SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

SEYDACK, Armin H. et al. Climate and vegetation in a semi-arid savanna: Development of a climate-vegetation response model linking plant metabolic performance to climate and the effects on forage availability for large herbivores. Koedoe [online]. 2012, vol.54, n.1, pp.1-12. ISSN 2071-0771.

    An, Y., Wan, S., Zhou, Z., Subedar, A.A., Wallace, L.L. & Luo, Y., 2005, 'Plant nitrogen concentration, use efficiency, and contents in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem under experimental warming', Global Change Biology 11, 1733-1744. [ Links ]

    Baas, W.J., 1989, 'Secondary plant compounds, their ecological significance and consequences for the carbon budget. Introduction to the carbon/nutrient cycle theory', in H. Lambers, M.L. Cambridge, H. Konings & T.L. Pons (eds.), Causes and consequences of variation in growth rate and productivity of higher plants, pp. 313-340, S P B Academic Publishing, The Hague. [ Links ]

    Balasko, J.A. & Smith, D., 1971, 'Influence of temperature and nitrogen fertilization on the growth and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and timothy (Phleum pratense L.) at anthesis', Agronomy Jounal 63, 853-857. [ Links ]

    Bijoor, N.S., Czimczik, C.I., Pataki, D.E. & Billings, S.A., 2008, 'Effects of temperature and fertilization on nitrogen cycling and community composition of an urban lawn', Global Change Biology 14, 2119-2131. [ Links ]

    Bodenstein, V., Meissner, H.H. & Van Hoven, W., 2000, 'Food selection by Burchell's zebra and blue wildebeest in the Timbavati area of the Northern Province Lowveld', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 30(2), 63-72. [ Links ]

    Buchmann, N., Brooks, J.R., Rapp, R.D. & Ehleringer, J.R., 1996, 'Carbon isotope composition of C4 grasses is influenced by light and water', Plant, Cell and Environment 19, 392-402. [ Links ]

    Codron, J. , Codron, D., Lee-Thorp, J.A., Sponheimer, M., Bond, W.J., De Ruiter, D. et al., 2005, 'Taxonomic, anatomical, and spatio-temporal variations in the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of plants from an African savanna', Journal of Archaeological Science 32, 1757-1772.'.jas.2005.06.006 [ Links ]

    Dewar, R.C., Medlyn, B.E. & McMurtrie, R.E., 1999, 'Acclimation of the respiration/ photosynthesis ratio to temperature: Insights from a model', Global Change Biology 5, 615-622. [ Links ]

    Dorgeloh, W.G., 2006, 'Habitat suitability for tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus', African Journal of Ecology 44, 329-336. [ Links ]

    Dunham, K.M., Robertson, E.F. & Grant, C.C., 2004, 'Rainfall and the decline of a rare antelope, the tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus lunatus), in Kruger National Park, South Africa', Biological Conservation 117, 83-94. [ Links ]

    Dwyer, S.A., Ghannoum, O., Nicotra, A. & Von Caemmerer, S., 2007, 'High temperature acclimation of C4 photosynthesis is linked to changes in photosynthetic biochemistry', Plant, Cell and Environment 30, 53-66., PMid:17177876 [ Links ]

    Ehleringer, J.R., Cerling, T.E. & Helliker, B.R., 1997, 'C4 photosynthesis, atmospheric CO2, and climate', Oecologia 112, 285-299. [ Links ]

    Engels, E.A.N. & Van der Merwe, F.J., 1967, 'Application of an in vitro technique to South African forages with special reference to the effect of certain factors on the results', South African Journal of Agricultural Science 10, 983. [ Links ]

    Estiarte, M. & Penuelas, J. , 1999, 'Excess carbon: the relationship with phenotypical plasticity in storage and defense functions of plants', Orsis 14, 159-203. [ Links ]

    Fryxell, J.M., 1991, 'Forage quality and aggregation by large herbivores', American Naturalist 138(2), 478-498. [ Links ]

