SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

HEATHER, J Zar et al. Advances in childhood tuberculosis - contributions from the University of Cape Town. SAMJ, S. Afr. med. j. [online]. 2012, vol.102, n.6, pp. 518-521. ISSN 0256-9574.

    1. Wood R, Lawn SD, Caldwell J, Kaplan R, Middelkoop K, Bekker LG. Burden of new and recurrent tuberculosis in a major South African city stratifed by age and HIV-status. PLoS One 2011;6(10):e25098. [ Links ]

    2. Zar HJ. Global paediatric pulmonology: out of Africa. Paediatr Respir Rev 2006;7 Suppl 1:S226-228. [ Links ]

    3. Middelkoop K, Bekker LG, Morrow C, Zwane E, Wood R. Childhood TB infection and disease: a spatial and temporal transmission analysis in a South African township. S Afr Med J 2009;99(10):738-743. [ Links ]

    4. Zar HJ. Pneumonia in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in developing countries: epidemiology, clinical features, and management. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2004;10(3):176-182. [ Links ]

    5. Gray DM, Zar HJ. Community-acquired pneumonia in HIV-infected children: a global perspective. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2010;16(3):208-216. [ Links ]

    6. Wood R, Johnstone-Robertson S, Uys P, et al. TB transmission to young children in a South African community: modeling household and community infection risks. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51(4):401-418. [ Links ]

    7. Hussey G, Hawkridge T, Hanekom W. Childhood TB: old and new vaccines. Paediatr Respir Rev 2007;8(2):148-154. [ Links ]

    8. Mahomed H, Kibel M, Hawkridge T, et al. The impact of a change in bacilli Calmette-Guerin vaccine policy on TB incidence in children in Cape Town, South Africa. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006;25(12):1167- 1172. [ Links ]

    9. Moyo S, Verver S, Mahomed H, et al. Age-related TB incidence and severity in children under 5 years of age in Cape Town, South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2010;14(2):149-154. [ Links ]

    10. Hawkridge A, Hatherill M, Little F, et al. Efficacy of percutaneous versus intradermal BCG in the prevention of TB in South African infants: randomised trial. BMJ 2008;337:a2052. [ Links ]

    11. Hatherill M, Hanslo M, Hawkridge T, et al. Structured approaches for the screening and diagnosis of childhood TB in a high prevalence region of South Africa. Bull World Health Organ 2010;88(4):312-320. Epub 29 Dec 2009. [ Links ]

    12. Mahomed H, Hawkridge T, Verver S, et al. The tuberculin skin test versus QuantiFERON TB GoldTM in predicting TB disease in an adolescent cohort study in South Africa. PLoS One 2011;6(3):e17984. [ Links ]

    13. Zar HJ, Hanslo D, Tannenbaum E, et al. Aetiology and outcome of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children hospitalized in South Africa. Acta Paediatr 2001;90(2):119-125. [ Links ]

    14. Swingler GH, du Toit G, Andronikou S, van der Merwe L, Zar HJ. Diagnostic accuracy of chest radiography in detecting mediastinal lymphadenopathy in suspected pulmonary TB. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:1153-1156. [ Links ]

    15. Andronikou S, Brauer B, Galpin J, et al. Interobserver variability in the detection of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes on CT in children with suspected pulmonary TB. Pediatr Radiol 2006;36(4):368. [ Links ]

    16. Nicol M, Pienaar D, Wood K, et al. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses to early secretory antigenic target 6, culture filtrate proteinlO, and purified protein derivative among children with TB: implications for diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:1301-1308. [ Links ]

    17. Nicol MP, Davies MA, Wood K, et al. Comparison of T-SPOT.TB assay and tuberculin skin test for the evaluation of young children at high risk for TB in a community setting. Pediatrics 2009; 123:38-43. [ Links ]

    18. Moyo S, Isaacs F, Gelderbloem S, et al. Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERONTM assay in young children investigated for TB in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2011;15:1176-1181. [ Links ]

    19. Davies M, Connell T, Johannisen C, et al. Detection of TB in HIV-infected children using an enzyme- linked immunospot assay. AIDS 2009; 23:961-969. [ Links ]

    20. Pan W, Matizirofe L, Workman L, et al. Comparison of Mantoux and Tine tuberculin skin tests in BCG-vaccinated children investigated for TB. PloS One 2009;4(11):e8085. [ Links ]

