SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

D U TOIT, G.vanN.; SNYMAN, H.A.  and  MALAN, P.J.. Physical impact of sheep grazing on arid Karoo subshrub/grass rangeland, South Africa. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2011, vol.41, n.3, pp. 280-287. ISSN 0375-1589.

    Anderson, P.M.L. & Hoffman, M., 2007. The impacts of sustained heavy grazing on plant diversity and composition in lowland and upland habitats across the Kamiesberg mountain range in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa. J. Arid Environ. 70, 686-700. [ Links ]

    Belsky, J., 1992. Effects of grazing competition, disturbance and fire on species composition and diversity in grassland communities. J. Veg. Sci., 3, 187-200. [ Links ]

    Bisigato, A.J., Laphitz, R.M.L. & Carrera, A.L., 2008. Non-linear relationships between grazing pressure and conservation of soil resources in Patagonian Monte shrublands. J. Arid Environ. 72, 1464-1475. [ Links ]

    Broersma, K., Krysic, M., Thompson, D.J. & Bornke, A.A., 1999. Effect of long-term grazing on soil quality in southern British Columbia. Proc. VI Int. Rangl. Cong. Townsville, Australia 1, 114-115. [ Links ]

    Cowling, R.M., 1986. A description of the Karoo Biome Project. South African National Scientific Programmes Report 122, Pretoria: Foundation for Research Development. pp. 1-43. [ Links ]

    Dean, W.R.J., Milton, S.J. & du Plessis, M.A., 1995. Where, why and to what extent have rangelands in the Karoo, South Africa, desertified? Environ. Mon. Assessment 37, 103-110. [ Links ]

    Dixon, W.J., 1985. BMDP Statistical Software Manual. University of California Press. Berkley, Los Angeles, London. [ Links ]

    Du Preez, C.M.R., 1972. Die produksiepotensiaal van Karooveld: Groei en opbrengs van Karoobossies en reaksie op snoei. Final Report K-Gf 109/1. Department of Agriculture (Karoo Region) Middelburg, C.P. South Africa (Unpublished). [ Links ]

    Du Toit, G.vanN., Snyman, H.A. & Malan, P.J., 2008. Physical impact of grazing by sheep in the Nama Karoo subshrub/grass rangeland of South Africa on litter and dung distribution. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 38, 326-330. [ Links ]

    Du Toit, G.vanN., Snyman, H.A. & Malan, P.J., 2009. Physical impact of grazing by sheep on soil parameters in the Nama Karoo subshrub/grass rangeland of South Africa. J. Arid Environ. 73, 804-810. [ Links ]

    Du Toit, P.C.V., 2001. The relation between canopy spread cover and the aboveground available phytomass of Nama Karoo subshrubs and grasses. Afr. J. Range For. Sci. 18, 143-146. [ Links ]

    Esler, K.J., Milton, S.J. & Dean, W.R.J., 2006. Karoo veld - Ecology and Management. Briza Publishers, South Africa. pp. 214. [ Links ]

    Friedel, M.H., 1991. Range condition assessment and the concept of thresholds: a viewpoint. J. Range Mgmt. 44, 422-426. [ Links ]

    Friedel, M.H., Sparrow, A.D., Kinloch, J.E. & Tongway, D.J., 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 2: vegetation. J. Arid Environ. 55, 327-348. [ Links ]

    Fynn, R.W.S. & O'Connor, T.G., 2000. Effect of sto on rangeland dynamics and cattle pormance in a semi-arid savanna, South Africa. J. Appl. Ecol. 37, 491-507. [ Links ]

    Hintze, J.L., 1997. Number Cruncher Statistical System, Kaysville, Utah, USA. [ Links ]

    Hobson, F.O. & Sykes, E., 1980. Defoliation frequency with respect to three Karoo Bush species. Karoo Agric. 1, 9-11. [ Links ]

    Hoffman, M.T., 1996. Eastern Mixed Nama Karoo, pp. 55. In: Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. Eds Low, A.G. & Rebelo, A.B., Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria, South Africa. pp. 85. [ Links ]