    Fryxell, J.M., Wilmshurst, J.F., Sinclair, A.R.E., Haydon, D.T., Holt, R.D. & Abrams, P.A., 2005, 'Landscape scale, heterogeneity, and the viability of Serengeti grazers', Ecology Letters 8, 328-335. [ Links ]

    Gertenbach, W., 1983, 'Landscapes of the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 26, 9-121. [ Links ]

    Grange, S. & Duncan, P., 2006, 'Bottom-up and top-down processes in African ungulate communities: Resources and predation acting on the relative abundance of zebra and grazing bovids', Ecography 29, 899-907. [ Links ]

    Gureja, N. & Owen-Smith, N., 2002, 'Comparative use of burnt grassland by rare antelope species in a lowveld game ranch, South Africa', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 32(1), 31-38. [ Links ]

    Harrington, R., Owen-Smith, N., Viljoen, P.C., Mason, D.R. & Funston, P.J., 1999, 'Establishing the causes of the roan antelope decline in the Kruger National Park, South Africa', Biological Conservation 90, 69-78. [ Links ]

    Heitkonig, I.M.A. & Owen-Smith, N., 1998, 'Seasonal selection of soil types and grass swards by roan antelope in a South African savanna', African Journal of Ecology 36, 57-70. [ Links ]

    Herms, D.A. & Mattson, W.J., 1992, 'The dilemma of plants: To grow or defend', Quarterly Review of Biology 67(3), 283-335. [ Links ]

    Hofmann, R.R., 1973, The ruminant stomach: Stomach structure and feeding habits of east african game ruminants, Vol. II, East African Literature Bureau, Nairobi. [ Links ]

    Hofmann, R.R., 1989, 'Evolutionary steps of ecophysiological adaptation and diversification of ruminants: a comparative view of their digestive systems', Oecologia 78, 443-457. [ Links ]

    Holdo, R.M., Holt, R.D. & Fryxell, J.M., 2009, 'Opposing rainfall and plant nutritional gradients best explain the wildebeest migration in the Serengeti', American Naturalist 173(4), 431-445., PMid:19243258 [ Links ]

    Houghton, J.T., Meira Filho, L.G., Callander, B.A., Harris, N., Kattenberg, A. & Maskell, K. (eds.), 1996, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [ Links ]

    Joubert, S.C.J., 1976, 'The population ecology of the roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus equinus) (Desmarest, 1804) in the Kruger National Park', DSc thesis, Faculty of Science, University of Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Joubert, S.C.J. & Bronkhorst, P.H.L., 1977, 'Some aspects of the history and population ecology of the Tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus in the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 20, 125-145. [ Links ]

    Joubert, S., 2007a, The Kruger National Park: A history, Vol. I, High Branching, Johannesburg. [ Links ]

    Joubert, S., 2007b, The Kruger National Park: A history, Vol. II., High Branching, Johannesburg. [ Links ]

    Kennedy, A.D., Biggs, H. & Zambatis, N., 2003, 'Relationship between grass species richness and ecosystem stability in Kruger National Park, South Africa', African Journal of Ecology 41, 131-140. [ Links ]

    Lambers, H. & Poorter, H., 1992, 'Inherent variation in growth rate between higher plants: a search for physiological causes and ecological consequences', Advances in Ecological Research 23, 187-261. [ Links ]

    Lambers, H., Chapin III, F.S. & Pons, T.L., 1998, Plant Physiological Ecology, Springer Verlag, Berlin. [ Links ]

    Le Roux, E., 2010, 'Habitat and forage dependency of sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) in the Pretoriuskop region of the Kruger National Park', MSc thesis, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand. [ Links ]

    Long, S.P., 1999, 'Environmental responses', in R.F. Sage & R.K. Monson (eds.), C4 Plant Biology, pp. 215-249, Academic Press, San Diego. [ Links ]

    Luo, Y., 2007, 'Terrestrial carbon-cycle feedback to climate warming', Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 38, 683-712. [ Links ]

