SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

BIGGS, Harry et al. How assessment and reflection relate to more effective learning in adaptive management. Koedoe [online]. 2011, vol.53, n.2, pp.15-27. ISSN 2071-0771.

    Allan, C. & Curtis, A., 2005, 'Nipped in the bud: Why regional scale adaptive management is not blooming', Environmental Management 36(3), 414-425. [ Links ]

    Anderies, J.M., Janssen, M.A. & Ostrom, E., 2004, 'A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective', Ecology and Society 9(1), 18, viewed 28 April 2011, from [ Links ]

    Argouridas, V. & Race, P., 2007, 'Enhancing knowledge management in design education through systematic reflection practice', Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications 15(1), 63-76. [ Links ]

    Belokurov, A., Besançon, C., Burgess, N.D., Dudley, N., Hockings, M., Leverington, F., et al., 2009, 'New resources for assessing the effectiveness of management in protected areas', Oryx 43(1), 14. [ Links ]

    Biggs, H.C. & Rogers, K.M., 2003, 'An adaptive system to link science, monitoring and management in practice', in J. du Toit, K.M. Rogers and H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 59-80, Island Press, Covelo. [ Links ]

    Biggs, H. & Van Wyk, A., 2000, 'How far are we with our stated goals and how should we modify them along the way?', presented at Annual General Meeting of Conservation Section, Kruger National Park, Skukuza, 9-10 Nov 2000. [ Links ]

    Businessballs n.d., Kolb learning styles, featuring Honey and Mumford's variation, viewed 28 March 2011, from [ Links ]

    Bridgman, P. & Davis, G., 2004, The Australian Policy Handbook, Allen & Unwin, Sydney. [ Links ]

    Cilliers, F.P., 2006, 'On the importance of a certain slowness. Stability, memory and hysteresis in complex systems', Emergence: Complexity and Organisation 8(3), 106-113. [ Links ]

    Cook, C., Hockings, M. & Carter, R.W., 2009, 'Conservation in the dark: the information used to support decisions', Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 8(4), 181-186. [ Links ]

    Du Toit, J., Rogers, J.K. & Biggs, H.C. (eds.), 2003, The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, Island Press, Covelo. [ Links ]

    Duff, J., 2002, 'An assessment of adaptive management practices in South Africa National Parks and Ezemvelo KwaZulu Natal Wildlife', MSc dissertation, Centre of Environment and Development, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Natal. [ Links ]

    Fazey, I. & Schultz, L., 2009, 'Adaptive people for adaptive management' in C. Allen & G. Stankey (eds.), Adaptive environmental management: a practitioner's guide, pp. 323-338, Springer, Dortrecht and CSIRO, Collingwood. [ Links ]

    Freitag, S., Biggs, H. & Breen, C., in review, 'Fifteen years of the spread and maturation of adaptive management in South African National Parks: organisational learning in systems perspective', in W. Freimund, S. McCool & C.M. Breen (eds.), Engaging complexity in protected area management: challenging Occam's razor, University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg. [ Links ]

    Gaylard, A. & Ferreira, S.M., 2011, 'Modification and maturation of SANPark's adaptive planning process - making critical linkages between conservation objectives and actions', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1005, 8 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1005 [ Links ]

    Garvin, D.A., 1993, 'Building a learning organization'. Harvard Business Review 71(4), 78-91. [ Links ]

    Gray, J.A. Muir, 1997, Evidence-based health care, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh. [ Links ]

    Growcock, A.J., Sutherland, E.F. & Stathis, P.T., 2009, 'Challenges and experiences in implementing a management effectiveness evaluation program in a protected area system', Australasian Journal of Environmental Management 16, 30-38. [ Links ]

    Hockings, M., Cook, C., Carter, R.W. & James, R., 2009, 'Accountability, reporting or management improvement? Development of a State of the Parks Assessment System in New South Wales', Environmental Management 43, 1013-1025. [ Links ]

    Hockings, M., Stolton, S. & Dudley, N., 2004, 'Management effectiveness: assessing management of protected areas', Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 6(2), 157-174. [ Links ]

    IUCN Freshwater Task Force and Skukuza Group, in prep., 'Adaptive management guidelines for effective conservation of freshwater ecosystems in and around protected areas of the world', Australian Wetlands and Rivers Centre, Sydney. [ Links ]

    Kingsford, R.T., Biggs, H.C. & Pollard, S.R. , 2011, 'Strategic Adaptive Management in freshwater protected areas and their rivers', Biological Conservation 144, 1194-1203. [ Links ]

    Knight, M.H., 2008, 'SANParks: State of Biodiversity report: Comparisons of 2008 & 2007 scores', Internal SANParks document, Park Planning & Development, Port Elizabeth. [ Links ]

    Kolb, D., 1984, Experiential learning, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. [ Links ]

