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Article References

THOTSE, Mahunele. Contesting names and statues: battles over the Louis Trichardt/Makhado 'city-text' in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Kronos (Bellville) [online]. 2010, vol.36, n.1, pp. 173-183. ISSN 0259-0190.


    2 For a selection of recent studies on this issue in Europe and the United States, see J. Duncan and N. Duncan, '(Re)reading the landscape', Environment and Planning D, Society and Space, 6(2), 1988, 117-126; [ Links ]

    G. Gean, 'Remembering Ancestors: Commemorative rituals and the foundation of historicity', History and Anthropology, 16(3), 349-361; [ Links ]

    T.B. Gongaware, 'Collective memories and collective identities: Maintaining unity in Native American social movements', Journal of Contemporary Ethnology, 32(5), Oct. 2003, 483-520; [ Links ]

    B. Schwartz, 'The social context of commemoration: A study in collective memory', Social Forces 61(2), Dec. 1982, 374-402; [ Links ]

    J.V. Wertsch and H.L. Roediger III, 'Collective memory: Conceptual foundations and theoretical approaches', Memory 16(3), Feb. 2008, 318-326; [ Links ]

    T. Ensink and C. Sauer, 'Political Communication as tightrope walking: The German president Roman Herzog's commemorative address in Warsaw, August 1, 1994', Politics, Groups and the Individual 5(2), 1995, 37-50; [ Links ]

    D.H. Alderman, 'Street names and the scaling of memory: The politics of commemorating Martin Luther King, Jr. within the African American Community', Area, 35(2). June 2003, 163177; [ Links ]

    E. Palonen, 'The city-text in post-communist Budapest: Street names, memorials and the politics of commemoration', Geo-Journal, Sep. 2008. [ Links ]


    3 For a selection such studies in post-apartheid South Africa, see J. Grobler, 'The Impact of Politics on Heritage and Cultural Tourism in South Africa', South African Journal of Cultural History, 22(1), June 2008; [ Links ]

    A. Grundlingh, 'A cultural conundrum? Old Monuments and new regimes: The Voortrekker monument as symbol of Afrikaner power in a post-apartheid South Africa', Radical History Review 81, 2001, 94-112; [ Links ]

    S. Marshall, 'Gestures of compensation: Post-apartheid monuments and memorials', Transformation 55, 2004, 78-95; [ Links ]

    Marshall, 'Forging national identity: Institutionalising foundation myths through monuments', South African Journal of Cultural History 19(1), June 2005; [ Links ]

    H. Deacon, 'Remembering tragedy, constructing modernity: Robben Island as a national monument' in S. Nuttall and C. Coetzee, eds., Negotiating the Past: The Making of Memory in South Africa (Cape Town: David Philip, 1998), 161-179; [ Links ]

    P. Davison, 'Museums and the reshaping of memory', in Nuttall and Coetzee, eds., Negotiating the Past; [ Links ]

    J. Grobler, 'The impact of politics on heritage and cultural tourism in South Africa', South African Journal of Cultural History, 22(1), June 2008; [ Links ]

    L. Witz, C. Rassool and G. Minkley, 'Repackaging the Past for South African Tourism', Daedalus, 130(1), 2001, 277-296. [ Links ]


    4 The concept of the 'city-text', which in the context of this article refers to both the names and statues in relation to space and scale, has been adopted from E. Palonen, 'The City-text in Post-communist Budapest: Street Names, Memorials and the Politics of Commemoration', GeoJournal, Sep. 2008. [ Links ]


    6 'Khosikhulu Makhado of the Venda', Maphungubwe News - The Official Newsletter of the Department of Sports, Arts & Culture, Limpopo Provincial Government, Heritage Month Souvenir Edition, 2008, pp. 7-8; [ Links ]

    For the clashes also see Boeyens, J.C.A. 1994. "Black Ivory": The Indenture System and Slavery in Zoutpansberg, 1848-1869. In Slavery in South Africa: Captive Labor on the Dutch Frontier, edited by E. Eldredge and F. Morton, 187-214. Boulder, pp.199-205. [ Links ]


    8 'Battle of Makhado back in court: South Africa', News24, 18 Jan. 2006. [ Links ]


    9 'Boer(s)' is a Dutch word for farmer(s), which came to denote the descendants of the proto Afrikaans-speaking pastoralists of the eastern Cape frontier in South Africa during the 18th century as well as those who left the Cape Colony during the 19th century to settle in the Boer Republics of the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. Like the term Afrikaner, it needs to be discussed in the historical contexts in which it is being used and there is an extensive literature on the dangers of mythologised and ahistorical uses of such terms. See for example L. Thompson, The Political Mythology of Apartheid (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1985). [ Links ]


    10 For an official and popular account, see 'Khosikhulu Makhado of the Venda', Maphungubwe News - The Official Newsletter of the Department of Sports, Arts & Culture, Limpopo Provincial Government, Heritage Month Souvenir Edition, 2008, 7-8. [ Links ]


    13 S. Sama Yende, 'New Name Slammed as "Tribalism"', News24, 25 Sept. 2005; [ Links ]

    'Name change despite ethnic spat', News24, 17 Dec. 2005. [ Links ]


    14 See also 'Battle of Makhado back in court: South Africa', News24, 18 Jan. 2006. [ Links ]


    15 S. Sama Yende, 'New skirmish in renaming war', News24, 13 Sep. 2005; [ Links ]

    SamaYende, 'New Name Slammed as "Tribalism"', News24, 25 Sept. 2005; [ Links ]

    'Louis Trichardt fights new name', News24, 19 Aug. 2005. [ Links ]


    16 See I. Chipkin, 'Recalling 1910: A Bridge Too Far', Focus, 57, May 2010, 23. [ Links ]


    22 This account of the painting draws on the report by A. van Zyl, 'Makhado statue "shamed" by vandals', Zoutpansberger, 18 Sept. 2005. [ Links ]


    23 N. Gabara, 'Vandals spark racial tension', Zoutpansberger, 16 Sept. 2005. [ Links ]


    26 A.L. Burk, 'In Sight, Out of View: A Tale of Three Monuments', Antipode, 2006, 41-58; [ Links ]

    N. Johnson, 'Mapping Monuments and the Shaping of Public Space and Cultural Identities', Visual Communications, 1(3), 2002, 293-298; [ Links ]

    K. Mitchell, 'Monuments, Memorials and the Politics of Memory', Urban Geography, 24(5), 2003, 442-459. [ Links ]


    27 D.H. Alderman, 'Creating a New Geography of Memory in the South: (Re)naming Streets in Honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.', Southeastern Geographer, 6, 51-69. [ Links ]


    28 M. Schudson, 'The Present in the Past versus the Past in the Present', Communication II, 1989, 105-113. [ Links ]


    29 R. Howitt, 'Scale as Relation: Musical Metaphors of Geographical Scale', Area, 30, 1998, 49-58 [ Links ]


    30 M. Azaryahu, 'The Power of Commemorative Street Names', Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 14, 1996, 311-330. [ Links ]


    33 P. Stachel, 'Signs and the City: Meaning and Function of "Heroes Squares" in Central and Eastern Europe' in S. Wahnich, B. Láštocová and A. Findor, eds., Politics of Collective Memory: Cultural Patterns of Commemorative Practices in Post-War Europe (2008), 69. [ Links ]