 71, 51-57. [ Links ]

    Bargo, F., Delahoy, J.E., Schroeder, G.F., Baumgard, L.H. & Muller, L.D., 2006. Supplementing total mixed rations with pasture increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid in milk. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 131, 226-240. [ Links ]

    Barlowska, J., Litwinczuk, Z. & Topyla B., 2005. Physical-chemical parameters of milk from different cow breeds in spring-summer feeding period. Med. Weter. 61, 937-939 (in Polish, English abstract). [ Links ]

    Barlowska, J., Grodzicki, T., Topyla, B. & Litwinczuk, Z., 2009. Physicochemical properties of milk fat from three breeds of cows during summer and winter feeding. Arch. Tierz.-Arch. Anim. Breed. 52, 356-363. [ Links ]

    Bastin, C., Gengler, N. & Soyeurt, H., 2011. Phenotypic and genetic variability of production traits and milk fatty acid contents across days in milk for Walloon Holstein first-parity cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94, 4152-4163. [ Links ]

    Bauman, D.E. & Griinari, J.M., 2003. Nutritional regulation of milk fat synthesis. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 23, 203-227. [ Links ]

    Bauman, D.E., Mather, I.H., Wall, R.J. & Lock, A.L., 2006. Major advances associated with the biosynthesis of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 1235-1243. [ Links ]

    Bernal-Santos, G., Perfield II, J.W., Barbano, D.M., Bauman, D.E. & Overton, T.R., 2003. Production responses of dairy cows to dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during the transition period and early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 86, 3218-3228. [ Links ]

    Bobe, G., Hammond, E.G., Freeman, A.E., Lindberg, G.L. & Beitz, D.C., 2003. Texture of butter from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions. J. Dairy Sci., 86, 3122-3127. [ Links ]

    Bobe, G., Zimmerman, S., Hammond, E.G., Freeman, A.E., Porter, P.A., Luhman, C.M. & Beitz, D.C., 2007a. Butter composition and texture from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions fed fish oil or roasted soybeans. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 2596-2603. [ Links ]

    Bobe, G., Lindberg, G.L., Freeman, A.E. & Beitz, D.C., 2007b. Short communication: Composition of milk protein and milk fatty acids is stable for cows differing in genetic merit for milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 3955-3960. [ Links ]

    Bobe, G., Bormann, J.A.M., Lindberg, G.L., Freeman, A.E. & Beitz, D.C., 2008. Short communication: Estimates of genetic variation of milk fatty acids in US Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 1209-1213. [ Links ]

    Bradford, B.J. & Allen, M.S., 2004. Milk fat responses to a change in diet fermentability vary by production level in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 87, 3800-3807. [ Links ]

    Caroll, S.M., DePeters, E.J., Taylor, S.J., Rosenberg, M., Perez-Monti, H. & Capps, V.A., 2006. Milk composition of Holstein, Jersey and Brown Swiss cows in response to increasing levels of dietary fat. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 131, 451-473. [ Links ]

    Chilliard, Y., Ferlay, A. & Doreau, M., 2001. Effects of different types of forages, animal fat or marine oils in cow's diet on milk fat secretion and composition, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Livest. Prod. Sci. 70, 31-48. [ Links ]

    Chilliard, Y., Glasser, F., Enjalbert, F., Ferlay, A. & Schmidely, P., 2008: Recent data on the effects of feeding factors on cow milk fatty acid composition. Sci. Aliments 28, 156-167. [ Links ]

    Chouinard, P.Y., Corneau, L., Barbano, D.M., Metzger, L.E. & Bauman, D.E., 1999. Conjugated linoleic acids alter milk fatty acid composition and inhibit milk fat secretion in dairy cows. J. Nutr. 129, 1579-1584. [ Links ]

    Conte, G., Mele, M., Chessa, S., Castiglioni, B., Serra, A., Pagnacco, G. & Secchiari, P., 2010. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 gene polymorphisms and milk fatty acid composition in Italian Brown cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 753-763. [ Links ]

