SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.41 issue2Editorial commentDoing, being and becoming a first year occupational therapy student author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

South African Journal of Occupational Therapy

On-line version ISSN 2310-3833
Print version ISSN 0038-2337

S. Afr. j. occup. ther. vol.41 n.2 Pretoria  2011




An audit of attendance at occupational therapy by long-term psychiatric in-patients at Weskoppies Hospital



Christa KrügerI; Ronél van der WesthuizenII

IMBBCh, MMed(Psych), FCPsych(SA), MD. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pretoria and Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria
IIBOT. Senior Occupational Therapist, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pretoria and Weskopies Hospital, Pretoria





OBJECTIVES: Although the value of occupational therapy (OT) in psychiatric rehabilitation is indisputable, little is known about the range of OT interventions attended by long-term in-patient populations. The aim of this study was to gather baseline information on which of the various OT interventions were attended the most frequently.
METHODS: This study presents an audit of OT offered to 264 long-term in-patients at Weskoppies Hospital over eight months. The inpatients' attendance at various OT interventions was used to identify their patterns and frequency of participation.
RESULTS: The most frequently attended OT interventions were (descending): Group OT in the OT department (high-functioning women); industrial therapy (men); woodwork-and-upholstery (men); group OT in the wards (low-functioning men); and clerical therapy (high-functioning patients). On the whole, attendance at OT was low.
CONCLUSIONS: The current OT profile favours high-functioning and male patients. Low-functioning-female patients are neglected. Future OT efforts should focus on low-functioning long-term in-patients, particularly low-functioning-female patients.

Key words: Occupational therapy, attendance at rehabilitation, long-term psychiatric in-patients



“Full text available only in PDF format”




1. Gahnstrom-Strandqvist K, Liukko A, Tham K. The meaning of the working cooperative for persons with long-term mental illness: a phenomenological study. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2003; 57(3): 262-72.         [ Links ]

2. Le Granse M, Kinebanian A, Josephsson S. Promoting autonomy of the client with persistent mental illness: a challenge for occupational therapists from The Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. Occupational Therapy International, 2006; 13(3):142-59.         [ Links ]

3. Kirsh B, Cockburn L, Gewurtz R. Best practice in occupational therapy: program characteristics that influence vocational outcomes for people with serious mental illnesses. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy - Revue Canadienne d'Ergotherapie, 2005; 72(5): 265-79.         [ Links ]

4. Van Wel T, Felling A, Persoon J. The effect of psychiatric rehabilitation on the activity and participation level of clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. Community Mental Health Journal, 2003; 39(6): 535-46.         [ Links ]

5. Duurkoop P, Van Dyck R. From a 'state mental hospital' to new homes in the city: longitudinal research into the use of intramural facilities by long-stay care-dependent psychiatric clients in Amsterdam. Community Mental Health Journal, 2003; 39(1): 77-92.         [ Links ]

6. Cardoso Buchain P, Vizzotto AD, Henna Neto J, Elkis H. Randomized controlled trial of occupational therapy in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 2003; 25(1): 26-30.         [ Links ]

7. Oka M, Otsuka K, Yokoyama N, Mintz J, Hoshino K, Niwa S, Liber-man RP An evaluation of a hybrid occupational therapy and supported employment program in Japan for persons with schizophrenia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2004; 58(4): 466-75.         [ Links ]

8. Wade DT. Challenging assumptions about rehabilitation. Clinical Rehabilitation, 2007; 21(12): 1059-62.         [ Links ]

9. Ivarsson AB, Söderback I, Ternestedt BM. The meaning and form of occupational therapy as experienced by women with psychoses. A phenomenological study. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 2002; 16(1): 103-10.         [ Links ]

10. South African Mental Health Care Act, No. 17 of 2002. Government Gazette, 6 November 2002; vol. 449, no. G24024.         [ Links ]

11. Krüger C, Lewis C. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long term psychiatry inpatients from Weskoppies Hospital. African Journal of Psychiatry (in press, accepted 8 March 2010).         [ Links ]

12. Haglund L, Hallberg IR, Pettersson M. Psychiatric occupational therapy service - quality assurance. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2004; 58(5): 403-7.         [ Links ]

13. Holmqvist K, Kamwendo K, Ivarsson AB. Occupational therapists' descriptions of their work with persons suffering from cognitive impairment following acquired brain injury. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2009; 16(1): 13-24.         [ Links ]