    Macandza, V.A., Owen-Smith, N. & Cross, P.C., 2004, 'Forage selection by African buffalo in the late dry season in two landscapes', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34(2), 113-121. [ Links ]

    Magome, D.T., 1991, 'Habitat selection and feeding ecology of the sable antelope, Hippotragus niger niger (Harris 1838), in Pilanesberg National Park, Bophuthatswana', MSc thesis, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand. [ Links ]

    Magome, H., Cain, J.W.I., Owen-Smith, N. & Henley, S.R., 2008, 'Forage selection of sable antelope in Pilanesberg Game Reserve, South Africa', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 38(1), 35-41. [ Links ]

    't Mannetje, L., 1975, 'Effect of daylength and temperature on introduced legumes and grasses for the tropics and subtropics of coastal Australia. 2. N-concentration, estimated digestibility and leafiness', Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 15, 256-263. EA9750256 [ Links ]

    't Mannetje, L., 1982, 'Problems of animal production from tropical pastures', in J.B. Hacker (ed.), Nutritional limits to animal production from pastures, pp. 67-85, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal. [ Links ]

    't Mannetje, L, 1984, 'Nutritive value of tropical and subtropical pastures, with special reference to protein and energy deficiency in relation to animal production', in F.M.C. Gilchrist & R.I. Mackie (eds.), Herbivore nutrition in the subtropics and tropics, pp. 56-66, The Science Press, Craighall. [ Links ]

    Mutanga, O., Prins, H.H.T., Skidmore, A.K., Van Wieren, S., Huizing, H., Grant, R. et al., 2004, 'Explaining grass-nutrient patterns in a savanna rangeland of southern Africa', Journal of Biogeography 31, 819-829. [ Links ]

    Osborne, C.P., 2008, 'Atmosphere, ecology and evolution: what drove the Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands?', Journal of Ecology 96, 35-45. PMid:18784799, PMCid:2517376 [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N. & Ogutu, J.O., 2003, 'Rainfall influences on ungulate population dynamics', in J.T. du Toit, H.C. Biggs & K.H. Rogers (eds.), The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 310-331, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N., Mason, D.R. & Ogutu, J.O., 2005, 'Correlates of survival rates of ten African ungulate populations: Density, rainfall and predation', Journal of Animal Ecology 74, 774-778. [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N. & Mills, M.G.L., 2006, 'Manifold interactive influences on the population dynamics of a multispecies ungulate assemblage', Ecological Monographs 76, 73-92. [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N. & Mills, M.G.L., 2008, 'Shifting prey selection generates contrasting herbivore dynamics within a large-mammal predator-prey web', Ecology 89(4), 1120-1133.!, PMid:18481536 [ Links ]

    Parrini, F., 2006, 'Nutritional and social ecology of the sable antelope in a Magaliesberg Nature Reserve', PhD thesis, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand. [ Links ]

    Pienaar, U de V., 1963, 'The large mammals of the Kruger National Park - their distribution and present-day status', Koedoe 6, 1-37. [ Links ]

    Schulze, R.E., 1995, Hydrology and agrohydrology: A text to accompany the ACRU 3.00 agro-hydrological modeling system, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Natal, Pietermartizburg. [ Links ]

    Schulze, R.E., 1997, South African atlas of agrohydrology and -climatology, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. [ Links ]

    Seydack, A.H., Grant, C.C., Smit, I.P., Vermeulen, W.J., Baard, J. & Zambatis, N., 2012, 'Large herbivore population performance and climate in a South African semi-arid savanna', Koedoe 54(1), Art. #1047, 20 pages. v54i1.1047 [ Links ]

    Skidmore, A.K., Ferwerda, J.G., Mutanga, O., Van Wieren, S.E., Peel, M., Grant, R.C. et al., 2010, 'Forage quality of savannas: Simultaneously mapping foliar protein and polyphenols for trees and grass using hyperspectral imagery', Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 64-72. [ Links ]

    Skinner, J.D. & Chimimba, C.T., 2005, The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion, 3rd edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [ Links ]