    Craninx, M., Steen, A., Van Laar, H., Van Nespen, T., Martin-Tereso, J., De Baets, B. & Fievez, V., 2008. Effect of lactation stage on the odd- and branched-chain milk fatty acids of dairy cattle under grazing and indoor conditions. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 2662-2677. [ Links ]

    Croissant, A.E., Washburn, S.P., Dean, L.L. & Drake, M.A., 2007. Chemical properties and consumer perception of fluid milk from conventional and pasture-based production systems. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 4942-4953. [ Links ]

    De Marchi, M., Bittante, G., Dal Zotto, R., Dalvit, C. & Cassandro, M., 2008. Effect of Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss breeds on quality of milk and cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 4092-4102. [ Links ]

    Dhiman, T.R., Nam, S.H. & Ure, A.L., 2005. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 45, 463-482. [ Links ]

    Drackley, J.K., Beaulieu, A.D. & Elliott, J.P., 2001. Responses of milk fat composition to dietary fat or nonstructural carbohydrates in Holstein and Jersey cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84, 1231-1237. [ Links ]

    Edwards, R.A., King, J.W.B. & Yousef, I.M., 1973. Genetic variation in fatty-acid composition of cow milk. Anim. Prod. 16, 307-310. [ Links ]

    Elgersma, A., Tamminga, S. & Ellen, G., 2006. Modifying milk composition through forage. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 131, 207-225. [ Links ]

    Fearon, A.M., Mayne, C.S., Beattie, J.A.M. & Bruce, D.W., 2004. Effect of level of oil inclusion in the diet of dairy cows at pasture on animal performance and milk composition and properties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84, 497-504. [ Links ]

    Ferlay, A., Martin, B., Pradel, P., Coulon, J.B. & Chilliard, Y., 2006. Influence of grass-based diets on milk fatty acid composition and milk lipolytic system in Tarentaise and Montbéliarde cow breeds. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 4026-4041. [ Links ]

    Ferlay, A., Martin, B., Lerch, S., Gobert, M., Pradel, P. & Chilliard, Y., 2010. Effects of supplementation of maize silage diets with extruded linseed, vitamin E and plant extracts rich in polyphenols, and morning vs. evening milking on milk fatty acid profiles in Holstein and Montbeliarde cows. Animal 4, 627-640. [ Links ]

    Garnsworthy, P.C., Masson, L.L., Lock, A.L. & Mottram, T.T., 2006. Variation of milk citrate with stage of lactation and de novo fatty acid synthesis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 1604-1612. [ Links ]

    Gebauer, S.K., Psota, T.L. & Kris-Etherton, P.M., 2007. The diversity of health effects of individual trans fatty acid isomers. Lipids 42, 787-799. [ Links ]

    German, J.B., Gibson, R.A., Krauss, R.M., Nestel, P., Lamarche, B., van Staveren, W.A., Steijns, J.M., de Groot, L., Lock, A.L. & Destaillats, F., 2009. A reappraisal of the impact of dairy foods and milk fat on cardiovascular disease risk. Eur. J. Nutr. 48, 191-203. [ Links ]

    Gibson, J.P., 1991. The potential for genetic change in milk fat composition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3258-3266. [ Links ]

    Glasser, F., Schmidely, R., Sauvant, D. & Doreau, M., 2008. Digestion of fatty acids in ruminants: a metaanalysis of flows and variation factors: 2. C18 fatty acids. Animal 2, 691-704. [ Links ]

    Gnádig, S., Rickert, R., Sebedio, J.L. & Steinhart, H., 2001. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): physiological effects and production. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 103, 56-61. [ Links ]

    Goddard, M., 2001. Genetics to improve milk quality. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 56, 166-170. [ Links ]

    Harvatine, K.J., Boisclair, Y.R. & Bauman, D.E., 2009. Recent advances in the regulation of milk fat synthesis. Animal 3, 40-54. [ Links ]

