SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

MCGEOCH, Melodie A et al. A strategic framework for biodiversity monitoring in South African National Parks. Koedoe [online]. 2011, vol.53, n.2, pp.43-51. ISSN 2071-0771.

    Bas, Y., Devictor, V., Moussus, J.P. & Jiguet, F., 2008, 'Accounting for weather and time-of-day parameters when analysing count data from monitoring programs', Biodiversity and Conservation 17, 3403-3416. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9420-6 [ Links ]

    Bell, S., Marzano, M., Cent, J., Kobierska, H., Podjed, D., Vandzinskaite, D., et al., 2008, 'What counts? Volunteers and their organisations in the recording and monitoring of biodiversity', Biodiversity and Conservation 17, 3443-3454. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9357-9 [ Links ]

    Bengis, R.G., Grant, R. & De Vos, V., 2003, 'Wildlife diseases and veterinary controls: A savanna ecosystem perspective', in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 349-369, Island Press, Washington. [ Links ]

    Biggs, H.C., 2003, 'Integration of science: successes, challenges, and the future', in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 469-487, Island Press, Washington. [ Links ]

    Biggs, H.C. & Rogers, K.H., 2003, 'An adaptive system to link science, monitoring, and management in practice', in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 59-80, Island Press, Washington. [ Links ]

    Braschler, B., Mahood, K., Karenyi, N., Gaston, K.J. & Chown, S.L., 2010, 'Realizing a synergy between research and education: how participation in ant monitoring helps raise biodiversity awareness in a resource-poor country', Journal of Insect Conservation 14, 19-30. doi:10.1007/s10841-009-9221-6 [ Links ]

    Bruner, A.G., Gullison, R.E., Rice, R.E. & Da Fonseca, G.A.B., 2001, 'Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity', Science 291, 125-128. doi:10.1126/science.291.5501.125, PMid:11141563 [ Links ]

    Bryden, H.B. & De Vos, V., 1994, 'A scientific bibliography on the national parks of South Africa', Koedoe, suppl. 1994. [ Links ]

    Buckland, S.T., Magurran, A.E., Green, R.E. & Fewster, R.M., 2005, 'Monitoring change in biodiversity through composite indices', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360, 243-254. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1589, PMid:15814343, PMCid:1569463 [ Links ]

    Buckley, R., Robinson, J., Carmody, J. & King, N., 2008, 'Monitoring for management of conservation and recreation in Australian protected areas', Biodiversity and Conservation 17, 3589-3606. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9448-7 [ Links ]

    Butchart, S.H.M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Almond, R.E.A., et al., 2010, 'Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines', Science 328, 1164-1168. doi:10.1126/science.1187512, PMid:20430971 [ Links ]

    Carey, C., Dudley, N. & Stolton, S., 2000, Threats to protected areas. Squandering paradise? The importance and vulnerability of the world's protected areas, World Wide Fund for Nature International, Gland, Switzerland. [ Links ]

    Craigie, I.D., Baillie, J.E.M., Balmford, A., Carbone, C., Collen, B., Green, R.E. & Hutton, J.M., 2010, 'Large mammal population declines in Africa's protected areas', Biological Conservation 143, 2221-2228. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2010.06.007 [ Links ]

    Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A. & Hyatt, A.D., 2000, 'Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife - threats to biodiversity and human health', Science 287, 443-449. doi:10.1126/science.287.5452.443, PMid:10642539 [ Links ]

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), 2002, Environmental Indicators for National State of the Environment Reporting South Africa, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South African Government, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), 2005, South Africa's National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South African Government, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), 2006, South African Environment Outlook. A report on the state of the environment, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South African Government, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), 2008, National Protected Area Expansion Strategy, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South African Government, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT), 2009, South Africa's Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biodiversity, March 2009, South African National Biodiversity Institute, South African Government, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), 2005, 'Achieving sustainable forest management: The principles, criteria, indicators and standards framework', A Guide for Forest Managers & Auditors to Achieve Sustainable Forest Management, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South African Government, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), 2007, South Africa's State of the Forests Report 2004-2006, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, South African Government, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    De Villiers, S. & Thiart, C., 2007, 'The nutrient status of South African rivers: Concentrations, trends and fluxes from the 1970s to 2005', South African Journal of Science 103, 343-349. [ Links ]

    Driver, A., Maze, K., Lombard, A.T., Nel, J., Rouget, M., Turpie, J.K., et al., 2005, 'National spatial biodiversity assessment 2004: Priorities for biodiversity conservation in South Africa', Strelitzia 17, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Durrheim, G.P., 2009, 'Monitoring for sustainable forest management in the Garden Route', South African National Parks, Scientific Services, Knysna. [ Links ]

    Du Toit, J., 2003, 'Large herbivores and savanna heterogeneity', in J.T. Du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 292-309, Island Press, Washington. [ Links ]

