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Article References

MOOSAGE, Riedwaan. A prose of ambivalence: liberation struggle discourse on necklacing. Kronos [online]. 2010, vol.36, n.1, pp.136-157. ISSN 2309-9585.

    2 T. Mbeki, 'Oliver Tambo Remembered', ANC Today, 7(43), 2-8 November 2001. [ Links ]

    7 S. Mufson, Fighting Years: Black Resistance and the Struggle for a New South Africa (Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 1990), 97. [ Links ]

    9 Scholarly work dealing specifically with the practice of necklacing is sparse. The most detailed discussions feature in J. Ball, 'The Ritual of the Necklace'; N. Nomoyi and W. Schurink, 'Ukunxityiswa kwempimpi itayari njengotshaba lomzabakaza: An exploratory study of insider accounts of necklacing in three Port Elizabeth townships'in E. Bornman, Y. Muthien, R. van Eeden and M. Wentzel, eds, Violence in South Africa: A Variety of Perspectives (Pretoria: HSRC Press, 1998); [ Links ]

    P. Gobodo-Madikizela, 'Legacies of Violence: An In-Depth Analysis of Two Case Studies based on Interviews with Perpetrators of a "Necklace" Murder and with Eugene de Kock' (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Cape Town, 1999) and L. [ Links ]

    Praeg, The Geometry of Violence (Stellenbosch: Sun Press, 2007). [ Links ]

    Elsewhere the practice of necklacing is not the main focus of enquiry but forms part of the larger research undertaken and therefore warrants the attention of scholars. See for example B. Bozzoli, Theatres of Struggle and the End of Apartheid (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004). [ Links ]

    11 R. Guha, 'The Prose of Counter-Insurgency', Subaltern Studies: Volume 11 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 46-47. [ Links ]

    12 G. Mbeki, South Africa: The Peasants' Revolt (Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books, 1964). [ Links ]

    13 See M. Swilling and M. Phillips, 'State Power in the 1980's: From "Total Strategy" to "Counter-revolutionary Warfare"' in J. Cock and L. Nathan, eds, War and Society: The Militarisation of South Africa (Cape Town: David Philip, 1989). [ Links ]

    14 See The Green Book - Report of the Politico-Military Strategy Commission to the ANC National Executive Committee, August 1979. [ Links ]

    15 H. Barrell, 'Conscripts of their Age: African National Congress Operational Strategy, 1976-1986' (PhD thesis, Oxford University, 1993), 207-260. [ Links ]

    See also M. Legassick, 'Armed Struggle in South Africa: Consequences of a Strategy Debate', Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 21(2), 2003, 285-302. [ Links ]

    16 See Statement of January 8 1984: President's Message for 1984. [ Links ]

    17 See T. Lodge and B. Nasson, All, Here, and Now: Black Politics in South Africa in the 1980s (Cape Town: David Philip, 1991); [ Links ]

    J. Seekings, The UDF: A History of the United Democratic Front in South Africa, 1983-1991 (Cape Town: David Philip, 2000) amongst others for detailed reviews of the UDF. [ Links ]

    18 See, for example, D. Webster, 'Repression and the State of Emergency' in G. Moss and I. Obery, eds, South African Review 4 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1987), 141-172. [ Links ]

    See also Truth and Reconciliation Commission Reports, Vol. 2 (Cape Town: Juta, 1998), 134-144. [ Links ]

    21 H. Barrell, 'ANC Conference: "All for the Front"', Work in Progress, 38, Aug. 1985, 13. [ Links ]

    23 Negative publicity was a particular concern with the impending visit of the Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group in the first half of 1986. See T. Lodge, 'People's War or Negotiation? African National Congress Strategies in the 1980s' in G. Moss and I. Obery, eds, South African Review 5 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989), 45-46. [ Links ]

    28 See R.L. Abel, Politics by Other Means: Law in the Struggle Against Apartheid, 1980-1994 (New York: Routledge, 1995), 323. [ Links ]

    30 See A. Mphaki, 'Violence Justified - UDF', Sowetan Sunday Mirror, 7 April 1985. [ Links ]

    See K. Jochelson, 'Local Authorities on their Knees', Work in Progress, 4, Sept.-Oct. 1986 for a discussion on the rise of rent boycotts beginning in September 1984 and the complicity of community councillors. [ Links ]

    32 'Informers not harmed, says UDF', Cape Times, 25 March 1986. [ Links ]

    34 See, amongst other reports, '200 mourn man killed after UDF rally', Cape Times, 27 May 1986. [ Links ]

    35 'UDF: See death "in context"', Cape Times, 28 May 1986. [ Links ]

    36 OR85-12aGreat Britain. House of Commons, Foreign Affairs Committee, Session 1984-85. The Situation in South Africa, Minutes of Evidence, Tuesday 29 October 1985 (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1985). [ Links ]

