SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

GRANT, Rina C.C; PEEL, Mike J.S  and  BEZUIDENHOUT, Hugo. Evaluating herbivore management outcomes and associated vegetation impacts. Koedoe [online]. 2011, vol.53, n.2, pp. 116-130. ISSN 0075-6458.

    Adler, P.B., Raff, D.A. & Lauenroth, W.K., 2001, 'The effect of grazing on the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation', Oecologia 128, 456-479. [ Links ]

    Archibald, S., 2008, 'African grazing lawns: How fire, rainfall, and grazer numbers interact to affect grass community states', Journal of Wildlife Management 72, 429-501. [ Links ]

    Archibald, S., Bond, W.J., Stock, W.D. & Fairbanks, D.H.K., 2005, 'Shaping the landscape: Fire-grazer interactions in an African savanna', Ecological Applications 15, 96-109. [ Links ]

    Asner, G.P., Levick, S., Kennedy-Bowdoin, T., Knapp, A.K., Emerson, R., Jacobson, J., et al., 2009, 'Large-scale impacts of herbivores on the structural diversity of African savannas', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(12), 4947-4952. [ Links ]

    August, P.V., 1983, 'The role of habitat complexity and heterogeneity in structuring tropical mammal communities', Ecology 64, 1495-1507. [ Links ]

    Bezuidenhout, H. & Brown, L.R., 2008, 'Vegetation description of the Doornhoek section of the Mountain Zebra National Park (MZNP), South Africa', Koedoe 50, 82-92. [ Links ]

    Bezuidenhout, H., 1996, 'The major vegetation communities of the Augrabies Falls National Park, Northern Cape. 1. The southern section', Koedoe 39, 7-24. [ Links ]

    Bezuidenhout, H., 2004, 'Report on the impact of elephants on the vegetation of the Zwarthoek section, Marakele National Park', unpublished report, Arid Ecosystems Research Unit, Conservation Services, Kimberley. [ Links ]

    Biggs, H.C. & Rogers, K.H., 2003, 'An adaptive system to link science, monitoring and management in practise,' in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 59-80, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Biggs, R., Carpenter, S. & Brock, W.A., 2009, 'Turning back from the brink: Detecting an impending regime shift in time to avert it', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, 826-831. [ Links ]

    Blose, A., 2007, 'Influence of large mammals on woody vegetation heterogeneity along the Sabie and Letaba Rivers in Kruger National Park', BSc(hons) dissertation, School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand. [ Links ]

    Bond, W.J. & Loffell, D., 2001, 'Introduction of giraffe changes acacia distribution in a South African savanna', African Journal of Ecology 39, 286-294. [ Links ]

    Bond, W.J. & Van Wilgen, B.W., 1996, Fire and Plants, Chapman & Hall, London. [ Links ]

    Bothma, J. du. P., Peel, M.J.S., Pettit, S. & Grossman, D., 1990, 'Evaluating the accuracy of some commonly used game-counting methods', South African Journal of Wildlife Management 20(1), 26-32. [ Links ]

    Botkin, D.B., Melillo, J.M. & Wu, L.S.Y., 1978, 'How ecosystem processes are linked to large mammal population dynamics,' in C.W. Fowler & T.D. Smith (eds.), Dynamics of large mammal populations, pp. 373-414, John Wiley & Sons. [ Links ]

    Coe, M.J., Cumming, D.H. & Phillipson, J., 1976, 'Biomass and production of large African herbivores in relation to rainfall and primary production', Oecologia 22, 341-354. [ Links ]

    Coetzee, B.J. & Gertenbach, W.P.D., 1977, 'Technique for describing woody vegetation composition and structure in inventory type classification, ordination and animal habitat surveys', Koedoe 20(1), 67-75. [ Links ]

    Coetzee, B.J., Engelbrecht, A.H., Joubert, S.C.J. & Retief, P.F., 1979, 'Elephant impact on Sclerocarya caffra trees in Acacia nigrescens tropical plains thornveld of the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 22, 39-60. [ Links ]

    Collinson, R.F.H. & Goodman, P.S., 1982, 'An assessment of range condition and large herbivore carrying capacity of the Pilanesberg Game Reserve, with guidelines and recommendations for management', Inkwe 1, 1-54. [ Links ]

