SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

BRAND, Z.; CLOETE, S.W.P.; MALECKI, I.A.  and  BROWN, C.R.. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ability and survival of ostrich chicks. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2011, vol.41, n.3, pp. 265-274. ISSN 0375-1589.

    Ar, A., 1996. Requirements for successful artificial incubation of ostrich eggs. In: Improving Our Understanding of Ratites in Farming Environment. Ed. Deeming, D.C., Proc. Int. Conf., Manchester, England. pp. 131-144. [ Links ]

    Ar, A. & Gefen, E., 1998. Further improving hatchability in artificial incubation of ostrich eggs. In: Ratites in a Competitive World. Proc. 2nd Int. Ratite Cong., Oudtshoorn, South Africa. pp. 141-147. [ Links ]

    Badley, A.R., 1997. Fertility, hatchability and incubation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs. Poult. Avian Biol. Rev. 8, 53-76. [ Links ]

    Blood, J.R., Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Cloete, S.W.P. & Brand, Z., 1998. Embryonic deaths in relation to water loss of artificially incubated ostrich eggs. Proc. 2nd Int. Ratite Cong., Oudtshoorn, South Africa. pp. 148-151. [ Links ]

    Brand, M.M., Cloete, S.W.P., Hoffman, L.C. & Muller, M., 2005. A comparison of live weights, body measurements and reproductive traits in Zimbabwean Blue ostriches (Struthio camelus australis) and South African Black ostriches (S. camelus var. domesticus). Ed. Carbajo, E., Proc. 3rd Int. Ratite Sci. Sym. & XII Wrld Ostrich Cong., Madrid, Spain. pp. 73-80. [ Links ]

    Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P., Brown, C.R. & Malecki, I.A., 2007. Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 78, 195-200. [ Links ]

    Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P., Brown, C.R. & Malecki, I.A., 2008a. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 38, 315-325. [ Links ]

    Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P., Malecki, I.A. & Brown, C.R., 2008b. Genetic relationships between water loss and shell deaths in ostrich eggs, assessed as traits of the female. Aust. J. Exp. Agric, 48, 1326-1331. [ Links ]

    Brown, C.R., Peinke, D. & Loveridge, A., 1996. Mortality in near-term ostrich embryos during artificial incubation. Br. Poult. Sci. 37, 73-85. [ Links ]

    Bunter, K.L., 2002. The genetic analysis of reproduction and production traits recorded for farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus). PhD dissertation, University New England, Armidale, Australia. [ Links ]

    Bunter, K.L. & Cloete, S.W.P., 2004. Genetic parameters for egg-, chick- and live-weight traits recorded in farmed ostriches (Struthio camelus). Livest. Prod. Sci. 91, 9-22. [ Links ]

    Chowdhury, M.M.I., Ashraf, A., Mondal, S.P., Mondal, N.M.A.A.M. & Hasan, M.M., 2004. Effect of season on the hatchability of duck eggs. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 3, 419-421. [ Links ]

    Cloete, S.W.P., Lambrecht, H., Punt, K. & Brand, Z., 2001. Factors related to high levels of ostrich chick mortality from hatching to 90 days of age in an intensive rearing system. J. S. Afr. Vet. Ass. 72, 197-202. [ Links ]

    Cloete, S.W.P., Bunter, K.L. & Van Schalkwyk, S.J., 2002. Progress towards a scientific breeding strategy for ostriches. Proc. 7th Wrld. Cong. Montpellier, France. Genet. Appl. Livest. Prod. 30, 561-568. [ Links ]

    Cloete, S.W.P., Bunter, K., Lambrechts, H., Brand, Z., Swart, D. & Greyling, J.P.C., 2006a. Variance components for live weight, body measurements and reproductive traits of pair-mated ostrich females. Br. Poult. Sci. 47, 147-158. [ Links ]

    Cloete, S.W.P., Scholtz, A., Brand, Z. & Cloete, S.W.P., 2006b. A preliminary study on the application of image analysis for the measurement of ostrich eggshell traits. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 36, 155-159. [ Links ]