    37 Cited in Talking with the ANC... (Johannesburg: Bureau of Information, 1986), 26-27. [ Links ]

    Note these statements were also cited and acknowledged as having been stated in the ANC's submission to the TRC. See 'Truth and Reconciliation Commission - Transcript of the African National Congress Party Political Recall in Cape Town - 12 and 13 May 1997. Day 1 - 12 May 1997.' [ Links ]

    38 The first issue of Sechaba came out in 1967. It was an ANC journal 'to be distributed internationally, a journal that would be the voice of the ANC, that would put forward our [ANC] policies and rally support for the liberation struggle of the people of South Africa ... The chief task of Sechaba has been to publicise and analyse the situation with the country, and to make public the policy of the ANC.' See 'Twenty Years of Sechaba Journal of the ANC', Sechaba, May 1987, 27. [ Links ]

    39 C. Mandla, 'The Moment of Revolution is now - or never in our lifetime', Sechaba, Nov. 1985, 26. [ Links ]

    41 'ANC leaders condemn necklace deaths', Weekly Mail, 5 Sept. 1986. [ Links ]

    43 'ANC leaders condemn necklace deaths', Weekly Mail, 5 Sept. 1986. [ Links ]

    46 It was alleged that in September 1987, Winnie Mandela had advocated taking the struggle by way of violence to the white suburbs of Pretoria. See T. Stirling, 'SA "anticipated" ANC position on Winnie Mandela', The Citizen, 11 Oct. 1987. [ Links ]

    47 See 'Stop necklacing, recognize all anti-apartheid bodies', Cape Times, 1 Oct. 1987 and 'Ire of necklace statement: ANC shows disapproval of Winnie', [ Links ]

    The Star, 1 Oct. 1987. [ Links ]

    48 See 'ANC says: "Stop the Necklace"', Weekly Mail, 2 Oct. 1987in ANC News Briefing, 11(39), 5 Oct. 1987. [ Links ]

    49 'Stop necklacing, recognize all anti-apartheid bodies', Cape Times, 1 Oct. 1987. [ Links ]

    50 See Z. Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991), 1. [ Links ]

    51 Chris Hani, '25 years of armed struggle', Sechaba, Dec. 1986, 14-15. [ Links ]

    53 See A. Mashinini, 'Preparing the Fire Before Cooking the Rice Inside the Pot: Some Burning Questions of our Revolution', Sechaba, April 1985, 21. [ Links ]

    See also C. Bundy, 'Around Which Corner?: Revolutionary Theory and Contemporary South Africa', Transformation, 8, 1989, 1-23. [ Links ]

    57 Howard Barrell, however, points out that 'the lack of co-ordination between the ANC's political, military and security structures seriously compromised the development of these attacks'. See H. Barrell, MK: The ANC's armed wing (London: Penguin Books, 1990), 57. [ Links ]

    58 See for example M. Marks, Young Warriors: Youth Politics, Identity and Violence in South Africa (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 2001) and G. [ Links ]

    Straker, Faces in the Revolution: The Psychological Effects of Violence on Township Youth in South Africa (Cape Town: David Philip, 1992). [ Links ]

    67 See J. Seekings, 'People's Courts and Popular Politics'in G. Moss and I. Obery, eds, South African Review 5 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1989), 119. [ Links ]

    See also, 'Comrades of the Crooked Court', Probe, Nov. 1985 and, [ Links ]

    'UDF Leader Condemns "Kangaroo Courts"', Herald, 31 Oct. 1985. [ Links ]

    72 N.C. Gibson, Fanon: The Postcolonial Imagination (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2003), 111. [ Links ]

    74 F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, trans. by C. Farrington (New York: Grove Press, 1968), 59. [ Links ]

    76 See for example S. Jama, 'A Discussion Article: Questions of Justice and War', Sechaba, Jan. 1985, 18. [ Links ]

    80 T. Lodge, Black Politics in South Africa since 1945 (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1987), 290 [ Links ]

    81 For detailed analyses of the Mpondoland and Zeerust (1957-1959) revolts, see amongst others, Lodge, Black Politics in South Africa since 1945; S. Zondi, 'Peasant struggles of the 1950's: gaMatlala and Zeerust', The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Vol. 1 (1960-1970), South African Democracy Education Trust (Cape Town: Zebra Press, 2004); [ Links ]

    S. Matoti and L. Ntsebeza, 'Rural Resistance in Mpondoland and Thembuland, 1960-1963', The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Vol. 1 (1960-1970), South African Democracy Education Trust (Cape Town: Zebra Press, 2004). [ Links ]

    85 See also T. Lodge, 'Charters from the Past: The African National Congress and its Historiographical Traditions', Radical History Review, 46(7), 1990, 172. [ Links ]

    89 S.E. Couper, '"An Embarrassment to the Congresses?": The Silencing of Chief Albert Luthuli and the Production of ANC History', Journal of Southern African Studies, 35(2), June 2009, 347. [ Links ]