    Cromsigt, J.P.G.M. & Olff, H., 2006, 'Resource partitioning among savanna grazers mediated by local heterogeneity: an experimental approach', Ecology 87(6), 1532-1541. [ Links ]

    Cromsigt, J.P.G.M., Prins, H.H.T. & Olff, H., 2009, 'Habitat heterogeneity as a driver of ungulate diversity and distribution patterns: interaction of body mass and digestive strategy', Diversity and Distributions 15, 513-515. [ Links ]

    Cumming, D.H.M., Fenton, M.B., Rautenbach, I.L., Taylor, R.D., Cumming, G.S., Cumming, M.S., et al., 1997, 'Elephants, woodlands and biodiversity in southern Africa', South African Journal of Science 93, 231-236. [ Links ]

    Diaz, S., Noy-Meir, I. & Cabido, M., 2001, 'Can grazing response of herbaceous plants be predicted from simple vegetative traits?', Journal of Applied Ecology 38, 497-508. [ Links ]

    Dörgeloh, W.G., Van Hoven, W. & Rethman, N.F.G., 1998, 'Faecal analysis as an indicator of the nutritional status of the diet of roan antelope in South Africa', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 28, 16-23. [ Links ]

    Druce, D.J., Shannon, G., Page, B., Grant, R. & Slotow, R., 2008, 'Ecological thresholds in the savanna landscape: developing a protocol for monitoring the change in composition and utilisation of large trees', PLoS ONE 3(12): e3979. doi:10.1371 [ Links ]

    Du Toit, J.T. & Owen-Smith, N., 1989, 'Body size, population metabolism and habitat specialization among large African herbivores', The American Naturalist 133(5), 736-740. [ Links ]

    Duncan, D.H. & Wintle, B.A., 2008, 'Towards adaptive management of native vegetation in regional landscapes', in Landscape analysis and visualisation. Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography, Part 2, pp. 159-182, Springer, Berlin. [ Links ]

    Eckhardt, H.C., Van Wilgen, B.W. & Biggs, H.C., 2000, 'Trends in woody vegetation cover in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1940 and 1998.', African Journal of Ecology 38, 108-115. [ Links ]

    Fritz, H. & Duncan, P., 1994, 'On the carrying capacity for large ungulates of African savanna ecosystems', Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 256, 77-82. [ Links ]

    Fuhlendorf, S.D. & Engle, D.M., 2001, 'Restoring heterogeneity on rangelands: ecosystem management based on evolutionary grazing patterns', BioScience 51, 625-632. [ Links ]

    Fynn, R.W.S. & O'Connor, T.G., 2000, 'Effect of stocking rate and rainfall on rangeland dynamics and cattle performance in a semi-arid savanna, South Africa', Journal of Applied Ecology 37, 491-507. [ Links ]

    Gaylard, A., Owen-Smith, N. & Redfern, J.V., 2003, 'Surface water availability: Implication for heterogeneity and ecosystem processes,' in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 171-188, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Gertenbach, W., 1983, 'Landscapes of the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 26, 9-121. [ Links ]

    Gordon, I.J., Hester, A.J. & Festa-Bianchet, M., 2004, 'The management of wild large herbivores to meet economic, conservation and environmental objectives', Journal of Applied Ecology 41, 1021-1031. [ Links ]

    Gotze, A.R., Cilliers, S.S., Bezuidenhout, H. & Kellner, K., 2008, 'Analysis of the vegetation of the sandstone ridges (Ib land type) of the north-eastern parts of the Mapungubwe National Park, Limpopo Province, South Africa', Koedoe 50, 72-81. [ Links ]

    Grant, C.C. & Scholes, 2006, 'The importance of nutrient hot-spots in the conservation and management of large wild mammalian herbivores in semi-arid savannas', Biological Conservation 130, 426-437. [ Links ]

    Grant, C.C. & Scholes, M.C., 2003, 'Determining the scales at which nutrients act as drivers of herbivore distribution in the Kruger National Park', African Journal of Range and Forage Science 20, 74. [ Links ]

    Grant, C.C. & Van der Walt, J.L., 2000, 'Towards an adaptive management approach for the conservation of rare antelope in the Kruger National Park: outcome of a workshop held in May 2000', Koedoe 43, 103-112. [ Links ]

