SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

HUNTER, Alistair. Radiation biology: an important science for an advanced nuclear nation like South Africa. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.108, n.7-8, pp.33-43. ISSN 1996-7489.

    1. Plug C. The introduction of Röntgen rays and radiography into South Africa in 1896. Adler Mus Bull. 2001;27(1):4-10. PMid:20306597 [ Links ]

    2. Vermeulen DJ. Early x-ray equipment: A view from the South. Eng Sci Ed J. 2002;11(6):231-242. [ Links ]

    3. Levin CV, Goedhals L. Radiation oncology in South Africa. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1997;37(1):123-124. [ Links ]

    6. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). 2008 report to the General Assembly: Annex on medical exposures. New York: UNSCEAR; 2010. [ Links ]

    7. Barton MB, Frommer M, Shafiq J. Role of radiotherapy in cancer control in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7:584-595. [ Links ]

    8. Hall EJ. Cancer risks from diagnostic radiology. Br J Radiol. 2008;81:362-378., PMid:18440940 [ Links ]

    9. Vaughan CL. Imagining the elephant: A biography of Allan MacLeod Cormack. London: Imperial College Press; 2008. [ Links ]

    10. Nuclear power in South Africa [homepage on the Internet]. c2011 [updated 2011 May; cited 2011 Sept 29]. Available from: [ Links ]

    12. Reuters. SA to build new nuclear power plants [homepage on the Internet]. c2011 [updated 2011 Sept 15; cited 2011 Oct 05]. Available from: [ Links ]

    13. Vacquier B, Rage E, Leuraud K, et al. The influence of multiple types of occupational exposure to radon, gamma rays and long-lived radionuclides on mortality risk in the French post-55" sub-cohort of uranium miners: 1956-1999. Radiat Res. 2011;176(6):796-806. [ Links ]

    14. Macleod F. Reef Chernobyl 'will cost billions' [homepage on the Internet]. c2011 [updated 2011 Mar 04; cited 2011 Sept 29]. Available from: [ Links ]

    15. US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement. Low dose and low dose-rate radiation effects and models. Washington DC: US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement; 2008. [ Links ]

    16. Ulsh BA. Checking the foundation: Recent radiobiology and the linear no-threshold theory. Health Physics. 2010;99:747-758., PMid:21068593 [ Links ]

    17. Koeberg workers contaminated [homepage on the Internet]. c2010 [updated 2010 Sept 20; cited 2011 Sept 29]. Available from: [ Links ]

    18. Shisana O, Rehle T, Simbayi LC, et al. South African national HIV prevalence, incidence, behaviour and communication survey 2008: A turning tide among teenagers? Cape Town: HSRC Press; 2009. [ Links ]

    19. Baeyens A, Slabbert JP, Willem P, Jozela S, Van der Merwe D, Vral A. Chromosomal radiosensitivity of HIV positive individuals. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010;86(7):584-592., PMid:20545573 [ Links ]

    20. Blekkenhorst G, Jones D, Duffett R, Hendrikse A, Hunter A. The response of mouse skin to fractionated doses of fast neutrons (66 MeVp-Be) with variable interfraction and overall treatment times. Strahlenther Onkol. 1995;171(1):42-48. PMid:7839304 [ Links ]

    21. Böhm L, Gueulette J, Jones DTL, et al. Radiobiological intercomparison of two clinical neutron beams using the regeneration of mouse jejunal crypts. Strahlenther Onkol. 1990;166:242-245. PMid:2109358 [ Links ]

    22. Böhm L, Blekkenhorst G, Slabbert JP, Verheye F, Jones DTL, Yudelev M. RBE and OER measurements of the p(66) + Be neutron beam at Faure, South Africa. Strahlenther Onkol. 1992;168:42-47. PMid:1734591 [ Links ]

    23. Blekkenhorst G, Hendrikse A, Kent C, Jones, DTL, Van Aardweg MJ. Preclinical studies with the Faure high energy neutron facility: Response of pig skin to the fractionated doses of fast 66 MeVp-Be neutrons. Radiother Oncol. 1990;18:147-154. [ Links ]

    24. Gueulette, J, Böhm L, De Coster BM, et al. RBE variation as a function of depth in the 200 MeV proton beam produced at the National Accelerator Centre in Faure (South Africa). Radiother Oncol. 1997;42:303-309. [ Links ]

    25. Gueulette J, Böhm L, Slabbert JP, et al. Proton relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for survival in mice after thoracic irradiation with fractionated doses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;47:1051-1058. [ Links ]

    26. Kent CR, Blekkenhorst GH. In vivo radiosensitization by diethyldithiocarbamate. Radiat Res. 1988;116(3):539-546., PMid:2849781 [ Links ]