    Hoffman, M.T. & Ashwell, A., 2001. Nature divided land degradation in South Africa. University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town, South Africa. pp. 168. [ Links ]

    Hoffman, M.T., Cousins, B., Meye, R.T., Petersen, A. & Hendricks, H., 1999. Historical and contemporary land use and the desertification of the Karoo. In: The Karoo: Ecological Patterns and Processes. Eds Dean, W.R.J. & Milton, S.J., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp. 257-273. [ Links ]

    Holm, A.McR., Watson, I.W., Speijers, E.J., Allen, R.J., Eliot, G.J., Shackleton, K.R. & Stretch, J.K., 2004. Loss of patch-scale heterogeneity on secondary productivity in the arid shrubland of Western Australia. J. Arid Environ. 61, 631-649. [ Links ]

    Hoshino, A., Yoshihara, Y., Sasaki, T., Okayasu, T., Jamsran, U., Okuro, T. & Takeuchi, K., 2009. Comparison of vegetation changes along grazing gradients with different numbers of livestock. J. Arid Environ. 73, 687-690. [ Links ]

    Hudak, A.T., 1999. Rangeland mismanagement in South Africa: Failure to apply ecological knowledge. Human Ecol. 27, 55-78. [ Links ]

    Ingram, L.J., 2003. Growth, nutrient cycling and grazing of three perennial tussock grasses of the Pilbare region of NW Australia. PhD thesis, University of Western Australia Perth, Australia. pp. 280. [ Links ]

    Kraaij, T. & Milton, S.J., 2006. Vegetation changes (1995-2004) in semi-arid Karoo shrubland, South Africa. Effects of rainfall, wild herbivores and change in land use. J. Arid Environ. 64, 174-192. [ Links ]

    McNaughton, S.J., Milchunas, D.G. & Frank, D.A., 1996. How can net primary productivity be measured in grazed ecosystems? Ecol. 77, 974-977. [ Links ]

    Mendenhall, W. & Sincich, T., 1996. Principles of experimental design. A second course in Statistics. 5th Edition. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey. pp. 582-595. [ Links ]

    Milton, S.J., 1994. Growth, flowering and recruitment of shrubs in grazed and in protected rangeland in the arid Karoo, South Africa. Vegetatio 111, 17-27. [ Links ]

    Milton, S.J. & Dean, W.R.J., 1996. Karoo Veld: Ecology and Management. Pretoria: ARC-Range and Forage Institute, South Africa. [ Links ]

    Milton, S.J., Dean, W.R. & Ellis, R.P., 1998. Rangeland health assessment: a practical guide for ranchers in arid Karoo shrublands. J. Arid Environ. 39, 253-265. [ Links ]

    Mworia, J.K., Mnene, W.M., Musimbi, D.K. & Reid, R.S., 1997. Resilience of soil and vegetation subjected to different grazing intensities in a semi-arid rangeland of Kenya. Afr. J. Range For. Sci. 14, 26-31. [ Links ]

    O'Connor, T.G., 1994. Composition and population responses of an African savanna grassland to rainfall and grazing. J. Appl. Ecol. 31, 155-171. [ Links ]

    O'Connor, T.G., 1995. Transformation of a savanna grassland by drought and grazing. Afr. J. Range For. Sci. 12, 53-60. [ Links ]

    O'Connor, T.G. & Bredenkamp, G.J., 1997. Grassland. In: Vegetation of southern Africa. Eds Cowling, R.M., Richardson, D.M. & Pierce, S.M., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [ Links ]

    O'Connor, T.G. & Roux, P.W., 1995. Vegetation changes (1949-71) in a semi-arid, grassy dwarf shrublands in the Karoo, South Africa: influence of rainfall variability and grazing by sheep. J. Appl. Ecol. 32, 612-626. [ Links ]