    Grant, C.C., Balfour, D., Hofmeyr, M. & Kruger, L., 2007, 'A framework for understanding elephant effects on woodland', in J.J. Bester, A.H.W. Seydack, T. Vorster, I.J. van der Merwe & S. Dzivhani (eds.), Multiple use management of natural forests and woodlands: policy refinement and progress. Natural forests and savanna woodlands symposium IV, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, May 15-18, 2006, pp. 163-174. [ Links ]

    Grant, C.C., Davidson, T., Funston, P.J. & Pienaar, D.J., 2002, 'Challenges faced in the conservation of rare antelope: a case study on the northern basalt plains of the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 45, 45-66. [ Links ]

    Grant, C.C., Peel, M.J.S., Zambatis, N. & Van Ryssen, J.B.J., 2000, 'Nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in faeces: an indicator of range quality as a practical adjunct to existing evaluation methods', African Journal of Range and Forage Science 17, 81-92. [ Links ]

    Grant, C.C., Smit, I.P.J., Novellie, P., Kruger, L., Vickers, K. & Gaylard, A., in review, 'Heterogeneity: What is sufficient and how can it be measured?', Koedoe. [ Links ]

    Guldemond, R. & Van Aarde, R., 2007, 'The impact of elephants on plants and their community variables in South Africa's Maputaland', African Journal of Ecology, 45, 327-335. [ Links ]

    Hanley, T.A., 1982, 'The nutritional basis for food selection by ungulates', Journal of Range Management 35, 146-151. [ Links ]

    Harrington, R., Biggs, H.C., Owen-Smith, N. & Viljoen, P.C., 1999, 'The roan antelope decline in northern Kruger National Park: spatial analysis of herbivore and vegetation changes using GIS.', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 96, 69-78. [ Links ]

    Hartmann, I., 2009, 'Can elephant impact influence the diversity of riparian tree species?', diploma thesis, Department of Vegetation Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen Freising. [ Links ]

    Ihwagi, F.W., Vollrath, F., Chira, R.M., Douglas-Hamilton, I. & Kironchi, G., 2010, 'The impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana, on woody vegetation through selective debarking in Samburu and Buffalo Springs National Reserves, Kenya', African Journal of Ecology 48, 87-95. [ Links ]

    Kerley, G.I.H. & Landman, M., 2006, 'The impact of elephant on biodiversity in the Eastern Cape Subtropical thickets', South African Journal of Science 102, 1-8. [ Links ]

    Kruger, J.M., Jones, M., Schildauer, M. & Stevens, N., 2008, 'New technologies for automating the management and analysis of conservation data', Ecological Circuits 1, 5-29. [ Links ]

    Landman, M. & Kerley, G.I.H., 2009, 'Elephant impacts and potential indicators of elephant-induced change to vegetation composition and structure in Addo Elephant National Park: Baseline assessment of key-plant species in Colchester, Kuzuko Contractual Park and the Darlington monitoring exclosures', Report by the Centre for African Conservation Ecology, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth. [ Links ]

    Lombard, A.T., Johnson, C.F., Cowling, R.M. & Pressey, R.L., 2001, 'Protecting plants from elephants: botanical reserve scenarios within the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa', Biological Conservation 102, 191-203. [ Links ]

    Ludwig, F., 2001, 'Tree-grass interactions on an East African Savanna: The effects of competition, facilitation and hydraulic lift', PhD thesis published in Tropical Resource Management Papers, no 39, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen. [ Links ]

    Ludwig, J.F., Tongway, D., Bastin, G.N. & James, C.D., 2004, 'Monitoring ecological indicators of rangeland functional integrity and their relation to biodiversity at local to regional scales', Austral Ecology 29, 108-120. [ Links ]

    McGeoch, M.A., Sithole, H., Samways, M.J., Simaika, J.P., Pryke, J.S., Picker, M., et al., 2011, 'Monitoring terrestrial and freshwater invertebrates in protected areas', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1000, 13 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1000. [ Links ]

    McGinty, W.A., Smeins, F.E. & Merril, L.B., 1979, 'Influence of soil, vegetation, and grazing management on infiltration rate and sediment production of Edwards Plateau Rangeland', Journal of Range Management 32, 33-37. [ Links ]