    Hradecká, E., Citek, J., Panicke, L., Rehout, V. & Hanusová, L., 2008. The relation of GH1, GHR and DGAT1 polymorphisms with estimated breeding values for milk production traits of German Holstein sires. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 53, 238-245. [ Links ]

    Hunter, J.E., Zhang, J. & Kris-Etherton, P.M., 2010. Cardiovascular disease risk of dietary stearic acid compared with trans, other saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids: a systematic review. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 46-63. [ Links ]

    Jensen, R.G., 2002. The composition of bovine milk lipids: January 1995 to December 2000. J. Dairy Sci. 85, 295-350. [ Links ]

    Kalac, P. & Samková, E., 2010. The effects of feeding various forages on fatty acid composition of bovine milk fat: A review. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 55, 521-537. [ Links ]

    Kay, J.K., Weber, W.J., Moore, C.E., Bauman, D.E., Hansen, L.B., Chester-Jones, H., Crooker, B.A. & Baumgard, L.H., 2005. Effects of week of lactation and genetic selection for milk yield on milk fatty acid composition in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 3886-3893. [ Links ]

    Kaylegian, K.E., Dwyer, D.A., Lynch, J.M., Bauman, D.E., Fleming, J.R. & Barbano, D.M., 2009. Impact of fatty acid composition on the accuracy of mid-infrared fat analysis of farm milks. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 2502-2513. [ Links ]

    Kelsey, J.A., Corl, B.A., Collier, R.J. & Bauman, D.E., 2003. The effect of breed, parity, and stage of lactation on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86, 2588-2597. [ Links ]

    Kgwatalala, P.M., Ibeagha-Awemu, E.M., Hayes, J.F. & Zhao, X., 2007. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the open reading frame of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene and resulting genetic variants in Canadian Holstein and Jersey cows. DNA Seq. 18, 357-362. [ Links ]

    Kgwatalala, P.M., Ibeagha-Awemu, E.M., Mustafa, A.F. & Zhao, X., 2009. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 genotype and stage of lactation influences milk fatty acid composition of Canadian Holstein cows. Anim. Genet. 40, 609-615. [ Links ]

    Kliem, K.E., Aikman, P.C., Humphries, D.J., Morgan, R., Shingfield, K.J. & Givens, D.I., 2009. Effect of replacing calcium salts of palm oil distillate with extruded linseeds on milk fatty acid composition in Jersey and Holstein cows. Animal 3, 1754-1762. [ Links ]

    Komprda, T., Dvorak, R., Fialová, M., Sustová, K. & Pechová, A., 2005. Fatty acid content in milk of dairy cows on a diet with high fat content derived from rapeseed. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 50, 311 -319. [ Links ]

    Kramer, J.K.G., Parodi, P.W., Jensen, R.G., Mossoba, M.M., Yurawecz, M.P. & Adlof, R.O., 1998. Rumenic acid: A proposed common name for the major conjugated linoleic acid isomer found in natural products. Lipids 33, 835-835. [ Links ]

    Kris-Etherton, P.M., Grieger, J.A. & Etherton, T.D., 2009. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 81, 99-104. [ Links ]

    Lake, S.L., Weston, T.R., Scholljegerdes, E.J., Murrieta, C.M., Alexander, B.M., Rule, D.C., Moss, G.E. & Hess, B.W., 2007. Effects of postpartum dietary fat and body condition score at parturition on plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fatty acid composition of lactating beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 85, 717-730. [ Links ]

    Leiber, F., Kreuzer, M., Nigg, D., Wettstein, H.R., Richard, M. & Scheeder, L., 2005. A study on the causes for the elevated n-3 fatty acids in cows' milk of alpine origin. Lipids 40, 191-202. [ Links ]

    Lock, A.L. & Garnsworthy, P.C., 2002. Independent effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic acids on the conjugated linoleic acid content of cow's milk. Anim. Sci. 74, 163-176. [ Links ]