    Davis, T.A., Shen, S.S. & Ackerman, R.A., 1988. Embryonic osmoregulation: consequences of high and low water loss during incubation of the chicken egg. J. Exper. Zool. 245, 144-156. [ Links ]

    Deeming, D.C., 1994. When to help ostrich chicks to hatch. The Ostrich News. July 1994. pp. 60-61. [ Links ]

    Deeming, D.C., 1995a. Factors affecting hatchability during commercial incubation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs. Br. Poult. Sci.36, 51-65. [ Links ]

    Deeming, D.C., 1995b. The hatching sequence of Ostrich (Struthio camelus) embryos with notes on development as observed by candling. Br. Poult. Sci. 36, 67-78. [ Links ]

    Deeming, D.C., 1996. Production, fertility and hatchability of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs on a farm in the United Kingdom. Anim. Sci. 63, 329-336. [ Links ]

    Deeming, D.C., Ayres, L. & Ayres, F.J., 1993. Observations on the first commercial production of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs in the UK: Incubation. The Vet. Rec., 132, 602-607. [ Links ]

    Fasenko, G.M., 2007. Egg Storage and the embryo. Poult. Sci. 86, 1020-1024. [ Links ]

    Fasenko, G.M., Robinson, F.E., Hardin, R.T. & Wilson, J.L., 1992. Effect of duration of egg storage period. Poult. Sci. 72, 2129-2132. [ Links ]

    Hassan, S.M., Siam, A.A., Mady, M.E. & Cartwright, A.L., 2005. Eggs storage period and weight effects on hatchability of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs. Poult. Sci. 84, 1908-1912. [ Links ]

    Horbanczuk, J.O., 2000. Improving the technology of artificial incubation of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs with reference to biological aspects. Prace i Materialy Zootechniczne, Zeszyl Specjalny. 10, 1-90,102. [ Links ]

    Horbanczuk, J.O., Sales, J., Celeda, T. & Zieba, G., 1999. Effect of relative humidity on the hatchability of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 44, 303-307. [ Links ]

    Ipek, A. & Sahan, U., 2004. Effect of breeder age and breeding season on egg production and incubation in farmed ostriches. Br. Poult. Sci. 45, 643-647. [ Links ]

    Lambrechts, H., 2004. Reproductive efficiency of ostriches (Struthio camelus). PhD (Agric.) dissertation, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. [ Links ]

    Meijerhof, R., 1992. Pre-incubation holing of hatchling eggs. Wrld Poult. Sci. J. 48, 57-68. [ Links ]

    Malecki, I.A., Horbanczuk, J.O., Reed, C.E. & Martin, G.B., 2005. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) blastoderm and embryo development following storage of eggs at various temperatures. Br. Poult. Sci. 46, 652-660. [ Links ]

    Musara, C., Chidhumo, P. & Murinzi, N., 1999. A retrospective analysis of water balance and hatchability in artificially incubated ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs. Zim. Vet. J. 30, 75-84. [ Links ]

    Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Cloete, S.W.P. & De Kock, J.A., 1996. Repeatability and phenotypic correlation for body weight and reproduction in commercial ostrich breeding pairs. Br. Poult. Sci. 37, 953-962. [ Links ]

    Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P. & Blood, J.R., 1998. The influence of different disinfectant protocols on the hatching performance of ostrich chicks. In: Ratites in a Competitive World. Proc. 2nd Int. Ratite Cong., Oudtshoorn, South Africa. pp. 157-159. [ Links ]

    Van Schalkwyk, S.J., Brand, Z., Cloete, S.W.P. & Brown, C.R., 1999. Effect of time of egg collection and pre-incubation treatment on blastoderm development and embryonic mortality in ostrich embryos. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 29, 154-163. [ Links ]

    Van Ark, H., 1990. Freq.exe - For the comparison of frequencies. Datametrical Services, Department of Agriculture, Private Bag X116, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa. [ Links ]

    Wilson, H.R., Eldred, A.R. & Wilcox, C.J., 1997. Storage time and ostrich egg hatchability. Appl. Poult. Sci. 6, 216-220. [ Links ]