    Mabunda, D., Pienaar, D.J. & Verhoef, J., 2003, 'The Kruger National Park: A Century of Management and Research', in J. du Toit, K.M. Rogers and H.C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, pp. 3-21, Island Press, Covelo. [ Links ]

    Michael, D. N., 1995, Barriers and bridges to learning in a turbulent human ecology, Columbia University Press, New York. [ Links ]

    Narrative Lab, 2009, 'Investigating appropriate performance measures. South African National Parks, Conservation Services Division. Final Consolidated Report to SANParks', Internal report, SANParks, Pretoria (available from SANParks Archives). [ Links ]

    Nkhata, B.A. & Breen, C., 2010, 'A framework for exploring integrated learning systems for the governance and management of public protected areas', Environmental Management 45(2), 403-413. [ Links ]

    Paehlke, R. & Torgerson, D., 1990, Managing Leviathan:environmental politics and the administrative state, Broadview Press, Peterborough. [ Links ]

    Pollard, S.R. & Du Toit, D.R., 2005, 'Recognizing heterogeneity and variability as key characteristics of savannah systems: The use of Strategic Adaptive Management as an approach to river management within the Kruger National Park, South Africa', Report of UNEP/GEF Project No. GF/2713-03-4679, Ecosystems, Protected Areas and People Project. IUCN, Gland, viewed 28 March 2011, from [ Links ]

    Pollard, S.R. & Du Toit, D.R., 2007, Guidelines for Strategic Adaptive Management. Experiences from managing the rivers of the Kruger National Park. Guidelines for management and field staff of protected areas, Ecosystems, Protected Areas and People (EPP) Project (UNEP GEF No. GF/27-13-03-4679), Regional Protected Areas Programme of IUCN-World Conservation Union in Asia. [ Links ]

    Rebelo, T., Freitag-Ronaldson, S., Cheney, C. & McGeoch, M., 2011, 'Prioritizing species of special concern in the Table Mountain National Park for monitoring: the challenge of a species-rich, threatened ecosystem', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1019, 14 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1019 [ Links ]

    Rogers, K.H., 2005, Biodiversity custodianship in SANParks: a protected area management planning framework, South African National Parks, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Roux, D.J. & Foxcroft, L.C., 2011, 'The development and application of Strategic Adaptive Management (SAM) within South African National Parks', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1049, 5 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1049 [ Links ]

    Roux, D.J., Murray, K. & Van Wyk, E., 2008, 'Learning to learn for socio-ecological resilience. Balancing strategy options in public sector organizations', in M. Burns & A. Weaver (eds.), Exploring Sustainability Science: a Southern African perspective, pp. 599-625, African Sun Media, Stellenbosch. [ Links ]

    Roux, D.J., Murray, K. & Van Wyk, E., 2009, Enabling effective learning in catchment management agencies: Research Report. Report No 1689/1/09, Water Research Commission, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    SANParks, 1999-2011, Conservation Services Management committee, minutes of [regular] meetings, SANParks archive, Skukuza. [ Links ]

    SANParks, 2008, 'A framework for developing and implementing management plans for South African National Parks', viewed 15 April 2009, from [ Links ]

    SANParks, 2010, Kruger National Park MANCO Meeting minutes (March 2010), Kruger National Park Archives, Skukuza. [ Links ]

    Scholes, R.J. & Mennell, K.G. (eds.), 2008, Elephant management. a scientific assessment for South Africa, Wits University Press, Johannesburg. [ Links ]

    Schön, D., 1983, The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action, Temple Smith, London. [ Links ]

    Stankey, G.H., Clark, R.N. & Bormann, B.T., 2005, Adaptive management of natural resources: theory, concepts, and management institutions, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-654, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Starfield, A.M. & Bleloch, A.L., 1991, 'Building models for conservation and wildlife management', 2nd ed., Burgess International, Edina. [ Links ]

    Stirzaker, R., Roux, D.J. & Biggs, H.C., 2011, 'Learning to bridge the gap between adaptive amangement and organisational culture', Koedoe 53(2), Art. #1007, 6 pages. doi:10.4102/koedoe.v53i2.1007 [ Links ]

    Van Wilgen, B.W. & Biggs, H.C., 2011, 'A critical assessment of adaptive ecosystem management in a large savanna protected area in South Africa', Biological Conservation 144, 1179-1187. [ Links ]

    Walker, B. & Salt, D., 2006, Resilience thinking: sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world', Island Press, Washington DC. [ Links ]

    Walters, C., 1986, Adaptive management of renewable resources, Macmillan, New York. [ Links ]

    Water Research Commission, n.d., Report under Project K5/1711, Principal investigator: S. Pollard, Water Research Commission, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Water Research Commission, n.d., Report under Project K5/1797, Principal investigator: C. McLoughlin, Water Research Commission, Pretoria. [ Links ]

    Weick, K.E. & Sutcliffe, K.M., 2001, Managing the unexpected: assuring high performance in an age of complexity, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. [ Links ]