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Article References

KOORTS, Lindie. An ageing anachronism: D.F. Malan as prime minister, 1948-1954. Kronos [online]. 2010, vol.36, n.1, pp. 108-165. ISSN 0259-0190.

    1 For an account of Malan's private life, which belies the stern facade, see L. Korf, 'Behind Every Man: D.F. Malan and the Women in his Life, 1874-1959', South African Historical Journal, 60(3), Sept. 2008. [ Links ]


    2 R. Morrell, Changing Men in South Africa (Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press, 2001), 17. [ Links ]


    3 H.B. Thom, D.F. Malan, (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1980). [ Links ]


    5 Thom, D.F. Malan, 18-22; L. Korf, 'D.F. Malan: A Political Biography' (D.Phil thesis, University of Stellenbosch, 2010), 197-203, 350-355. [ Links ]


    8 See the five volumes O. Geyser and A.H. Marais, eds., Die Nasionale Party Deel I: Agtergrond, Stigting en Konsolidasie (Pretoria: Academica, 1975); [ Links ]

    J.H. le Roux and P.W. Coetzer, Die Nasionale Party, Deel 2: Die Eerste Bewindsjare, 19241934:I (Bloemfontein: Instituut vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 1980); [ Links ]

    le Roux and Coetzer, Die Nasionale Party, Deel 2: Die Eerste Bewindsjare, 1924-1934:II (Bloemfontein: Instituut vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 1980); [ Links ]

    Coetzer and Le Roux, Die Nasionale Party Deel 4: Die 'Gesuiwerde' Nasionale Party, 1934-1940 (Bloemfontein: Instituut vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 1986); [ Links ]

    Coetzer, Die Nasionale Party, Deel 5: Van Oorlog tot Oorwinning, 1940-1948 (Bloemfontein: Instituut vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, 1986). [ Links ]

    The same trend was followed by the Institute's two-volume biography of JBM Hertzog, le Roux, Coetzer and Marais, eds., Generaal J.B.M. Hertzog: Sy Strewe en Stryd (Johannesburg: Perskor, 1987) which overlaps with the volumes that trace the history of the National Party. [ Links ]


    9 B. Schoeman, My Lewe in die Politiek (Johannesburg: Perskor-Uitgewery, 1978). [ Links ]


    10 P. Meiring, Ons Eerste Ses Premiers: 'n Persoonlike Terugblik (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1972). [ Links ]


    11 S. Pienaar, Getuie van Groot Tye (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1979). [ Links ]


    12 A. Ries and E. Dommisse, Broedertwis: Die Verhaal van die 1982-Skeuring van die Nasionale Party (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1982). [ Links ]


    13 T.D. Moodie, The Rise of Afrikanerdom: Power, Apartheid, and the Afrikaner Civil Religion (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975). [ Links ]


    14 See for example H. Giliomee, The Afrikaners: Biography of a People (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 2003), [ Links ]


    15 See for example the seminal article A. du Toit, 'No Chosen People: The Myth of the Calvinist Origins of Afrikaner Nationalism and Racial Ideology', American Historical Review, 88(4), Oct. 1983. [ Links ]


    16 A.M. Grundlingh, The Dynamics of Treason: Boer Collaboration in the South African War, 1899-1902 (Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis, 2006). [ Links ]


    17 A.M. Grundlingh and S. Swart, Radelose Rebellie? Dinamika van die 1914-1915 Afrikanerrebellie (Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis, 2009). [ Links ]


    18 S. Dubow, A Commonwealth of Knowledge: Science, Sensibility and White South Africa, 1820-2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). [ Links ]


    19 See D. Posel, The Making of Apartheid, 1948-1961: Conflict and Compromise (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991); [ Links ]

    D. Posel, 'The Meaning of Apartheid Before 1948: Conflicting Interests and Forces within the Afrikaner Nationalist Alliance', Journal of Southern African Studies, 14(1), Oct. 1987. [ Links ]


    20 See W.K. Hancock, Smuts II, The Fields of Force, 1919-1950 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1942), 443-91. [ Links ]