    Du Toit, J.T., Rogers, K.H. & Biggs, H.C. (eds.), 2003, The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, Island Press, Washington. [ Links ]

    Elzinga, C.L., Salzer, D.W., Willoughby, J.W. & Gibbs, J.P., 2001, Monitoring plant and animal populations, Blackwell Science, Oxford. [ Links ]

    Fabricius, C., 2004, 'The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management', in C. Fabricius, E. Koch, H. Magome & S. Turner (eds.), Rights, resources and rural development: Community-based natural resource management in Southern Africa, pp. 3-43, Earthscan, London. [ Links ]

    Field, S.A., O'Connor, P.J., Tyre, A.J. & Possingham, H.P., 2007, 'Making monitoring meaningful', Austral Ecology 32, 485-491. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2007.01715.x [ Links ]

    Foxcroft, L.C., 2009, 'Developing thresholds of potential concern for invasive alien species: Hypotheses and concepts', Koedoe 51, 11-16. doi:10.4102/koedoe. v51i1.157 [ Links ]

    Foxcroft, L.C., Richardson, D.M., Rouget, M. & MacFadyen, S., 2009, 'Patterns of alien plant distribution at multiple spatial scales in a large national park: implications for ecology, management and monitoring', Diversity and Distributions 15, 367-378. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2008.00544.x [ Links ]

    Gardner, T.A., Barlow, J., Araujo, I.S., Avila-Pires, T.C., Bonaldo, A.B., Costa, J.E., et al., 2008, 'The cost-effectiveness of biodiversity surveys in tropical forests', Ecology Letters 11, 139-150. [ Links ]

    Gaston, K.J., 1996, Biodiversity: A biology of numbers and difference, Blackwell Science, Oxford. [ Links ]

    Gaston, K.J., 2010, 'Valuing common species', Science 327, 154-155. doi:10.1126/science.1182818, PMid:20056880 [ Links ]

    Gaston, K.J., Charman, K., Jackson, S.F., Armsworth, P.R., Bonn, A., Briers, R.A., et al., 2006, 'The ecological effectiveness of protected areas: The United Kingdom', Biological Conservation 132, 76-87. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.03.013 [ Links ]

    Gaston, K.J., Jackson, S.F., Cantú-Salazar, L. & Cruz-Piñón, G., 2008, 'The ecological performance of protected areas', Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 39, 93-113. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173529 [ Links ]

    Geldenhuys, C.J., 1992, 'Disjunctions and distribution limits of forest species in the southern Cape', South African Forestry Journal 161, 1-13. [ Links ]

    Goodman, P.S., 2003, 'Assessing management effectiveness and setting priorities in protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal', BioScience 53, 843-850. doi:10.1641/0006- 3568(2003)053[0843:AMEASP]2.0.CO;2 [ Links ]

    Grobler, J., 2009, Biodiversity monitoring strategy and five-year action plan, Version 2, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Hansen, A.J. & DeFries, R., 2007, 'Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands', Ecological Applications 17, 974-988. doi:10.1890/05-1098, PMid:17555212 [ Links ]

    Heink, U. & Kowarik, I., 2010, 'What are indicators? On the definition of indicators in ecology and environmental planning', Ecological Indicators 10, 584-593. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2009.09.009 [ Links ]

    Henry, P.Y., Lengyel, S., Nowicki, P., Julliard, R., Clobert, J., Celik, T. et al., 2008, 'Integrating ongoing biodiversity monitoring: potential benefits and methods', Biodiversity and Conservation 17, 3357-3382. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9417-1 [ Links ]

    Hockings, M., 2003, 'Systems for assessing the effectiveness of management in protected areas', BioScience 53, 823-832. doi:10.1641/0006- 3568(2003)053[0823:SFATEO]2.0.CO;2 [ Links ]

    Hockings, M., Leverington, F. & James, R., 2006, 'Evaluating management effectiveness', in M. Lockwood, G.L. Worboys & A. Kothari (eds.), Managing protected areas: A global guide, pp. 635-655, Earthscan, London. [ Links ]

    Hulme, P.E., 2009, 'Trade, transport and trouble: Managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization', Journal of Applied Ecology 46, 10-18. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01600.x [ Links ]

    IUCN Standards and Petitions Working Group, 2009, Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 7.0., prepared by the Standards and Petitions Working Group of the IUCN SSC Biodiversity Assessments Sub-Committee in August 2008, viewed 15 October 2009, from [ Links ]

    James, A., Gaston, K.J. & Balmford, A., 2001, 'Can we afford to conserve biodiversity?', BioScience 51, 43-52. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0043:CWATCB]2.0.CO;2 [ Links ]