    McNaughton, S.J., 1979, 'Grazing as an optimization process: grass-ungulate relationships in the Serengeti', The American Naturalist 113, 601-703. [ Links ]

    McNaughton, S.J., Oesterheld, M., Frank, D.A. & Williams, K.J., 1989, 'Ecosystem-level pattern of primary productivity and herbivory in terestrial habitats', Nature 341, 142-144. doi:10.1038/341142a0, PMid:2779651 [ Links ]

    Mentis, M.T. & Duke, R.R., 1976, 'Carrying capacities of natural veld in Natal for large wild herbivores', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 6, 65-74. [ Links ]

    Mills, M.G.L., Biggs, H.C. & Whyte, I.J., 1995, 'The relationship between rainfall, lion predation and population trends in African herbivores', Wildlife Research 22, 75-88. doi:10.1071/WR9950075 [ Links ]

    Muller, F., 2005, 'Ecosystem indicators for the integrated management of landscape health and integrity', in S.E. Jorgensen, R. Costanza & F.L. Xu (eds.), Handbook of Ecological indicators for assessment of ecosystem health, pp. 277-303, Taylor & Francis, London. doi:10.1201/9780203490181.ch12 [ Links ]

    Murwira, A., 2003, 'Scale matters! A new approach to quantify spatial heterogeneity for predicting the distribution of wildlife', PhD thesis, Wageningen University. [ Links ]

    Mutanga, O., Prins, H.H.T., Skidmore, A.K., Van Wieren, S., Huizing, H., Grant, C.C.R., et al., 2004, 'Explaining grass-nutrient patterns in a savanna rangeland of southern Africa', Journal of Biogeography 31, 819-829. doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2699.2004.01072.x [ Links ]

    Mysterud, A., 2006, 'The concept of overgrazing and its role in management of large herbivores', Wildlife Biology 12, 129-141. doi:10.2981/0909-6396(2006)12[129:TC OOAI]2.0.CO;2 [ Links ]

    Naiman, R.J., Braack, L.E.O., Grant, C.C., Kemp, A.C., Du Toit, J.T. & Venter, F.J., 2003, 'Interactions between species and ecosystem characteristics,' in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.),The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 221-241, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Noss, R.F., 1990, 'Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach', Conservation Biology 44, 355-364. [ Links ]

    Ogutu, J. & Owen-Smith, N., 2003, 'ENSO, rainfall and temperature influences on extreme population declines among African savanna ungulates', Ecology Letters 6, 412-419. doi:10.1046/j.1461-0248.2003.00447.x [ Links ]

    O'Reagain, P.J. & Turner, J.R., 1992, 'An evaluation of the empirical basis for grazing management recommendations for rangeland in southern Africa', Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa 9(1), 38-49. [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N., 1985, 'The ecology of browsing by African wild ungulates,' in J.C. Tothill & J.J. Mott (eds.), International Savanna Symposium:Ecology and Management of the World's Savannas, Brisbane, Australia, May 28-31, 1984, pp. 345-349. [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N., 1996, 'Ecological guidelines for waterpoints in extensive protected areas', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 26, 107-112. [ Links ]

    Peel, M., Stalmans, M. & Anderson, J., 2009, 'Management Plan: Associated Private Nature Reserves', unpublished land owner document. [ Links ]

    Peel, M.J.S., 2005, 'Towards a predictive understanding of savanna vegetation dynamics in the eastern Lowveld of South Africa: with implications for effective management', PhD thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal. [ Links ]

    Peel, M.J.S. & Bothma, J. du P., 1995, 'Comparison of the accuracy of four methods commonly used to count impala', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 25(22), 41-43. [ Links ]

    Peel, M.J.S., Biggs, H.C. & Zacharias, P.J.K., 1999, 'The evolving use of indices currently based on animal number and type in semi-arid heterogeneous landscapes and complex systems', African Journal of Range and Forage Science 15, 117-127. doi: 10.1080/10220119.1998.9647953 [ Links ]

