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SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

BANK, Andrew. Crafting a story about an African interpreter on colonial South Africa's eastern frontier: Roger Levine's narrative of the life of Jan Tzatzoe. Kronos [online]. 2010, vol.36, n.1, pp. 278-288. ISSN 0259-0190.

    1 For evidence of her fear of public speaking in her mature years, see M.E. West, 'Monica Hunter Wilson: A Memoir', Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 45(2), Aug. 1984, 208 and for an account of her 'awfully bad stage fright' during student days in Cambridge, [ Links ]

    see A. Bank, 'The Making of A Woman Anthropologist: Monica Hunter at Girton College, Cambridge, 1927-1930', African Studies, 68(1), April 2009, 44. [ Links ]


    2 M. Wilson, The Interpreters (Grahamstown: 1820 Settlers National Monument Foundation, 1972), 26 pp. [ Links ]


    4 D. Hammond-Tooke, Imperfect Interpreters: South Africa's Anthropologists, 1920-1990 (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1997; 2nd edition 2001). [ Links ]


    6 See A. Bank, 'Liberal and their Enemies: Racial Ideology at the Cape of Good Hope, 1820-1850' (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, 1995) on humanitarian liberalism at the Cape and in Britain in the early to mid-nineteenth century, [ Links ]

    see R. Ross, 'Donald Moodie and the Origins of South African Historiography' in Ross, Beyond the Pale: Essays on the History of Colonial South Africa (Hanover and London: Wesleyan University Press, 1993), 201-4 for analysis of the Select Committee and its ideological orientation. [ Links ]


    8 On Sara Baartman and the abolitionist debates of the 1810s, see C. Crais & P. Scully, Sara Baartman and the Hottentot Venus: A Ghost Story and a Biography (Princeton and Johannesburg: Princeton University Press and Wits University Press, 2009); [ Links ]

    on Olaudah Equiano and the abolitionist movement of the 1780s and 1790s, including the debate over Equiano's invention of an African identity, see especially V. Carretta, Equiano the African: Biography of A Self-Made Man (Athens, Georgia and London: University of Georgia Press, 2005). [ Links ]


    12 For details on the translation projects undertaken by Tzatzoe, Brownlee and Kayser, and the possibility of their having created the first African gospel, see R.S. Levine, 'Cultural Innovation and Translation in the Eastern Cape: Jan Tzatzoe, Xhosa Intellectual, and the Making of an African Gospel, 1817-1833', African Historical Review, 42(2), 2010. [ Links ]

    For work on translation in African history, see especially W. Worger, 'Parsing God: Conversations about the Meaning of Words and Metaphors in Nineteenth-Century South Africa', Journal of African History, 42 (2001), 41; [ Links ]

    P. Landau, '"Religion" and Christian Conversion in African History: A New Model', Journal of Religious History, 23, 1999, 8-30; [ Links ]

    Derek Peterson, 'Translating the Word: Dialogism and Debate in Two Gikuyu Dictionaries', Journal of Religious History, 23, 1999, 31-50. [ Links ]

    On translation in a South African context, see I. Hofmeyr, The Portable Bunyan: A Transnational History of The Pilgrim's Progress (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2004) and R. [ Links ]

    Gilmour, Grammars of Colonialism: Representing Languages in Colonial South Africa (New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006). [ Links ]


    13 D.R. Peterson, Creative Writing: Translation, Bookkeeping, and the Work of the Imagination in Colonial Kenya (Portsmouth,New Haven: Heinemann, 2004). [ Links ]


    15 L. Schumaker, Africanizing Anthropology: Fieldwork, Networks, and the M aking of Cultural Knowledge in Central Africa (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2001), 11, 14-15. [ Links ]


    16 See N.J. Jacobs, 'Servants to Science: African Assistants in Twentieth Century Ornithology' (Seminar paper presented to the Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town, 2005). [ Links ]


    17 R.S. Levine, 'An Interpreter will Arise: Resurrecting Jan Tatzoe's diplomatic and evangelical contributions as a cultural intermediary on South Africa's eastern Cape frontier, 1816-1818' in B.N. Lawrance, E.L. Osborn and R.L. Roberts, eds., Intermediaries, Interpreters and Clerks: African Employees in the Making of Colonial Africa (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 37-55. [ Links ]


    18 For a rare exploration of a female 'cultural broker' in southern African historiography, see V.C. Malherbe, Krotoa or Eva: a woman between (Cape Town: Centre for African Studies, 1993). [ Links ]


    19 R. Ross, 'Hermanus Matroos, aka Ngxukumeshe: a life on the border' in A. Bank and L. Bank, eds., 'Special Issue: Eastern Cape', Kronos: Journal of Cape History, vol. 30, Nov. 2004, 69. [ Links ]

    For a dynamic new literature on the prolific literary activities and output of Zulu converts from Bishop William Colenso's Ekukhanyeni ('Place of Light') mission station near Pietermaritzburg, see V. Khumalo, 'Ekhukhanyeni Letter-Writers: A Historical Inquiry into Epistolary Network(s) and Political Imagination in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa' in K. Barber, ed., Africa's Hidden Histories, 113-42; [ Links ]

    H. Mokoena, 'An Assembly of Readers: Magema Fuze and his Ilanga lase Natal Readers', Journal of Southern African Studies , vol.35(3), Sept. 2009, 595-608; [ Links ]

    H. Mokoena, 'The Making of a Kholwa Intellectual: A Discursive Biography of Magema Magwaza Fuze' (D.Phil., Dept of Political Studies, University of Cape Town, 2005). [ Links ]


    21 C.S. Rassool, 'The Individual, Auto/Biography and History in South Africa' (D.Phil., Department of History, University of the Western Cape, 2004). [ Links ]


    23 See A. Bank, 'Liberal and their Enemies: Racial Ideology at the Cape of Good Hope, 1820-1850' (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, 1995) on the 'white consensus' that emerged during the 1840s and 1850s. [ Links ]

    For a fuller exploration of this racial order which includes the Orange Free State as well as the Western and Eastern Cape, and racial practice along with racial ideology, see T. Keegan, Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order (Cape Town and Ohio: David Philip and Ohio University Press, 1996). [ Links ]


    26 R.S. Levine, '"Savage-born but new created": Jan Tzatzoe, Xhosa chief and Missionary in Britain, 1836-1838', Kronos, 33, Nov. 2007, 112. [ Links ]