    21. Cobat A, Gallant CJ, Simkin L, et al. Two loci control tuberculin skin test reactivity in an area hyperdemic for TB. J Exp Med 2009;206:2583-2591. [ Links ]

    22. Connell TG, Zar HJ, Nicol MP. Advances in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in HIV-infected and HIV- uninfected children. J Infect Dis 2011;204:S1151-1158. [ Links ]

    23. Zar HJ, Tannenbaum E, Apolles P, Roux P, Hanslo D, Hussey G. Sputum induction for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in infants and young children in an urban setting in South Africa. Arch Dis Child 2000;82(4):305-308. [ Links ]

    24. Zar HJ, Tannenbaum E, Hanslo D, Hussey G. Sputum induction as a diagnostic tool for community-acquired pneumonia in infants and young children from a high HIV prevalence area. Pediatr Pulmonol 2003;36(1):58-62. [ Links ]

    25. Hatherill M, Hawkridge T, Zar HJ, et al. Induced sputum or gastric lavage for community-based diagnosis of childhood pulmonary TB? Arch Dis Child 2009;94(3):195-201. [ Links ]

    26. Moore H, de Villers PJT, Apolles P, Zar HJ. Sputum induction for diagnosis of childhood pulmonary TB (PTB) in a community setting. Int J Tuber Lung Dis (in press). [ Links ]

    27. Zar HJ, Hanslo D, Apolles P, Swingler G, Hussey G. Induced sputum versus gastric lavage for microbiological confirmation of pulmonary TB in infants and young children: a prospective study. Lancet 2005;365:130-134. [ Links ]

    28. Nicol MP, Workman L, Isaacs W, et al. Accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in hospitalized children in a high HIV-prevalence area. Lancet Infect Dis 2011;Jul 15. [ Links ]

    29. World Health Organization (WHO). Roadmap for rolling out Xpert MTB/RIF for rapid diagnosis of TB and MDR-TB, 6 December 2010. Geneva: WHO, 2010. Available at: http://www.who.int/tb/ laboratory/roadmap_xpert_mtb-rif.pdf (accessed 4 December 2011). [ Links ]

    30. Zar HJ, Cotton MF, Strauss S, et.al. Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on mortality and incidence of TB in children with HIV: randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2007;334:136. [ Links ]

    31. Frigati LJ, Kranzer K, Cotton MF, Schaaf HS, Lombard C, Zar HJ. The impact of isoniazid prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy on TB in children infected with HIV in a high TB incidence setting. Thorax 2011;66(6):496-501. [ Links ]

    32. Madhi SA, Nachman S, Violari A, et al. Primary isoniazid prophylaxis against TB in HIV-exposed children. N Engl J Med 2011:365:21-31. [ Links ]

    33. Zar HJ, Lombard C. Isoniazid prophylaxis against TB in children. N Engl J Med 2011;365(16):1543. [ Links ]

    34. Gray D, Nuttall J, Lombard C, et al. Low rates of hepatotoxicity in hiv-infected children on anti-retroviral therapy with and without isoniazid prophylaxis. J Trop Pediatr 2010:56(3):159-165. [ Links ]

    35. Gray DM, Zar H, Cotton M. Impact of TB preventive therapy on TB and mortality in HIV-infected children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(1):CD006418. [ Links ]

    36. WHO 2011 Guidelines for intensified TB case finding and INH preventive therapy for people living with HIV in resource constrained settings www.who.int/tb (accessed December 2011). [ Links ]

    37. Figaji AA, Fieggen AG, Peter JC. Air encephalography for hydrocephalus in the era of neuroendoscopy.Childs Nerv Syst 2005;21:559-565. [ Links ]

    38. Figaji AA, Fieggen AG, Peter JC. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in tuberculous meningitis. Childs Nerv Syst 2003;19:217-225. [ Links ]

    39. Figaji AA, Fieggen AG, Peter JC. Endoscopy for tuberculous hydrocephalus. Childs Nerv Syst 2007;23:79-84. [ Links ]

    40. Figaji AA, Sandler SJ, Fieggen AG, le Roux PD, Peter JC, Argent AC. Continuous monitoring and intervention for cerebral ischemia in tuberculous meningitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008;9:e25-e30. [ Links ]