14. Giuffrida CG, Demery JA, Reyes LR, Lebowitz BK, Hanlon RE. Functional skill learning in men with traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2009; 63(4): 398-407.         [ Links ]

15. Nott MT, Chapparo C, Heard R. Effective occupational therapy intervention with adults demonstrating agitation during post-traumatic amnesia. Brain Injury, 2008; 22(9): 669-83.         [ Links ]

16. Dawson DR Gaya A, Hunt A, Levine B, Lemsky C, Polatajko HJ. Using the cognitive orientation to occupational performance (CO-OP) with adults with executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy - Revue Canadienne d'Ergotherapie, 2009; 76(2): 115-27.         [ Links ]

17. Lee SS, Powell NJ, Esdaile S. A functional model of cognitive rehabilitation in occupational therapy. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy - Revue Canadienne d Ergotherapie, 2001; 68(1): 41-50.         [ Links ]

18. Hoffmann T, Bennett S, Koh CL, McKenna KT. Occupational therapy for cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2010; 9: CD006430.         [ Links ]

19. Jang Y, Chern JS, Lin KC. Validity of the Loewenstein occupational therapy cognitive assessment in people with intellectual disabilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2009; 63(4): 414-22.         [ Links ]

20. Gutman SA, Kerner R Zombek I, Dulek J, Ramsey CA. Supported education for adults with psychiatric disabilities: effectiveness of an occupational therapy program. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2009; 63(3): 245-54.         [ Links ]

21. Cook S, Chambers E, Coleman JH. Occupational therapy for people with psychotic conditions in community settings: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation, 2009; 23(1): 40-52.         [ Links ]

22. Gitlin LN, Winter L, Vause Earland T, Adel Herge E, Chernett NL, Piersol CV, Burke JP. The Tailored Activity Program to reduce behavioral symptoms in individuals with dementia: feasibility, acceptability, and replication potential. Gerontologist, 2009; 49(3): 428-39.         [ Links ]

23. Case-Smith J, Arbesman M. Evidence-based review of interventions for autism used in or of relevance to occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2008; 62(4): 416-29.         [ Links ]

24. Robert A, Gelinas I, Mazer B. Occupational therapists use of cognitive interventions for clients with Alzheimer's disease. Occupational Therapy International, 2010; 17(1): 10-9.         [ Links ]

25. Krupa T, Fossey E, Anthony WA, Brown C, Pitts DB. Doing daily life: how occupational therapy can inform psychiatric rehabilitation practice. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 2009; 32(3): 155-61.         [ Links ]

26. Ishikawa Y, Okamura H. Factors that impede the discharge of long-term schizophrenic inpatients. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2008; 15(4): 230-5.         [ Links ]

27. Krüger C, Rosema D. Risk factors for violence among long-term psychiatric in-patients: A comparison between violent and nonviolent patients. African Journal of Psychiatry, 2010;13(5):366-375.         [ Links ]

28. Krüger C. Physical health issues in long term psychiatry inpatients: an audit of nursing statistics and clinical files at Weskoppies Hospital. Oral presentation. 16th Biennial National Congress of the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP), East London, 16 - 20 October 2010.         [ Links ]

29. Pretorius J. A model of ontogenesis and the dynamics of occupational function and dysfunction. In: Crouch RB, Alers VM, editors. Occupational Therapy in Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3rd edn. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman, 1997: 46-75.         [ Links ]

30. De Wit PA. Creative ability - a model for psychiatric occupational therapy. In: Crouch RB, Alers VM, editors. Occupational Therapy in Psychiatry and Mental Health, 3rd edn. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman, 1997: 3-45.         [ Links ]

31. Crepeau EB. Activity analysis: A way of thinking about occupational performance. In: Neistadt ME, Crepeau EB, editors. Willard & Spackman's Occupational Therapy, 9th edn. Philadelphia: LippincottRaven Publishers, 1998: 135-147.         [ Links ]

32. Dartnall E, Modiba P, Porteus K, Lee T. Is deinstitutionalisation appropriate? Discharge potential and service needs of psychiatric inpatients in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Health Systems Trust, 1999.         [ Links ]

33. Taiwo H, Ladapo O, Aina OF, Lawal RA, Adebiyi OP Olomu SO, et al. Long stay patients in a psychiatric hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Psychiatry, 2008; 11(2): 128-32.         [ Links ]



Christa Kruger

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License