    27. Binder A, Theron T, Donninger H, Parker MI, Böhm L. Radiosensitization and DNA repair inhibition by pentoxifylline in NIH-3T3 transfectants. Int J Radiat Biol. 2002;78:991-1000., PMid:12456286 [ Links ]

    28. Serafin AM, Akudugu JM, Böhm L. Studies on the influence of DNA repair on radiosensitivity in prostate cell lines. Urol Res. 2003;31:227-231., PMid:12669154 [ Links ]

    29. Akudugu JM, Theron T, Serafin A, Böhm L. Influence of DNA double-strand break rejoining on clonogenic survival and micronucleus yield in human cell lines. Int J Radiat Biol. 2004;80:93-104., PMid:15164791 [ Links ]

    30. Hendrikse A, Blekkenhorst G. The effect of irradiation in air or in hyperbaric oxygen on the Fib/T tumor in WHT mice pretreated with a hypoxic gas mixture. Radiat Res. 1991;125(1):28-33., PMid:1986398 [ Links ]

    31. Sealy R, Jacobs P, Wood L, et al. The treatment of tumors by the induction of anemia and irradiation in hyperbaric oxygen. Cancer. 1989;64(3):646-652. PMid:2743260 [ Links ]

    32. Sealy R, Cridland S, Blekkenhorst G, Barry L, Rombouts T. Interstitial misonidazole: Clinical experience in advanced mouth cancer. Clin Radiol. 1988;39(2):182-185. PMid:3356098 [ Links ]

    33. Hering ER, Blekkenhorst G, Harrison GG, et al. Single-dose relative biological effectiveness and toxicity studies under conditions of hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen. Br J Radiol. 1986;59(707):1099-1103. PMid:3790897 [ Links ]

    34. Sealy R, Harrison GG, Morrell D, et al. A feasibility study of a new approach to clinical radiosensitisation: Hypothermia and hyperbaric oxygen in combination with pharmacological vasodilatation. Br J Radiol. 1986;59(707):1093-1098., PMid:3790896 [ Links ]

    35. Hering ER, Sealy GR, Dowman P, Blekkenhorst G. OER and RBE for 125I and 192Ir at low dose rate on mammalian cells. Radiother Oncol. 1987;10(3):247-252. [ Links ]

    36. Hunter AJ, Blekkenhorst GH. The effects of 2-deoxyglucose and amino-oxyacetic acid on the radiation response of mammalian cells in vitro. Int J Radiat Biol. 1998 Mar;73(3):311-324. [ Links ]

    37. Hendrikse AS, Hunter AJ, Keraan M, Blekkenhorst GH. Effects of low dose irradiation on TK6 and U937 cells: Induction of p53 and its role in cell-cycle delay and the adaptive response. Int J Radiat Biol. 2000;76(1):11-21. [ Links ]

    38. Akudugu JM, Böhm L. Micronuclei and apoptosis in glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines and the role of other lesions in the reconstruction of cellular radiosensitivity. Radiat Environ Biophys. 2001;40:295-300., PMid:11820738 [ Links ]

    39. Akudugu JM, Serafin A, Slabbert JP, Böhm L. Frequency of radiation-induced micronuclei in neuronal cells does not correlate with clonogenic survival. Radiat Res. 2000;153:62-67.[0062:FORIMI]2.0.CO;2 [ Links ]

    40. Le Roux J, Slabbert J, Smit B, Blekkenhorst G. Assessment of the micronucleus assay as a biological dosimeter using cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes from cancer patients receiving fractionated partial body-radiotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol. 1998;174(2):75-81., PMid:9487369 [ Links ]

    43. Baumann M, Leer JWH, Dahl O, et al. Updated European core curriculum for radiotherapists (radiation oncologists). Recommended curriculum for the specialist training of medical practitioners in radiotherapy (radiation oncology) within Europe. Radiother Oncol. 2004;70(2):107-113., PMid:15028397 [ Links ]

    44. Zeman EM, Dynlacht JR, Rosenstein BS, Dewhirst MW. Toward a national consensus: Teaching radiobiology to radiation oncology residents. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54(3):861-872. [ Links ]

    46. Hussey DH, Sagerman RH, Halberg F, Dubey A, Coleman CN. Report of the 1997 SCAROP survey on resident training. Society of Chairmen of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs. Acad Radiol. 2000;7:176-183. [ Links ]

    47. Coleman CN, Stone HB, Alexander GA, et al. Education and training for radiation scientists: Radiation research program and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland, May 12-14, 2003. Radiat Res. 2003;160:729-737., PMid:14640790 [ Links ]