    21 University of Stellenbosch, J.S. Gericke Library, Document centre, D.F. Malan Collection (hereafter DFM), 1/1/2967, D.F. Malan, 'Gradedag Stellenbosch', 11 December 1953. [ Links ]


    22 DFM, 1/1/2885, D.F. Malan, 'Toespraak, Stellenbsoch', 5 March 1953. [ Links ]


    23 DFM, 1/1/2409, D.F. Malan, 'Radio Toespraak', 4 June 1948. [ Links ]


    24 See Coetzer and le Roux, Die 'Gesuiwerde' Nasionale Party, 1934-1940, 9-23. [ Links ]


    28 Schoeman, My Lewe in die Politiek, 147-8, 168-9; Thom, D.F. Malan (Cape Town: Tafelberg, 1980), 222; [ Links ]

    Meiring, Ons Eerste Ses Premiers, 97. It is interesting to compare Ben Schoeman's description of Malan and Havenga's partnership to Tommy Boydell's description of the partnership between Hertzog and Havenga: both accounts describe Havenga as the most powerful voice in cabinet, after the Prime Minister, and both accounts state that the Prime Minister would turn to him for an answer when requests for funding were made. See T. Boydell, My Luck was in (Cape Town: Stewart Publishers, 1947), 212-213. [ Links ]


    34 Coetzer and le Roux, Die Nasionale Party Deel 4: Die 'Gesuiwerde' Nasionale Party, 1934-1940, 71-3. [ Links ]


    35 Hansard, 31 May 1950, Cols. 7938-7946. [ Links ]


    36 The infamous Sauer Report, which attempted to formulate the NP's racial policy, followed on an earlier commission of enquiry, led by Paul Sauer in 1944 and 1945, which investigated the position of the Coloured population in the Western Cape. This report acknowledged that there were so-called 'borderline' cases which made it difficult to determine whether or not a person was Coloured, and recommended that a standard for classification be created. See DFM, 1/1/2211, 'Verslag van die Kommissie aangestel deur die HNP van Kaapland insake beleid van die Nasionale Party teenoor die Kleurlinge', [1945], 2-3. [ Links ]


    38 University of Stellenbosch, J.S. Gericke Library, Document centre (hereafter US Library), P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.172, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 24 October 1953. [ Links ]


    39 Cape Archives Depot (hereafter CAD), A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 5, Diary: 12 January 1950. [ Links ]


    40 K.J. de Beer, 'Dr. D.F. Malan as Minister van Buitelandse Sake' (M.A. Thesis, University of the Free State, 1977), 160-7. [ Links ]


    41 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.125, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 8 March 1953. [ Links ]


    42 DFM, 1/1/2462, C. Attlee - D.F. Malan, 2 March 1949. [ Links ]


    43 DFM, 1/1/2480, F.H. Theron - D.D. Forsyth, 23 May 1949. [ Links ]


    44 DFM, 1/1/2476, 'Statement by the South African Prime Minister', 29 April 1949. [ Links ]


    45 DFM, 1/1/1573, 'Dr. D.F. Malan se Toespraak te Pretoria', 26 September 1939. [ Links ]


    46 de Beer, 'Dr. D.F. Malan as Minister van Buitelandse Sake', 542-7. [ Links ]


    47 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.38, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 28 January 1951. [ Links ]


    48 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 1, D.F. Malan - A.L. Geyer, 22 September 1950. [ Links ]


    49 DFM, 1/1/2529, D.F. Malan, 'Nuwejaarsboodskap', 31 December 1949; [ Links ]

    DFM, 1/1/2863, D.F. Malan, 'Nuwejaarsboodskap', 31 December 1952. [ Links ]


    50CAD, A.L. Geyer collection, A1890, Volume 1, D.F. Malan - A.L. Geyer, 22 September 1950. [ Links ]


    51 DFM, 1/1/2614, 'Onderhoud met Die Burger', [n.d.] February 1951; [ Links ]

    DFM, 1/1/2617, D.F. Malan, 'Dinner to Gordon-Walker, Min. of Commonwealth Relations, Kelvin Grove, Feb. 9 1951. [ Links ]