    Peel, M.J.S., Kruger, J.M. & MacFadyen, S., 2007, 'Woody vegetation changes of a mosaic of protected areas adjacent to the Kruger National Park, South Africa', Journal of Vegetation Science 18, 807-814. doi:10.1658/1100-9233(2007)18[807:WVOAMO ]2.0.CO;2, doi:10.1111/j.1654-1103.2007.tb02597.x [ Links ]

    Peel, M.J.S., Kruger, J.M. & Zacharias, P.J.K., 2005, 'Environmental and management determinants of vegetation state on the Eastern Lowveld of South Africa', African Journal of Ecology 43, 352-361. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2005.00590.x [ Links ]

    Pickett, S.T.A., Cadenasso, M.L. & Benning, T.L., 2003, 'Biotic and abiotic variability as key determinants of savanna heterogeneity at multiple spatiotemporal scales,' in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 22-40, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Rebelo, T.G., Freitag-Ronaldson, S., Cheney, C. & McGeoch, M., 2011, 'Prioritising species of special concern in the Table Mountain National Park for monitoring: The challenge of a species-rich, threatened ecosystem', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1019, 14 pages. doi: 10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1019 [ Links ]

    Redfern, J.V., Viljoen, P.C., Kruger, J.M. & Getz, W.M., 2002, 'Biases in estimating population size from an aerial census: a case study in the Kruger National Park, South Africa', South African Journal of Science 98, 455-461. [ Links ]

    Rogers, K.H., 2003, 'Adopting a heterogeneity paradigm: Implications for management of protecteed areas,' in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 41-58, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Rogers, K.H. & O'Keeffe, J., 2003, 'River heterogeneity: ecosystem structure, function and management', in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 189-218, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Roux, D. & Foxcroft, L.C., 2011, 'The development and application of strategic adaptive management within South African National Parks' areas', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1049, 5 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1049. [ Links ]

    Rubin, F., 1998, 'The physical environment and major plant communities of the Tankwa- Karoo National Park', Koedoe 41, 61-94. [ Links ]

    Rubin, F. & Palmer, A.R., 1996, 'The physical environment and major plant communities of the Karoo National Park, South Africa', Koedoe 39, 25-52. [ Links ]

    Sankaran, M., Ratnam, J. & Hanan, N., 2004, 'Tree-grass coexistence in savannas revisited: insights from an examination of assumptions and mechanisms invoked in existing models', Ecology Letters 7, 480-490. doi:10.1111/j.1461- 0248.2004.00596.x [ Links ]

    SANParks. See South African National Parks. [ Links ]

    Scarnecchia, D.L., 1988, 'Grazing, stocking, and production efficiencies in grazing research', Journal of Range Management 41, 279-281. doi:10.2307/3899378 [ Links ]

    Schmitz, O.J., 2008, 'Herbivory from individuals to ecosystems', Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 39, 133-152. doi:10.1146/annurev. ecolsys.39.110707.173418 [ Links ]

    Scholes, R.J., 2003, 'Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass', Environmental and Resource Economics 26, 559-574. doi:10.1023/B:EARE.0000007349.67564.b3 [ Links ]

    Scholes, R.J., 2009, 'Syndromes of dryland degradation in southern Africa', African Journal of Range and Forage Science 26(3), 113-125. doi:10.2989/AJRF.2009.26.3.2.947 [ Links ]

    Scholes, R.J. & Archer, S.R., 1997, 'Tree-grass interactions in savannas', Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28, 517-544. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.517 [ Links ]

    Scholes, R.J. & Kruger, J.M., 2011, 'A framework for deriving and triggering thresholds for management intervention in uncertain, varying and time-lagged systems', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #987, 8 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.987 [ Links ]

    Senft, R.L., Coughenour, M.B., Baily, D.W., Rittenhouse, L.R., Sala, O.E. & Swift, D.M., 1987, 'Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies', BioScience 37, 789-799. doi:10.2307/1310545 [ Links ]

    Shackleton, C., 1998, 'The prediction of woody plant productivity in the savanna biome, South Africa', PhD thesis, University of Witwatersrand. [ Links ]

    Shannon, G., Druce, D.J., Page, B., Eckhardt, H.C., Grant, R. & Slotow, R., 2008, 'The utilization of large savanna trees by elephant in southern Kruger National Park', Journal of Tropical Ecology 24, 281-289. doi:10.1017/S0266467408004951 [ Links ]