    Jones, K.E., Patel, N.G., Levy, M.A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J.L., et al., 2008, 'Global trends in emerging infectious diseases', Nature 451, 990-993. doi:10.1038/nature06536, PMid:18288193 [ Links ]

    Kapos, V., Balmford, A., Aveling, R., Bubb, P., Carey, P., Entwistle, A., et al., 2008, 'Calibrating conservation: New tools for measures of success', Conservation Letters 1, 155-164. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2008.00025.x [ Links ]

    Knight, M.H., 2007, SANParks State of Biodiversity Report (SoB) Background Sheet: Park Planning & Development, Conservation Services, unpublished report, SANParks, Port Elizabeth. [ Links ]

    Leipold, M. & Van Zyl, C.J., 2008, 'The economic impact of sport and recreational angling in the Republic of South Africa, 2007', Project Report, pp. 48, Development Strategies International, Cape Town. [ Links ]

    Lepetz, V., Massot, M., Schmeller, D.S. & Clobert, J., 2009, 'Biodiversity monitoring: some proposals to adequately study species' responses to climate change', Biodiversity and Conservation 18, 3185-3203. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9636-0 [ Links ]

    Lombard, A.T., Strauss, T., Harris, J., Sink, K., Attwood, C. & Hutchings, L., 2004, 'Marine Component', in South African National Spatial Biodiversity AssessmentTechnical Report, Chapter 4, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Lovett, G.M., Burns, D.A., Driscoll, C.T., Jenkins, J.C., Mitchell, M.J., Rustad, L. et al., 2007, 'Who needs environmental monitoring?' Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5, 253-260. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[253:WNEM]2.0.CO;2 [ Links ]

    Mace, G.M., Delbaere, B., Hanski, I., Harrison, J.A., Novo, F.G., Pereira, H.M., et al., 2005, A user's guide to biodiversity indicators, European Academy of Sciences Advisory Council, The Royal Society, London. [ Links ]

    Margules, C.R., Grant, C.C., Poon, E., Deacon, A., MacFadyen, S., Biggs, H.C., et al., 2003, A suggested biodiversity survey and monitoring program for Kruger National Park, Scientific Report 01/03, Scientific Services, Skukuza, Kruger National Park. [ Links ]

    McGeoch, M.A., Butchart, S.H.M., Spear, D., Marais, E., Kleynhans, E.J., Symes, A., et al., 2010, 'Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses', Diversity & Distributions 16, 95-108. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2009.00633.x [ Links ]

    Midgley, G.F., Chown, S.L. & Kgope, B.S., 2007, 'Monitoring effects of anthropogenic climate change on ecosystems: A role for systematic ecological observation?', South African Journal of Science 103, 282-286. [ Links ]

    Moloney, C.L. & Shillington, F.A., 2007, 'Progress towards marine ecosystem observing systems in South Africa', South African Journal of Science 103, 301-305. [ Links ]

    Naughton-Treves, L., Buck Holland, M. & Brandon, K., 2005, 'The role of protected areas in conserving biodiversity and sustaining local livelihoods', Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30, 219-252. doi:10.1146/annurev. energy.30.050504.164507 [ Links ]

    Nichols, J.D. & Williams, B.K., 2006, 'Monitoring for conservation', Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21, 668-673. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.08.007 [ Links ]

    Nielsen, S.E., Haughland, D.L., Bayne, E. & Schieck, J., 2009, 'Capacity of large-scale, long-term biodiversity monitoring programmes to detect trends in species prevalence', Biodiversity and Conservation 18, 2961-2978. doi:10.1007/s10531- 009-9619-1 [ Links ]

    Noss, R.F., 1990, 'Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: A hierarchical approach', Conservation Biology 4, 355-364. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.1990.tb00309.x [ Links ]

    Podjed, D. & Mursic, R., 2008, 'Dialectical relations between professionals and volunteers in a biodiversity monitoring organisation', Biodiversity and Conservation 17, 3471-3483. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9443-z [ Links ]

    Pomeroy, R.S., Watson, L.M., Parks, J.E. & Cid, G.A., 2005, 'How is your MPA doing? A methodology for evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas', Ocean & Coastal Management 48, 485-502. doi:10.1016/j. ocecoaman.2005.05.004 [ Links ]

    Pringle, C.M. & Collins, S.L., 2004, 'Needed: A unified infrastructure to support long-term scientific research on public lands', Ecological Applications 14, 18-21. doi:10.1890/03-5106 [ Links ]

    Regan, H.M., Hierl, L.A., Franklin, J., Deutschman, D.H., Schmalbach, H.L., Winchell, al., 2008, 'Species prioritization for monitoring and management in regional multiple species conservation plans', Diversity and Distributions 14, 462-471. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2007.00447.x [ Links ]