    52 DFM, 1/1/2614, 'Onderhoud met Die Burger', [n.d.] February 1951; [ Links ]

    DFM, 1/1/2617, D.F. Malan, 'Dinner to Gordon-Walker, Min. of Commonwealth Relations, Kelvin Grove, Feb. 9 1951. [ Links ]


    53 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 1, D.F. Malan - A.L. Geyer, 26 March 1951. [ Links ]


    55 DFM, 1/1/2543, J.G. Strijdom - D.F. Malan, 10 January 1950. [ Links ]


    56 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.53, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 8 April 1951. [ Links ]


    57 Central archives repository (hereafter SAB), J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 53, D.F. Malan - J.G. Strijdom, 11 January 1951 [translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    58 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.53, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 8 April 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber collection, 296.K.Ge.56, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 1 May 1951. [ Links ]


    59 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.43, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 1 March 1951. [ Links ]


    60 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.49/1, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 20 March 1951. [ Links ]


    61 SAB, J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 53, Notes by J.G. Strijdom, 'Koukusvergadering', 13 March 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.48/2, Notes by P.A. Weber, 13 March 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.49/2, Notes by P.A. Weber, 20 March 1951. [ Links ]


    62 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.51, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 2 April 1951. [ Links ]


    63 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.49/1, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 23 March 1951. [ Links ]


    64 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.43, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 1 March 1951. [ Links ]


    65 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.35, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 14 January 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.58/2, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 27 May 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.125, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 8 March 1953. [ Links ]


    66 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.56, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 1 May 1951 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]

    . Despite the fact that they had known each other since boyhood, and that there was merely a four year age difference between them, Malan addressed Smuts as 'Oom Jannie', a familiar yet respectful form of address which means 'Uncle'. Smuts, in turn, called Malan 'Danie'. See G. Pretorius, Die Malans van Môrewag (Cape Town: Malherbe, 1965), 33. [ Links ]


    68 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.56, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 1 May 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.57/2, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 21 May 1951. [ Links ]


    69 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.202, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 17 October 1954. [ Links ]


    70 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.56, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 1 May 1951. [ Links ]


    71 US Library, P.A. Weber collection, 296.K.Ge.57/2, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 15 May 1951. [ Links ]


    72 DFM, 1/1/2651, 'Koukus-besluit', 8 May 1951. [ Links ]


    73 T.R.H. Davenport and C. Saunders, South Africa: A Modern History (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000), 386-7. [ Links ]


    74 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.111/2a, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 16 November 1952; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.112/2a, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 26 November 1952. [ Links ]


    75 DFM, 1/1/2824, 'Radio Talk by the Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa, Dr. The Honourable D.F. Malan', [n.d.] September 1952. [ Links ]


    76 US Library, P.A. Weber collection, 296.K.Ge.111/2, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 16 November 1952. [ Links ]


    77 Hansard, 26 May 1952, Cols. 6974-6983. [ Links ]


    78 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.111/2, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 16 November 1952. [ Links ]


    79 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.111/2, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 16 November 1952. [ Links ]


    80 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.40, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 3 February 1951 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    81 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.111/2, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 16 November 1952 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    82 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.112/1, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 21 November 1952 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    83 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.177, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 15 November 1953. [ Links ]


    84 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.112/2a, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 26 November 1952; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber , 296.K.Ge.113, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 4 December 1952. [ Links ]


    85 P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.GE(113), A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 4 December 1952 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    86 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.112/2a, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 26 November 1952. [ Links ]


    87 DFM, 1/1/2824, 'Radio Talk by the Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa, Dr. The Honourable D.F. Malan', [n.d.] September 1952. [ Links ]


    89 DFM, 1/1/3000, D.F. Malan - J. Piersma, 12 February 1954. [ Links ]


    92 Institute for Contemporary History archives (hereafter INCH), Sound Archive, PV 193, tape 122, 'Interview: Danie Malan, Cape Town', 8 June 1977. [ Links ]


    93 DFM, 1/1/2885, D.F. Malan, 'Toespraak, Stellenbosch', 5 March 1953. [ Links ]


    95 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.125, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 8 March 1953: [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]