    Siebert, F. & Eckhardt, H.C., 2008, 'The vegetation and floristics of the Nkhuhlu Exclosures, Kruger National Park', Koedoe 50, 126-144. [ Links ]

    Skarpe, C., Aarrestad, P.A., Andreassen, H.P., Dhillion, S.S., Dimakatso, T., Du Toit, J.T., et al., 2004, 'The return of the giants: ecological effects of an increasing elephant population', Ambio 33, 276-282. doi:10.1639/0044-7447(2004)033[0276:TROTGE ]2.0.CO;2, doi:10.1579/0044-7447-33.6.276, PMid:15387059 [ Links ]

    Smit, I.P.J. & Ferreira, S.M., 2010, 'Management intervention affects river-bound spatial dynamics of elephants', Biological Conservation 143, 2172-2181. [ Links ]

    Smit, I.P.J., Grant, C.C. & Devereux, B.J., 2007, 'Do artificial waterholes influence the way herbivores use the landscape? Herbivore distribution patterns around rivers and artificial surface water sources in a large African Savanna park', Biological Conservation 136, 85-99. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.11.009 [ Links ]

    Snyman, H.A., 2005, 'Rangeland degradation in a semi-arid South Africa - 1: influence of seasonal root distribution, root/shoot ratios and water-use efficiency', Journal of Arid Environments 60, 457-481. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.06.006 [ Links ]

    Snyman, H.A., 2009, 'Root studies on grass species in a semi-arid South Africa along a degradation gradient', Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 130, 100-108. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2008.12.003 [ Links ]

    South African National Parks, 2006, Coordinated policy framework governing park managementplans (Draft 3), South African National Parks, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    South African National Parks, 2008, Park Management Plan: Kruger National Park (Draft), South African National Parks, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    South African National Parks, 2010, Elephant Management Plan: Kruger National Park (Draft), South African National Parks, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Staver, C., Bond, W.J., Stock, W.D., Van Rensburg, S.J. & Waldram, M., 2009, 'Browsing and fire interact to suppress tree density in an African savanna', Ecological Applications 19, 1909-1919. doi:10.1890/08-1907.1, PMid:19831079 [ Links ]

    Stock, W.D., Bond, W.J. & Van de Vijver, C.A.D.M., 2009, 'Herbivore and nutrient control of lawn and bunch grass distributions in a southern African savanna', Plant Ecology 206(1), 15-27. doi:10.1007/s11258-009-9621-4 [ Links ]

    Traill, L.W., 2004, 'Seasonal utilization of habitat by large herbivores in semi-arid Zimbabwe', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34, 13-24. [ Links ]

    Treydte, A.C., Heitkonig, I.M.A., Prins, H.H.T. & Ludwig, F., 2007, 'Trees improve grass quality for herbivores in African savannas', Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 8, 197-205. doi:10.1016/j.ppees.2007.03.001 [ Links ]

    Treydte, A.C., Van Beeck, L., Ludwig, F. & Heitkonig, I.M.A., 2008, 'Improved quality of beneath-canopy grass in South African savannas: Local and seasonal variation', Journal of Vegetation Science 19, 663-670. doi:10.3170/2008-8-18435 [ Links ]

    Trollope, W.S.W., 1990a, 'Development of a technique for assessing veld condition in the Kruger National Park', Journal of the Grassland Society Southern Africa 7, 46-51. [ Links ]

    Trollope, W.S.W., 1990b, 'Veld management with specific reference to game ranching in the grassland and savanna areas of South Africa', Koedoe 33, 77-86. [ Links ]

    Turner, M.G., Pearson, S.M., Romme, W.H. & Wallace, L.L., 1997, 'Landscape heterogeneity and ungulate dynamics: What spatial scales are important?,' in J.A. Bisonette (ed.), Wildlife and landscape ecology: effects of pattern and scale, pp. 331-348, Springer Verlag, New York. [ Links ]

    Van de Koppel, J., Rietkerk, M., Van Langevelde, F., Kumar, L., Klausmeier, C.A., Fryxell, J.M., et al., 2002, 'Spatial heterogeneity and irreversible vegetation change in semiarid grazing systems', The American Naturalist 159, 209-218. doi:10.1086/324791, PMid:18707414 [ Links ]