    Republic of South Africa, 2003, National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, 57 of 2003, Government Printer, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Republic of South Africa, 2004, National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 10 of 2004, Government Printer, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Revenga, C., Campbell, I., Abell, R., De Villiers, P. & Bryer, M., 2005, 'Prospects for monitoring freshwater ecosystems towards the 2010 targets', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360, 397-413. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1595, PMid:15814353, PMCid:1569454 [ Links ]

    Reyers, B. & McGeoch, M.A., 2007, 'A biodiversity monitoring framework for South Africa: Progress and directions', South African Journal of Science 103, 295-300. [ Links ]

    Rogers, K.H. & O'Keefe, J., 2003, 'River heterogeneity: Ecosystem structure, function and management', in J.T. du Toit, K.H. Rogers & H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 189-218, Island Press, Washington. [ Links ]

    South African National Parks (SANParks), 2006a, South African National Parks Coordinated Policy Framework Governing Park Management Plans, SANParks, Pretoria, viewed 15 January 2010, from [ Links ]

    South African National Parks (SANParks), 2006b, South African National Parks Project Management Policy V1.2., Policy no. 13/1/P/01, South African National Parks, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    South African National Parks (SANParks), 2008, South African National Parks Resource Use Policy, South African National Parks, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Schulze G.C., 2007, 'Atmospheric observations and numerical weather prediction', South African Journal of Science 103, 3180-322. [ Links ]

    Statistics South Africa (SSA), 2008, South African Statistical Quality Assessment Framework (SASQAF), 1st edn., Statistics South Africa, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Stolton, S., Hockings, M., Dudley, N., MacKinnon, K., Whitten, T. & Leverington, F., 2007, Reporting progress in protected areas: A site level management effectiveness tracking tool, 2nd edn., World Bank/WWF Forest Alliance, WWF, Gland, Switzerland. [ Links ]

    Soberón, J. & Peterson, A.T., 2009, 'Monitoring biodiversity loss with primary species-occurrence data: Toward national-level indicators for the 2010 target of the Convention on Biological Diversity', Ambio 38, 29-34. doi:10.1579/0044-7447- 38.1.29 [ Links ]

    Spellerberg, I.F., 2005, Monitoring ecological change, 2nd edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511614699 [ Links ]

    Teder, T., Moora, M., Roosaluste, E., Zobel, K., Pärtel, M., Kõljalg, U., et al., 2007, 'Monitoring of biological diversity: A common-ground approach', Conservation Biology 21, 313-317. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00575.x, PMid:17391181 [ Links ]

    The Royal Society, 2003, Measuring biodiversity for conservation, Policy Document 11/03, The Royal Society, London. [ Links ]

    Timko, J.A. & Innes, J.L., 2009, 'Evaluating ecological integrity in national parks: Case studies from Canada and South Africa', Biological Conservation 142, 676-688. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2008.11.022 [ Links ]

    UNEP-WCMC, 2008, State of the world's protected areas: An annual review of global conservation progress, UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge. [ Links ]

    Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Biggs, R., Scholes, R.J., Bohensky, E., Reyers, B., Lynam, T., et al., 2005, 'Measuring conditions and trends in ecosystem services at multiple scales: The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA) experience', Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360, 425-441. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1594, PMid:15814355, PMCid:1569451 [ Links ]

    Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Pauw, J.C., Mundree, S., Mecenero, S., Coetzee, B.W.T. & Alard, G.F., 2007, 'South African Environmental Observation Network: Vision, design and status', South African Journal of Science 103, 289-294. [ Links ]

    Van Wilgen, B.W., Biggs, H.C. & Potgieter, A.L.F., 1998, 'Fire management and research in the Kruger National Park, with suggestions on the detection of thresholds of potential concern', Koedoe 41, 69-87. [ Links ]

    Von Maltitz, G.P., & Shackleton, S.E., 2004, 'Use and management of forests and woodlands in South Africa: Stakeholders, institutions and processes from past to present', in M.J. Lawes, H.A.C. Eeley, C.M. Shackleton & B.G.S. Geach (eds.), Indigenous forests and woodlands in South Africa: Policy, people and practice, pp. 109-135, University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Durban. [ Links ]

    Walker, K.L., 2009, 'Protected-area monitoring dilemmas: A new tool to assess success', Conservation Biology 23, 1294-1303. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01203.x, PMid:19765040 [ Links ]

    Walpole, M., Almond, R.E.A., Besançon, C., Butchart, S.H.M., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Carr, G.M., et al., 2009, 'Tracking progress toward the 2010 biodiversity target and beyond', Science 325, 1503-1504. doi:10.1126/science.1175466, PMid:19762630 [ Links ]

    World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 2004, 'Are protected areas working? An analysis of forest protected areas by WWF', World Wildlife Fund International, Gland, Switzerland. [ Links ]