    Lock, A.L. & Bauman, D.E., 2004. Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids 39, 1197-1206. [ Links ]

    Lopez-Huertas, E., 2010. Health effects of oleic acid and long chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) enriched milks. A review of intervention studies. Pharmacol. Res. 61, 200-207. [ Links ]

    Malacarne, M., Summer, A., Formaggioni, P., Franceschi, P. & Mariani, P., 2001. Fatty acids composition of milk fat from four cattle breeds reared in the Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production area. Ann. Fac. Med. Vet. - Universita di Parma 21, 249-259. (in Italian, English abstract) [ Links ]

    Mántysaari, P., Khalili, H., Sariola, J. & Rantanen, A., 2007. Use of barley fibre and wet distillers' solubles as feedstuffs for Ayrshire dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 135, 52-65. [ Links ]

    Martin, O. & Sauvant, D., 2007. Dynamic model of the lactating dairy cow metabolism. Animal 1,1143-1166. [ Links ]

    Mele, M., Conte, G., Castiglioni, B., Chessa, S., Macciotta, N.P.P., Serra, A., Buccioni, A., Pagnacco, G. & Secchiari, P., 2007. Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene polymorphism and milk fatty acid composition in Italian Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 4458-4465. [ Links ]

    Mele, M., Dal Zotto, R., Cassandro, M., Conte, G., Serra, A., Buccioni, A., Bittante, G. & Secchiari, P., 2009. Genetic parameters for conjugated linoleic acid, selected milk fatty acids, and milk fatty acid unsaturation of Italian Holstein-Friesian cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 392-400. [ Links ]

    Mensink, R.P., 2005. Effects of stearic acid on plasma lipid and lipoproteins in humans. Lipids 40, 1201-1205. [ Links ]

    Milanesi, E., Nicoloso, L. & Crepaldi, P., 2008. Stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene polymorphisms in Italian cattle breeds. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 125, 63-67. [ Links ]

    Miller, N., Delbecchi, L., Petitclerc, D., Wagner, G.F., Talbot, B.G. & Lacasse, P., 2006. Effect of stage of lactation and parity on mammary gland cell renewal. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 4669-4677. [ Links ]

    Moioli, B., Contarini, G., Avalli, A., Catillo, G., Orru, L., De Matteis, G., Masoero, G. & Napolitano, F., 2007. Effect of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase polymorphism on fatty acid composition of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 3553-3558. [ Links ]

    Moore, C.E., Kay, J.K., Colllier, R.J., VanBaale, M.J. & Baumgard, L.H., 2005. Effect of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids on heat-stressed Brown Swiss and Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 1732-1740. [ Links ]

    Morales, M.S., Palmquist, D.L. & Weiss, W.P., 2000. Milk fat composition of Holstein and Jersey cows with control or depleted copper status and fed whole soyabeans or tallow. J. Dairy Sci. 83, 2112-2119. [ Links ]

    Mosley, E.E., Shafii, B., Moate, P.J. & McGuire, M.A., 2006. Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid is synthesized directly from vaccenic acid in lactating dairy cattle. J. Nutr. 136, 570 -575. [ Links ]

    Nafikov, R.A. & Beitz, D.C., 2007. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in farm animals. J. Nutr. 137, 702-705. [ Links ]

    O'Brien, M.D., Wheelock, J.B., La Noce, A.J., Rhoads, M.L., Rhoads, R.P., VanBaale, M.J., Collier, R.J. & Baumgard, L.H., 2007. Effects of heat stress vs. underfeeding on milk fatty acid composition. J. Anim. Sci. 85, 58-59. [ Links ]

    Ordovas. L., Zaragoza, P., Altarriba, J. & Rodellar, C., 2008. Identification of 14 new single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine SLC27A1 gene and evaluation of their association with milk fat content. J. Dairy Res. 75, 129-134. [ Links ]

