SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

MYER, Landon. The limits of observational epidemiology: hormonal contraception and women's risk of HIV infection. S. Afr. j. sci. [online]. 2012, vol.108, n.7-8, pp.5-7. ISSN 1996-7489.

    1. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, 2010. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2010. [ Links ]

    2. United Nations Population Division. World contraceptive use, 2011. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations; 2011. [ Links ]

    3. Heffron R, Donnell D, Rees H, et al. Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: A prospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12(1):19-26. [ Links ]

    4. Daly CC, Helling-Giese GE, Mati JK, et al. Contraceptive methods and the transmission of HIV: Implications for family planning. Genitourin Med. 1994;70:110-117. [ Links ]

    5. Bulterys M, Chao A, Habimana P, et al. Incident HIV-1 infection in a cohort of young women in Butare, Rwanda. AIDS. 1994;8:1585-1591. [ Links ]

    6. Taubes G, Mann C. Epidemiology faces its limits. Science. 1995;269(5221):164-169. [ Links ]

    7. Myer L, Denny L, Wright TC, Kuhn L. Prospective study of hormonal contraception and women's risk of HIV infection in South Africa. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36(1):166-174. [ Links ]

    8. Klienschmidt I, Rees H, Delany S, et al. Injectable progestin contraceptive use and risk of HIV infection in a South African family planning cohort. Contraception. 2007;75(6):461-467. [ Links ]

    9. Kiddugavu M, Makumbi F, Wawer MJ, et al. Hormonal contraceptive use and HIV-1 infection in a population-based cohort in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS. 2003;17:233-240. [ Links ]

    10. De Vincenzi I. A longitudinal study of human immunodeficiency virus transmission by heterosexual partners. European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:341-346. [ Links ]

    11. Shapiro S. Causation, bias and confounding: A hitchhiker's guide to the epidemiological galaxy part 2. Principles of causality in epidemiological research: Confounding, effect modification and strength of association. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2008;34(3):185-190. [ Links ]

    12. Pocock SJ, Elbourne DR. Randomised trials or observational tribulations? New Engl J Med. 2000;342:1907-1909. [ Links ]

    13. Grodstein F, Clarkson TB, Manson JE. Understanding the divergent data on postmenopausal hormone therapy. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(7):645-650. [ Links ]

    14. Davey Smith G. Reflections on the limitations of epidemiology. J Clin Epidemiol. 2001;54:325-331. [ Links ]

    15. World Health Organization. Hormonal contraception and HIV: Technical statement. WHO/RHR/12.08. Geneva: WHO; 2012. [ Links ]