SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

Article References

HORAK, Ivan G; GALLIVAN, Gordon J  and  SPICKETT, Arthur M. The dynamics of questing ticks collected for 164 consecutive months off the vegetation of two landscape zones in the Kruger National Park (1988-2002). Part I. Total ticks, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus decoloratus. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2011, vol.78, n.1, pp. 8-17. ISSN 0030-2465.

    Acocks, J.P.H., 1988, Veld types of South Africa with accompanying veld type map. 3rd edn., Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Pretoria [ Links ]

    Braack, L.E.O., Horak, I.G., Jordaan, L.C., Segerman, J. & Louw, J.P., 1996, 'The comparative host status of red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster) for epifaunal arthropods in the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 63, 149-158. PMid:8856764 [ Links ]

    Bryson, N.R., Horak, I.G., Venter, E.H. & Yunker, C.E., 2000, 'Collection of free-living nymphs and adults of Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) with pheromone/carbon dioxide traps at 5 different ecological sites in heartwater endemic regions of South Africa', Experimental and Applied Acarology 24, 971-982. doi:10.1023/A:1010639113793 [ Links ]

    Gallivan, G.J. & Horak, I.G., 1997, 'Body size and habitat as determinants of tick infestations of wild ungulates in South Africa', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 27, 63-70. [ Links ]

    Gallivan, G.J., Culverwell, J. & Girdwood, R., 1995, 'Body condition indices in impala Aepyceros melampus: effect of age class, sex, season and management', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 25, 23-31. [ Links ]

    Gertenbach, W.P.D., 1980, 'Rainfall patterns in the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 23, 35-44. [ Links ]

    Gertenbach, W.P.D., 1983, 'Landscapes of the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 26, 9-121. [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., De Vos, V. & Brown, M.R., 1983, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XVI. Helminth and arthropod parasites of blue and black wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus and Connochaetes gnou)', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 50, 243-255. PMid:6676686 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., De Vos, V. & De Klerk, B.D., 1984, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XVII. Arthropod parasites of Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in the eastern Transvaal Lowveld', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 51, 145-154. PMid:6493729 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., MacIvor, K.M. De F., Petney, T.N. & De Vos, V., 1987a, 'Some avian and mammalian hosts of Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum (Acari, Ixodidae)', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 54, 397-403.PMid:3329327 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Jacot Guillarmod, A., Moolman, L.C. & De Vos, V., 1987b, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXII. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs and on wild carnivores', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 54, 573-580. PMid:3444612 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Boomker, J., De Vos, V. & Potgieter, F.T., 1988, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXIII. Helminth and arthropod parasites of warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus, in the eastern Transvaal Lowveld', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 55, 145-152. PMid:3194114 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Spickett, A.M., Braack, L.E.O. & Williams, E.J., 1991, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXVII. Ticks on helmeted guineafowls in the eastern Cape Province and eastern Transvaal Lowveld', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 58, 137-143. PMid:1923375 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Boomker, J., Spickett, A.M. & De Vos, V., 1992, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXX. Ectoparasites of kudus in the eastern Transvaal Lowveld and the eastern Cape Province', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 59, 259-273. PMid:1297956 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Spickett, A.M., Braack, L.E.O. & Penzhorn, B.L., 1993, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXII. Ixodid ticks on scrub hares in the Transvaal', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 60, 163-174.PMid:7970571 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., De Vos, V. & Braack L.E.O., 1995a, 'Arthropod burdens of impalas in the Skukuza region during two droughts in the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 38, 65-71. [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Spickett, A.M., Braack, L.E.O., Penzhorn, B.L., Bagnall, R.J. & Uys, A.C., 1995b, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXIII. Ixodid ticks on scrub hares in the north-eastern regions of Northern and Eastern Transvaal and of KwaZulu-Natal', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 62, 123-131.PMid:8600436 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G. & Boomker, J., 1998, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXV. Ixodid ticks and bot fly larvae in the Bontebok National Park', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 65, 205-211. PMid:9809325 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Braack, L.E.O., Fourie, L.J. & Walker, J.B., 2000a, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXXVIII. Ixodid ticks collected from 23 wild carnivore species', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 67, 239-250.PMid:11206391 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Spickett, A.M. & Braack, L.E.O., 2000b, 'Fluctuations in the abundance of Boophilus decoloratus and three Rhipicephalus species on vegetation during eleven consecutive years', in M. Kazimírová, M. Labuda & P.A. Nuttall (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens, into the 21st Century, Bratislava, Slovakia, August 30-September 3, 1999, pp. 247-251. [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Emslie, F.R. & Spickett, A.M, 2001, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XL. Ticks on dogs belonging to people in rural communities and carnivore ticks on the vegetation', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 68, 135-141. PMid:11585091 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Gallivan, G.J., Braack, L.E.O., Boomker, J. & De Vos, V., 2003, 'Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLI. Arthropod parasites of impalas (Aepyceros melampus) in the Kruger National Park', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 70, 131-163. PMid:12967174 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Mckay, I.J., Heyne, H. & Spickett, A.M., 2006a, 'Hosts, seasonality and geographic distribution of the South African tortoise tick, Amblyomma marmoreum', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 73, 13-25 PMid:16715875 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Gallivan, J., Spickett, A.M. & Potgieter, A.L.F., 2006b, 'Effect of burning on the numbers of questing ticks collected by dragging', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 73, 163-174. PMid:17058438 [ Links ]