    Smuts, G.L., 1972, 'Seasonal movements, migration and age determination of Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli antiquorum, H. Smith, 1841) in the Kruger National Park', MSc thesis, Faculty of Science, University of Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Taylor, G.J., 1989, 'Maximum potential growth rate and allocation of respiratory energy to stress tolerance in plants', Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 27, 605 611. [ Links ]

    Tilley, J.M.A. & Terry, R.A., 1963, 'A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops', Journal of the British Grassland Society 18, 104-111. [ Links ]

    Traill, L.W., 2004, 'Seasonal utilization of habitat by large grazing herbivores in semi arid Zimbabwe', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34(1), 13-24. [ Links ]

    Tudsri, S.H., Matsuoka, H. & Kobashi, K., 2002, 'Effect of temperature on seedling growth characteristics of Panicum maximum', Tropical Grasslands 36, 165-171. [ Links ]

    Van Lavieren, L.P. & Esser, J.D., 1979, 'Numbers, distribution and habitat preference of large mammals in Bouba Ndjida National Park, Cameroon', African Journal of Ecology 17, 141-153. [ Links ]

    Van Soest, P.H., Mertens, D.R. & Deinum, B., 1978, 'Preharvest factors influencing quality of conserved forage', Journal of Animal Science 47, 712-720. [ Links ]

    Venter, F.J., Scholes, R.J. & Eckhardt, H.C., 2003, 'The abiotic template and its associated vegetation patterns', in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 83-129, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Wan, S., Hui, D.F., Wallace, L.L. & Luo, Y., 2005, 'Direct and indirect effects of experimental warming on ecosystem carbon processes in a tallgrass prairie', Global Biogeochemical Cycles 19, GB2014. doi:10.1029/ 2004GB002315. [ Links ]

    Wan, S., Xia, J. , Liu, W. & Niu, S., 2009, 'Photosynthetic overcompensation under nocturnal warming enhances grassland carbon sequestration', Ecology 90(10), 2700-2710.,PMid:19886480 [ Links ]

    Watson, L.H. & Owen-Smith, N., 2000, 'Diet composition and habitat selection of eland in semi-arid shrubland', African Journal of Ecology 38, 130-137. [ Links ]

    Whyte, I.J. & Joubert, S.C.J., 1988, 'Blue wildebeest population trends in the Kruger National Park and the effect of fencing', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 18(3), 78-87. [ Links ]

    Wilson, J.R., 1975, 'Influence of temperature and nitrogen on growth, photosynthesis and accumulation of non-structural carbohydrate in a tropical grass, Panicum maximum var. trichoglume', Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 23, 48-61. [ Links ]

    Wilson, J.R., 1982, 'Environmental and nutritional factors affecting herbage quality', in J.B. Hacker (ed.), Nutritional limits to animal production from pastures, pp. 111-131, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal. [ Links ]

    Wilson, J.R. & Ford, C.W., 1971, 'Temperature influences on the growth, digestibility, and carbohydrate composition of two tropical grasses, Panicum maximum var. trichoglume and Setaria sphacelata, and two cultivars of the temperate grass Lolium perenne', Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 22, 563-571. [ Links ]

    Wilson, J.R. & Ford, W., 1973, 'Temperature influences on the in vitro digestibility and soluble carbohydrate accumulation of tropical and temperate grasses', Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 24, 187-198. [ Links ]

    Wilson, J.R., Taylor, A.O. & Dolby, G.R., 1976, 'Temperature and atmospheric humidity effects on cell wall content and dry matter digestibility of some tropical and temperate grasses', New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 19, 41-46. [ Links ]

    Wilson, J.R. & 't Mannetje, L., 1978, 'Senescence, digestibility and carbohydrate content of buffel grass and green panic leaves in swards', Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 503-516. [ Links ]

    Zambatis, N., 2004, 'Summary report of trends in herbaceous veld condition in the ranger sections of the Kruger National Park during the period 1989 to 2004', Scientific Services, Kruger National Park, Skukuza. [ Links ]