SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

NSAHLAI, I.V.; FON, F.N.  and  BASHA, N.A.D.. The effect of tannin with and without polyethylene glycol on in vitro gas production and microbial enzyme activity. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2011, vol.41, n.4, pp.337-344. ISSN 2221-4062.

    Seyis, I. & Aksoz, N., 2005. Investigation of factors affecting xylanase activity from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3. 48, 187-193. [ Links ]

    AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. AOAC, Washington, USA. pp. 69-88. [ Links ]

    Barry, T.N. & McNabb, W.C., 1999. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants. Br. J. Nutr. 81, 263-272. [ Links ]

    Bradford, M.M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72, 248-254. [ Links ]

    Campos, F.P., Sampaio, A.A.M., Bose, M.L.V., Vieira, P.F. & Sarmento, P., 2004. Evaluation of in vitro gas production of roughages and their mixtures using curves subtraction method. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 116, 161-172. [ Links ]

    Chung, K.T., Lu, Z. & Chou, M.W., 1998. Mechanism of inhibition of tannic acid and related compounds on the growth of intestinal bacteria. Food Chem. Toxicol. 36, 1053-1060. [ Links ]

    Degen, A.A., Becker, K., Makkar, H.P.S. & Borowy, N., 1995. Acacia saligna as a fodder tree for desert livestock and the interaction of its tannins with fibre fractions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 68, 65-71. [ Links ]

    Dhanoa, M.S., 1988. On the analysis of dacron bag data for low degradability feeds. Grass For. Sci. 43, 441-444. [ Links ]

    Fon, F.N., 2006. Fibrolytic enzyme activity of herbivore microbial ecosystems. MSc thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. [ Links ]

    Gamble, G.R., Akin, D.E., Makkar, H.P.S. & Becker, K., 1996. Biological degradation of tannins in Sericea lespedeza by the white rot fungi Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyanthus stercoreus analyzed by solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62, 3600-3604. [ Links ]

    Gerrit, B., Marjo, F., Frank, M. & Fons, G., 1984. The cellulase of Trichoderma viride. Purification characterization and comparison of all detectable endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases. Eur. J. Biochem. 146, 301-308. [ Links ]

    Henry, B., Nick, V., Desh, P. & Gordon, A., 1974. Purification and characterisation of two cellulases from Auxin-treated Pea Epicoltyls. J. Biol. Chem. 10, 1012-1018 [ Links ]

    Kaitho, R.J., Nsahlai, I.V., Williams, B.A., Umunna, N.N., Tamminga, S. & Van Bruchem, J., 1997. Inter-relationships between palatability, rumen degradability, gas production and chemical composition in browses. Agroforestry Systems 39, 129-144. [ Links ]

    Kopecny, J. & Wallace, J., 1982. Cellular location of some properties of proteolytic enzymes of rumen bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43, 1026-1033. [ Links ]

    Makkar, H.P.S., 1995. Quantification of tannins: A laboratory manual. International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria. p. 25. [ Links ]

    Makkar, H.P.S., 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Rumin. Res. 49, 241-256. [ Links ]

    Makkar, H.P.S. & Singh, B., 1991. Distribution of condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) in various fraction of young and mature leaves of some oak species. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 32, 253-260. [ Links ]

    Makkar, H.P.S. & Singh, B., 1993. Effects of storage and urea addition on detannification and in sacco dry matter digestibility of mature oak (Quercus incana) leaves. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 41, 247-259. [ Links ]

    Makkar, H.P.S., Blummel, M. & Becker, K., 1995. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidone and polyethylene glycol with tannins and their implications in production and true digestibility in in vitro techniques. Br. J. Nutr. 73, 897-913. [ Links ]

    McDonald, I.M., 1981. A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 96, 251-252. [ Links ]

    McSweeney, C.S., Palmer, B., McNeil, D.M. & Krause, D.O., 2001. Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 91, 83-93. [ Links ]

    Mehrez, N.P. & Ørskov, E.R., 1977. A study of the artificial fibre bag technique for determining the digestibility of feeds in the rumen. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 88, 645-650. [ Links ]

    Miller, G., Blum, R., Glennon, W. & Burton, A., 1960. Measurement of CMC-ase activity. Analyt. Biochem. 2, 127-132. [ Links ]

    Miller, G., 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31, 426-428. [ Links ]

    Ngwa, A.T., Pone, D.K. & Mafeni, J.M., 2000. Feed selection and dietary preferences of forage by small ruminants grazing natural pastures in the Sahelian zone of Cameroon. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 88, 253-266. [ Links ]

    Ngwa, A.T., Nsahlai, I.V. & Bonsi, M.L.K., 2002. The rumen digestion of dry matter, nitrogen and cell wall constituents of the pods of Leucaena leucocephala and some Acacia species. J. Sci. Food Agric. 82, 98-106. [ Links ]

    Ngwa, A.T., Nsahlai, I.V. & Iji, P.A., 2003. Effect of feeding pods or alfalfa in combination with poor quality grass straw on microbial enzyme activity and production of VFA in the rumen of South African Merino sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 48, 83-94. [ Links ]

    Nsahlai, I.V. & Umunna, N.N., 1996. Comparison between reconstituted sheep faeces and rumen fluid inocula and between in vitro and in sacco digestibility methods as predictors of intake and in vivo digestibility. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 126, 235-248. [ Links ]

    Nsahlai, I.V., Siaw, D.E.K.A. & Umunna, N.N., 1995. Inter-relationships between chemical constituents, dry matter and nitrogen degradability of fresh leaves of multi-purpose trees. J. Sci. Food Agric. 69, 235-246. [ Links ]

    Nsahlai, I.V., Umunna, N.N. & Osuji, P.O., 1998. Complementarity of bird-resistant and non-bird-resistant varieties of sorghum stover with cottonseed cake and noug (Guizotia abyssinica) cake when fed to sheep. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 130, 229-239. [ Links ]

    Nsahlai, I.V., Umunna, N.N. & Osuji, P.O., 1999. Influence of feeding sheep on oilseed cake following the consumption of tanniferous feeds. Livest. Prod. Sci. 60, 59-69. [ Links ]

    Pell, A.N. & Schofield, P., 1993. Computerized monitoring of gas production to measure forage digestion in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 76, 1063-1073. [ Links ]

    SAS, 2000. Statistical Analysis System user's guide (Version 8). SAS Institute Inc., SAS Campus Drive, Cary, N.C., USA. [ Links ]

    Scalbert, A., 1991. Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry. Oxford, Pergamon Press, UK. 30 (12) pp. 3875-3883. [ Links ]

    Seyis, I. & Aksoz, N., 2005. Investigation of factors affecting xylanase activity from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3. Braz. Arch. Bio. Technol. 48, 187-193. [ Links ]

    Van Soest, P.J., Robertson, J.B. & Lewis, B.A., 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74, 3583-3597. [ Links ]