    48. Dynlacht JR, Zeman EM. Recent initiatives for radiation oncology resident education in radiation and cancer biology. Radiat Res. 2007;168:262-265., PMid:17722362 [ Links ]

    49. Rosenstein BS, Held KD, Rockwell S, Williams JP, Zeman EM. American society for radiation oncology (ASTRO) survey of radiation biology educators in U.S and Canadian radiation oncology residency programs. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;75(3):896-905., PMid:19733012 [ Links ]

    52. Cohen L. Radiotherapy in breast cancer: 1. The dose-time relationship: Theoretical considerations. Br J Radiol. 1952;25:636-642., PMid:12997667 [ Links ]

    53. Reising J. About Fermilab history and archives project [homepage on the Internet]. c2006 [updated 2006 Jan 24; cited 2011 Oct 06]. Available from: [ Links ]

    54. Vogt AB. Jewish Women's Archive: Tikvah Alper 1909-1995 [homepage on the Internet]. No date [updated 2009 March 01; cited 2011 Oct 06]. Available from: [ Links ]

    55. Alper T. Cellular radiobiology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1979. [ Links ]

    56. Alper T, Cramp WA, Haig DA, Clarke MC. Does the agent of scrapie replicate without nucleic acid? Nature. 1967;214(5090):764-766., PMid:4963878 [ Links ]

    58. Lavin MF, Khanna KK. ATM: The protein encoded by the gene mutated in the radiosensitive syndrome ataxia-telangiectasia. Int J Radiat Biol. 1999;75(10):1201-1214. [ Links ]

    59. Seymour CB, Mothersill C. Radiation-induced bystander effects - implications for cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4(2):158-164., PMid:14964312 [ Links ]

    60. Withers HR, Taylor JMG, Maciejewski B. The hazard of tumor clonogen repopulation during radiotherapy. Acta Oncol. 1988;27(2):131-146., PMid:3390344 [ Links ]

    61. Pajonk F, Vlashi E, McBride WH. Radiation resistance of cancer stem cells: The 4 R's of radiobiology revisited. Stem Cells. 2010;28:639-648., PMid:20135685, PMCid:2940232 [ Links ]

    62. Baumann M, Krause M, Hill R. Exploring the role of cancer stem cells in radioresistance. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008;8:545-554., PMid:18511937 [ Links ]

    63. Coppes RP, Van der Goot A, Lombaert IM. Stem cell therapy to reduce radiation-induced normal tissue damage. Semin Radiat Oncol. 2009;19(2):112-121., PMid:19249649 [ Links ]

    64. Glunde K, Pathak AP, Bhujwalla ZM. Molecular-functional imaging of cancer: To image and imagine. Trends Mol Med. 2007;13(7):287-297., PMid:17544849 [ Links ]

    65. Graves EE, Giaccia AJ. Imaging tumoral hypoxia: Oxygen concentrations and beyond. Oncology. 2007;21:368-378. [ Links ]

    66. Gambhir SS, Czernin J, Schwimmer J, Silverman DH, Coleman RE, Phelps ME. A tabulated summary of the FDG PET literature. J Nucl Med. 2001;42:1S-93S. PMid:11483694 [ Links ]

    67. Buck AK, Herrmann K, Meyer zum Büschenfelde C, et al. Imaging bone and soft tissue tumors with the proliferation marker [18F] fluorodeoxythymidine. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14(10):2970-2977., PMid:18445694 [ Links ]

    68. Niu G, Chen X. PET imaging of angiogenesis. PET Clin. 2009;4(1): 17-38., PMid:20046926, PMCid:2753532 [ Links ]

    69. Warburg O. On the origin of cancer cells. Science. 1956;123:309-314., PMid:13298683 [ Links ]

    70. Hunter AJ, Hendrikse AS, Renan MJ. Can radiation-induced apoptosis be modulated by inhibitors of energy metabolism? Int J Radiat Biol. 2007;83(2):105-114. [ Links ]

    71. Weidle UH, Maisel D, Klostermann S, et al. Intracellular proteins displayed on the surface of tumor cells as targets for therapeutic intervention with antibody-related agents. Cancer Genom Proteom. 2011;8(2):49-63. PMid:21471515 [ Links ]

    72. Baeyens A, Swanson R, Herd O, et al. A semi-automated micronucleus-centromere assay to assess low-dose radiation exposure in human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol. 2011;87(9):923-931., PMid:21631155 [ Links ]

    73. Helinski MEH, Parker AG, Knols BGJ. Radiation biology of mosquitoes. Malar J. 2009;8(suppl.2):S6.,PMid:19917076, PMCid:2777328 [ Links ]

    74. Ruben JD, Davis S, Evans C, et al. The effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on radiation-induced second malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008;70(5):1530-1536., PMid:18207670 [ Links ]