    Palladino, R.A., Buckley, F., Prendiville, R., Murphy, J.J., Callan, J. & Kenny, D.A., 2010. A comparison between Holstein-Friesian and Jersey dairy cows and their F-1 hybrid on milk fatty acid composition under grazing conditions. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 2176-2184. [ Links ]

    Palmquist, D.L., Beaulieu, A.D. & Barbano, D.M., 1993. Feed and animal factors influencing milk fat composition. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 1753-1771. [ Links ]

    Parodi, P.W., 2004. Milk fat in human nutrition. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 59, 3-59. [ Links ]

    Perdrix, M.F., Sutter, F. & Wenk, C., 1996. The fatty acid composition of milk fat: factors of variation. Rev. Suisse Agric. 28, 71-76. (in French, English abstract) [ Links ]

    Pesek, M., Spicka, J. & Samková, E., 2005. Comparison of fatty acid composition in milk fat of Czech Pied cattle and Holstein cattle. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 50, 122-128. [ Links ]

    Pesek, M., Samková, E. & Spicka, J., 2006. Fatty acids and composition of their important groups in milk fat of Czech Pied cattle. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 51, 181-188. [ Links ]

    Precht, D. & Molkentin, J., 2000. Frequency distributions of conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids contents in European bovine milk fats. Milchwisseschaft 55, 687-691. [ Links ]

    Rajakangas, J., Basu, S., Salminen, I. & Mutanen, M., 2003. Adenoma growth stimulation by the trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is associated with changes in mucosal NF-kappa B and cyclin D1 protein levels in the Min mouse. J. Nutr. 133, 1943-1948. [ Links ]

    Renner, E. & Kosmack, U., 1974. Genetische Aspekte zur Fettsáurenzusammensetzung des Milchfettes. 2. Fettsáurenmuster der Milch von Nachtkommenpopulationen. Züchtungskunde 46, 217-226. [ Links ]

    Samková, E., 2008. The effects of selected factors on fatty acid composition in cow milk fat. Thesis, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, Czech Republic. 186 pp. (in Czech, English summary). [ Links ]

    Schennink, A., Heck, J.M.L., Bovenhuis, H., Visker, M.H.P.W., Van Valenberg, H.J.F. & Van Arendonk, J.A.M., 2008. Milk fatty acid unsaturation: Genetic parameters and effects of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) and acyl CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). J. Dairy Sci. 91, 2135-2143. [ Links ]

    Schennink, A., Stoop, W.M., Visker, M.H.P.W., Van der Poel, J.J., Bovenhuis, H. & Van Arendonk, J.A.M., 2009. Genome-wide scan for bovine milk-fat composition. II. Quantitative trait loci for long-chain fatty acids. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 4676-4682. [ Links ]

    Secchiari, P., Mele, M., Serra, A., Buccioni, A., Paoletti, F. & Antongiovanni, M., 2003. Effect of breed, parity and stage of lactation on milk conjugated linoleic acid content in Italian Friesian and Reggiana cows. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 2, 269-271. [ Links ]

    Shingfield, K.J., Salo-Váánánen, P., Pahkala, E., Toivonen, V., Jaakkola, S., Piironen, V. & Huhtanen, P., 2005. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on the fatty acid composition and vitamin content of cows'mik. J. Dairy Res. 72, 349-361. [ Links ]

    Siri-Tarino, P.W., Sun, Q., Hu, F.B. & Krauss, R.M., 2010. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 502-509. [ Links ]

    Soyeurt, H., Dardenne, P., Gillon, A., Croquet, C., Vanderick, S., Mayeres, P., Bertozzi, C. & Gengler, N., 2006a. Variation in fatty acid contents of milk and milk fat within and across breeds. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 4858-4865. [ Links ]

    Soyeurt, H., Dardenne, P., Dehareng, F., Lognay, G., Veselko, D., Marlier, M., Bertozzi, C., Mayeres, P. & Gengler, N., 2006b. Estimating fatty acid content in cow milk using Mid-infrared spectrometry. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 3690-3695. [ Links ]