    . Maria Malan was resented in Nationalist circles on account of the active interest which she took in politics and was deemed to be a person with undue influence over her husband. Weber, in particular, was the author of many a snide remark in this regard. For more on Maria Malan, see L. Korf, 'Behind Every Man: D.F. Malan and the Women >in his Life, 1874-1959', South African Historical Journal, 60(3), Sept. 2008. [ Links ]


    96 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.113, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 4 December 1952 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    97 DFM, 1/1/2526, D.F. Malan and N.C. Havenga, 'Verklaring', 12 December 1949; [ Links ]

    DFM, 1/1/2581, D.F. Malan and N.C. Havenga, 'Verklaring', 13 October 1950. [ Links ]


    98 DFM, 1/1/2674, D.F. Malan and N.C. Havenga, 'Verklaring', 1 August 1951. [ Links ]


    99 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 1, D.F. Malan - A.L. Geyer, 8 November 1951. [ Links ]


    100 DFM, 1/1/2581, D.F. Malan and N.C. Havenga, 'Verklaring', 13 October 1950. [ Links ]


    101 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.48/1, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 20 March 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.51, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 2 April 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.54, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 15 April 1951. [ Links ]


    102 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.152, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 19 July 1953. [ Links ]


    103 Davenport and Saunders, South Africa: A Modern History, 379-80. [ Links ]


    104 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.61, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 26 October 1951. [ Links ]


    105 DFM, 1/1/2764, D.F. Malan, 'Verklaring', 20 March 1952. [ Links ]


    107 DFM, 1/1/2779, A.L. Geyer - D.F. Malan, 6 April 1952; [ Links ]

    DFM, 1/1/2823, A.L. Geyer - D.F. Malan, 29 August 1952. [ Links ]


    109 DFM, 1/1/2885, D.F. Malan, 'Toespraak, Stellenbosch', 5 March 1953. [ Links ]


    111 J.J. van Rooyen, 'Segereis van Dr. Malan' in J.P. Scannel, Keeromstraat 30: Gedenkbundel vir die Vyftigste Verjaardag van Die Burger (Cape Town: Nasionale Boekhandel Beperk, 1965), 221-30. [ Links ]


    112 DFM, 1/1/2903, D.F. Malan, 'Na-eleksie verklaring', 17 April 1953. [ Links ]


    114 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 5, Diary: 25 September 1953. [ Links ]


    115 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.168, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 26 September 1953. [ Links ]


    116 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.169/2, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 11 October 1953. [ Links ]


    117 Ibid.; US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.177, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 25 October 1953. [ Links ]


    119 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.125, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 8 March 1953; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.126, A.L. Geyer - P.A. Weber, 16 March 1953; [ Links ]

    DFM, 1/1/2923, A.L. Geyer - D.F. Malan, 28 June 1953. [ Links ]


    120 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 5, Diary: 31 May 1953 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    121 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 5, Diary: 1 June 1953, 8 June 1953, 14 June 1953. [ Links ]


    123 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 5, Diary: 14 June 1953 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    124 CAD, A.L. Geyer Collection, A1890, Volume 5, Diary: 14 June 1953. [ Links ]


    125 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.180, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 22 November 1953. [ Links ]


    127 There are no medical records or a comprehensive description of Maria Malan's illness, but from the various fragments that can be found in the D.F. Malan and the H.B. Thom Collections, it emerges that Maria suffered from heart attacks in 1954 and 1955, which were possibly triggered by severe stress. It is clear that this was accompanied by bouts of depression. Maria was highly strung and easily excitable. Although she never received any formal treatment or a diagnosis, a psychologist who was acquainted with the Malan family stated that she displayed 'heightened emotionalism'; US Library, H.B. Thom collection, 191.M.1(5), 'Interview notes: J.N. Smit, 1 June 1978'; [ Links ]

    US Library, H.B. Thom Collection, 191.M.1.(9/5a), Danie Malan - J.S. Gericke, 8 March 1974; [ Links ]

    US Library, H.B. Thom Collection, 191.M.1.(9/10a), Danie Malan - H.B. Thom, 1 January 1980. [ Links ]