    Van Rooyen, M.W., Van Rooyen, N., Bothma, J. du P. & Van den Berg, H.M., 2008, 'Landscapes in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa', Koedoe 50, 99-112. [ Links ]

    Van Staden, P.J. & Bredenkamp, G.J.L., 2006, 'A floristic analysis of forest and thicket vegetation of the Marakele National Park', Koedoe 49, 15-31. [ Links ]

    Van Wilgen, B.W., Govender, N., Forsyth, G.G. & Kraaij, T., 2011, 'Towards adaptive fire management for biodiversity conservation: Experience in South African National Parks', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #982, 9 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.982 [ Links ]

    Van Wilgen, B.W., Govender, N. & Biggs, H.C., 2007, 'The contribution of fire research to fire management: a critical review of a long-term experiment in the Kruger National Park, South Africa', International Journal of Wildland Fire 16, 519-530. doi:10.1071/WF06115 [ Links ]

    Van Wilgen, B.W., Govender, N. & MacFadyen, S., 2008, 'An assessment of the implementation and outcomes of recent changes to fire management in the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 50(1), 22-31. [ Links ]

    Venter, F.J., 1986, 'Soil patterns associated with the major geological units of the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 29, 125-138. [ Links ]

    Venter, F.J., Scholes, R.J. & Eckhardt, H.C., 2003, 'The abiotic template and its associated vegetation pattern,' in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 83-129, Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Viljoen, A.J., 1995, 'The influence of the 1991/1992 drought on the woody vegetation of the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 38, 85-97. [ Links ]

    Vlek, P.L.G., Le, Q.B. & Tamene, L., 2008, Land decline in land-rich Africa: A creeping disaster in the making, CGIAR Science Council Secretariat, Rome. [ Links ]

    Walker, B.H. & Goodman, P.S., 1983, 'Some implications of ecosystem properties for wildlife management,' in N. Owen-Smith (ed.), Management of large mammals in african conservation areas, pp. 79-80, HAUM, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Walker, B.H., Emslie, R.H., Owen-Smith, N. & Scholes, R.J., 1987, 'To cull or not to cull: lessons from a southern African drought', Journal of Applied Ecology 24, 381-401. doi:10.2307/2403882 [ Links ]

    Ward, D., 2005, 'Do we understand the causes of bush encroachment in African savannas?', African Journal of Range and Forage Science 22, 101-105. doi:10.2989/10220110509485867 [ Links ]

    Wentzel, J.J., Bothma, J. du P. & Van Rooyen, N., 1991, 'Characteristics of the herbaceous layer in preferred grazing areas of six herbivore species in the south-eastern Kruger National Park', Koedoe 34(1), 51-59. [ Links ]

    Woolnough, A.P. & Du Toit, J.T., 2001, 'Vertical zonation of browse quality in tree canopies exposed to a size-structured guild of African browsing ungulates', Oecologia 129, 585-590. [ Links ]

    Wrench, J.M., Meissner, H.H. & Grant, C.C., 1997, 'Assessing diet quality of African ungulates from faecal analysis: the effect of forage quality, intake and herbivore species', Koedoe 40(1), 125-136. [ Links ]

    Yeaton, R.I., 1988, 'Porcupines, fire and the dynamics of the tree layer of the Burkea africana savanna', Journal of Ecology 76, 1017-1029. doi:10.2307/2260630 [ Links ]

    Young, K.D., Ferreira, S.M. & Van Aarde, R., 2009a, 'Elephant spatial use in wet and dry savannas of southern Africa', Journal of Zoology 278, 1-17. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1984.tb06041.x, doi:10.1111/j.1469- 7998.2009.00568.x [ Links ]

    Young, K.D., Ferreira, S.M. & Van Aarde, R., 2009b, 'The influence of increasing population size and vegetation productivity on elephant distribution in the Kruger National Park', Austral Ecology 34, 329-342. doi:10.1111/j.1442- 9993.2009.01934.x [ Links ]

    Zambatis, N., 2002, 'Revised procedures for veld condition assessment in the Kruger National Park', Internal Report 1/2002, Scientific Services, South African National Parks, Skukuza. [ Links ]