    Horak, I.G., Golezardy, H. & Uys, A.C., 2007, 'Ticks associated with the three largest wild ruminant species in southern Africa', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 74, 231-242. PMid:17933365 [ Links ]

    Londt, J.G.H., 1974, 'The preoviposition period of Boophilus decoloratus (Koch 1844) (Acarina, Ixodidae)', Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 37, 405-412. [ Links ]

    Londt, J.G.H., 1977, 'Oviposition and incubation in Boophilus decoloratus (Koch 1844) (Acarina, Ixodidae)', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 44, 13-20.PMid:614517 [ Links ]

    Monro, R.H., 1980, 'Observations on the feeding ecology of impala', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 15, 107-110. [ Links ]

    Ogutu, J.O. & Owen-Smith, N., 2005, 'Oscillations in large mammal populations: are they related to predation or rainfall?', African Journal of Ecology 43, 332-339.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2005.00587.x [ Links ]

    O'Kelly, J.C. & Seifert, G.W., 1969, 'Relationships between resistance to Boophilus microplus, nutritional status, and blood composition in Shorthorn x Hereford cattle', Australian Journal of Biological Science 22, 1497-1506. [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N., 1979, 'Assessing the foraging efficiency of a large herbivore, the kudu', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 9, 102-110. [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N. & Mason, D.R., 2005, 'Comparative changes in adult vs. juvenile survival affecting population trends of African ungulates', Journal of Animal Ecology 74, 762-773. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.00973.x [ Links ]

    Owen-Smith, N., Mason, D.R. & Ogutu, J.O., 2005, 'Correlates of survival rates for 10 African ungulate populations, density, rainfall and predation', Journal of Animal Ecology 74, 774-788. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2005.00974.x [ Links ]

    Petney, T.N., Horak, I.G. & Rechav, Y., 1987, 'The ecology of the African vectors of heartwater, with particular reference to Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma variegatum', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 54, 381-395.PMid:3329326 [ Links ]

    Petney, T.N., Van Ark, H. & Spickett, A.M., 1990, 'On sampling tick populations: the problem of overdispersion', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 57, 123-127. PMid:2216344 [ Links ]

    Robertson, W.D., 1981, 'A four year study of the seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of the blue tick Boophilus decoloratus (Koch) in the coastal regions of the eastern Cape', in G.B. Whitehead & J.E. Gibson (eds.), Tick Biology and Control: Proceedings of an International Conference, Grahamstown, South Africa January 27-29, 1981, pp. 199-204. [ Links ]

    Short, N.J., Floyd, R.B., Norval, R.A.I. & Sutherst, R.W., 1989, 'Development rates, fecundity and survival of the developmental stages of the ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Boophilus decoloratus and B. microplus under field conditions in Zimbabwe', Experimental and Applied Acarology 6, 123-141. doi:10.1007/BF01201643,doi:10.1007/BF01193981 [ Links ]

    Spickett, A.M. & Heyne, H., 1990, 'The prehatch period and larval survival of Boophilus decoloratus (Koch, 1844) (Acarina, Ixodidae) under natural conditions in the Transvaal, South Africa', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 57, 95-98.PMid:2339003 [ Links ]

    Spickett, A.M., Horak, I.G., Van Niekerk, A. & Braack, L.E.O., 1992, 'The effect of veld-burning on the seasonal abundance of free-living ixodid ticks as determined by drag-sampling', Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 59, 285-292.PMid:1297958 [ Links ]

    Spickett, A.M., Horak, I.G., Heyne, H. & Braack, L.E.O., 1995, 'The effect of severe drought on the abundance of ticks on vegetation and on scrub hares in the Kruger National Park', Koedoe 38, 59-63. [ Links ]

    SPSS Inc., 1994, SPSS for Windows, base system user's guide, release 6.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago. [ Links ]

    Sutherst, R.W., Kerr, J.D., Maywald, G.F. & Stegeman, D.A., 1983, 'The effect of season and nutrition on the resistance of cattle to the tick Boophilus microplus', Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 329-339. doi:10.1071/AR9830329 [ Links ]

    Whyte, I.J. & Joubert, S.C.J., 1988, 'Blue wildebeest population trends in the Kruger National Park and the effects of fencing', South African Journal of Wildlife Research 18, 78-87. [ Links ]

    Young, E., 1972, 'Observations on the movement patterns and daily home range size of impala, Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein), in the Kruger National Park', Zoologica Africana 7, 187-195. [ Links ]