    128 US Library, P.J. Cillié Collection, 220.K54(65), L.A. Fouche - P.J. Cillié, 18 July 1954. [ Links ]


    132 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.202, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 17 October 1954. [ Links ]


    134 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.202, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 17 October 1954. [ Links ]


    135 SAB, J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 60, H.F. Verwoerd - J.G. Strijdom, 8 November 1954. [ Links ]


    136 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.202, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 17 October 1954 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    137 INCH, H.F. Verwoerd Collection, PV 93, file 1/11/1, J.G. Strijdom - H.F. Verwoerd, 17 October 1954; [ Links ]

    INCH, H.F. Verwoerd Collection, PV 93, file 1/11/1, J.G. Strijdom - H.F. Verwoerd, 6 November 1954. [ Links ]


    139 SAB, J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 60, H.F. Verwoerd - J.G. Strijdom, 13 October 1954; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.202, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 17 October 1954. [ Links ]


    140 SAB, J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 60, H.F. Verwoerd - J.G. Strijdom, 27 October 1954. [ Links ]


    141 INCH, H.F. Verwoerd Collection, PV 93, file 1/11/1, J.G. Strijdom - H.F. Verwoerd, 29 October 1954; [ Links ]

    INCH, H.F. Verwoerd Collection, PV 93, file 1/11/1, J.G. Strijdom - H.F. Verwoerd, 9 November 1954. [ Links ]


    142 SAB, J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 60, H.F. Verwoerd - J.G. Strijdom, 11 November 1954. [ Links ]


    143 SAB. N.C. Havenga Collection, A38, File 26, D.F. Malan - N.C. Havenga, 4 November 1954. [ Links ]


    144 DFM, 1/1/3095, N.C. Havenga - D.F. Malan, 6 November 1954. [ Links ]


    146 SAB, J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 60, H.F. Verwoerd - J.G. Strijdom, 18 November 1954; [ Links ]


    147 Ibid.; Schoeman, My Lewe in die Politiek, 203-5. It appears that accounts of the RSB's activities were indeed nothing more than rumours that found fertile soil in Malan's intense dislike of Strijdom. No evidence of the organisation's existence was uncovered during the course of this research. Phil Weber, who was no supporter of Maria Malan's, blamed her for being obsessed with political intrigues, which served to exacerbate the situation. Such a scenario is not implausible. It is a reality that the organisation - whether it existed or not - preyed on Malan's mind during his final years, although it cannot be regarded as a determining factor in the course of events. See US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.53, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 8 April 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.56, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 1 May 1951; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.180, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 22 November 1953; [ Links ]

    US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.202, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 17 October 1954. [ Links ]


    148 US Library, P.A. Weber Collection, 296.K.Ge.180, P.A. Weber - A.L. Geyer, 22 November 1953. [ Links ]


    150 SAB, J.G. Strijdom Collection, A2, Volume 60, H.F. Verwoerd - J.G. Strijdom, 20 November 1954. [ Links ]


    151 INCH, P.W. Botha Collection, PV 203, file MV 24/1/7, P.W. Botha - H.B. Thom, 23 June 1971. [ Links ]


    152 DFM, 1/1/3105, D.F. Malan, 'My Laaste Politieke Vergadering', 26 November 1954. [ Links ]


    153 INCH, Sound Archive, PV 193, tape 122, 'Interview: Danie Malan, Cape Town, 8 June 1977'. [ Links ]


    154 DFM, 1/1/3105, D.F. Malan, 'My Laaste Politieke Vergadering', 26 November 1954. [ Links ]


    155 INCH, P.W. Botha Collection, PV 203, file MV 24/1/7, P.W. Botha - H.B. Thom, 23 June 1971. [ Links ]


    156 DFM, 1/1/3110, E.G. Jansen - D.F. Malan, 1 December 1954 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    157 DFM, 1/1/3109, D.F. Malan - J.G. Strijdom, 30 November 1954 [Translated from the original Afrikaans: my translation] [ Links ]


    158 See J.N. Smit, Aandskemering op Môrewag (Johannesburg: South African Broadcasting Corporation, 1961). [ Links ]