    Roux, P.W., 1963. The descending-point method of vegetation survey: A point sampling for surveying of semi-open grassland and Karoo vegetation in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Agric. Sci. 6, 273-288. [ Links ]

    Roux, P.W., 1967. Die onmiddellike uitwerking van intensiewe beweiding op Karooveld. Proc. Grassld. Soc. South. Afr. 2, 83-90. [ Links ]

    Roux, P.W., 1979. Elements of the trampling factor in stock. Karoo Agric. 1, 9-12. [ Links ]

    Roux, P.W. & Opperman, D.P.J., 1986. Soil erosion. Part 1 - physical environment, South African National Scientific Programmes Report 124. In: The Karoo Biome: a preliminary synthesis. Eds Cowling, R.M., Roux, P.W. & Pieterse, A.J.H., Pretoria: Foundation for Research Development, South Africa. [ Links ]

    Schulze, E.R., 1979. Climate of South Africa. Part 8. General Survey, Weather Bureau, Pretoria, South Africa. p. 158. [ Links ]

    Shearing, D. & van Heerden, K., 1994. Karoo: South African wild flower guide 6. Cape Town: Botanical Society, South Africa. [ Links ]

    Snyman, H.A., 1998. Dynamics and sustainable utilization of the rangeland ecosystem in arid and semi-arid climates of southern Africa. J. Arid Environ. 39, 645-666. [ Links ]

    Snyman, H.A., 1999. Short-term effects of soil water, defoliation and rangeland condition on productivity of a semi-arid rangeland in South Africa. J. Arid Environ. 43, 47-62. [ Links ]

    Soil Classification Working Group, 1991. Soil Classification: A Taxonomic System for South Africa. Department of Agriculture Development, Pretoria, South Africa, pp. 262. [ Links ]

    Sparrow, A.J., Friedel, M.H. & Tongway, D.J., 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 3: implications at landscape scale. J. Arid Environ. 55, 349-360. [ Links ]

    Teague, W.R. & Dowhower, S.L., 2003. Patch dynamics under rotational and continuous grazing management in large, heterogeneous paddocks. J. Arid Environ. 53, 211-229. [ Links ]

    Thurow, T.L., Blackburn, W.H. & Taylor, C.A., 1988. Some vegetation responses to selected livestock grazing strategies. J. Range Mgmt. 41, 108-114. [ Links ]

    Tongway, D.J., Sparrow, A.D. & Friedel, M.H., 2003. Degradation and recovery processes in arid grazing lands of central Australia. Part 1: Soil and land resources. J. Arid Environ. 55, 301-326. [ Links ]

    Trollope, W.S.W., Trollope, L.A. & Bosch, O.J.H., 1990. Veld and pasture management terminology in Southern Africa. J. Grassld. Soc. South. Afr. 7, 52-61. [ Links ]

    Van der Westhuizen, F.G.F., 1980. Invloed van snoei op fotosintese, reserwestatus en droëmateriaalproduksie van Ehrharta calcycina en Osteospermum sinuatum. PhD thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. [ Links ]

    Van Rensburg, H.J., 1939. A further contribution to the ecology of the highveld grassland at Frankenwald. S. Afr. J. Sci. 36, 238-245. [ Links ]

    Van Rooyen, A.F., 1998. Combating desertification in the southern Kalahari: connecting science with community actions in South Africa. J. Arid Environ. 39, 285-297. [ Links ]

    Vetter, S., 2009. Drought, change and resilience in South Africa's arid and semi-arid rangelands. S. Afr. J. Sci. 105, 29-34. [ Links ]

    Wiegand, T., Jeltshc, F., Bauer, S. & Kellner, K., 1998. Simulation models for semi-arid rangelands of southern Africa. Afr. J. Range For. Sci. 15, 48-60. [ Links ]

    Wood, K., Rubio, H. & Wood, C., 2008. Rangeland Management and Hydrology. Proc. XXI Int. Grassld. Cong. and VII Int. Rangeld. Cong., Hohhot, China 1, 809-812. [ Links ]