    Soyeurt, H., Gillon, A., Vanderick, S., Mayeres, P., Bertozzi, C. & Gengler, N., 2007. Estimation of heritability and genetic correlations for the major fatty acids in bovine milk. J. Dairy Sci. 90, 4435-4442. [ Links ]

    Soyeurt, H., Dardenne, P., Dehareng, F., Bastin, C. & Gengler, N., 2008a. Genetic parameters of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content and the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 3611-3626. [ Links ]

    Soyeurt, H., Dehareng, F., Mayeres, P., Bertozzi, C. & Gengler, N., 2008b. Variation of Delta(9)-desaturase activity in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 3211-3224. [ Links ]

    Stoop, W.M., Van Arendonk, J.A.M., Heck, J.M.L., Van Valenberg, H.J.F. & Bovenhuis, H., 2008. Genetic parameters for major milk fatty acids and milk production traits of Dutch Holstein-Friesians. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 385-394. [ Links ]

    Stoop, W.M., Bovenhuis, H., Heck, J.M.L. & Van Arendonk, J.A.M., 2009a. Effect of lactation stage and energy status on milk fat composition of Holstein-Friesian cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 1469-1478. [ Links ]

    Stoop, W.M., Schennink, A., Visker, M.H.P.W., Mullaart, E., Van Arendonk, J.A.M. & Bovenhuis, H., 2009b. Genome-wide scan for bovine milk-fat composition. I. Quantitative trait loci for short- and medium-chain fatty acids. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 4664-4675. [ Links ]

    Talpur, F.N., Bhanger, M.I. & Khuhawar, M.Y., 2006. Comparison of fatty acids and cholesterol content in the milk of Pakistani cow breeds. J. Food Compos. Anal. 19, 698-703. [ Links ]

    Thomson, N.A., Van der Poel, W. & Peterson, S.W., 2000. Seasonal variation of the fatty acid composition of milk fat from Friesian cows grazing pasture. Proc. N. Z. Soc. Anim. Prod. 60, 314-317. [ Links ]

    Veerkamp, R.F., Beerda, B. & Van der Lende, T., 2003. Effects of genetic selection for milk yield on energy balance, levels of hormones, and metabolites in lactating cattle, and possible links to reduced fertility's. Livest. Prod. Sci. 83, 257-275. [ Links ]

    Vlaeminck, B., Fievez, V., Cabrita, A.R.J., Fonseca, A.J.M. & Dewhurst, R.J., 2006. Factors affecting odd-and branched-chain fatty acids in milk: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 131, 389-417. [ Links ]

    Wang, J.P., Bu, D.P., Wang, J.Q., Huo, X.K., Guo, T.J., Wei, H.Y., Zhou, L.Y., Rastani, R.R., Baumgard, L.H. & Li, F.D., 2010. Effect of saturated fatty acid supplementation on production and metabolism indices in heat-stressed mid-lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 4121-4127. [ Links ]

    Wathes, D.C., Cheng, Z., Bourne, N., Taylor, V.J., Coffey, M.P. & Brotherstone, S., 2007. Differences between primiparous and multiparous dairy cows in the inter-relationships between metabolic traits, milk yield and body condition score in the periparturient period. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 33, 203-225. [ Links ]

    White, S.L., Bertrand, J.A., Wade, M.R., Washburn, S.P., Green Jr., J.T. & Jenkins, T.C., 2001. Comparison of fatty acid content of milk from Jersey and Holstein cows consuming pasture or total mixed ration. J. Dairy Sci. 84, 2295-2301. [ Links ]

    Zegarska, Z., Jaworski, J., Paszczyk, B., Charkiewicz, J. & Borejszo, Z., 2001. Fatty acid composition with emphasis on trans C18:1 isomers of milk fat from Lowland and Black and White and Polish Red cows. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 10, 41-44. [ Links ]