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African Natural History

versión On-line ISSN 2305-7963
versión impresa ISSN 1816-8396

Afr. nat. history (Online) vol.9  supl. Cape Town ene. 2013

 

Additions to and revisions of the amphipod (Crustacea: Amphipoda) fauna of South Africa, with a list of currently known species from the region

 

 

Rebecca MilneI; Charles L. Griffiths*, II

IDepartment of Biological Sciences & Marine Research Institute, University of CapeTown, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa
IIDepartment of Biological Sciences & Marine Research Institute, University of CapeTown, Rondebosch, 7700 South Africa E-mail: charles.griffiths@uct.ac.za

 

 


ABSTRACT

Three species of marine Amphipoda, Peramphithoe africana, Varohios serratus and Ceradocus isimangaliso, are described as new to science and an additional 13 species are recorded from South Africa for the first time. Twelve of these new records originate from collecting expeditions to Sodwana Bay in northern KwaZulu-Natal, while one is an introduced species newly recorded from Simon's Town Harbour. In addition, we collate all additions and revisions to the regional amphipod fauna that have taken place since the last major monographs of each group and produce a comprehensive, updated faunal list for the region. A total of 483 amphipod species are currently recognized from continental South Africa and its Exclusive Economic Zone . Of these, 35 are restricted to freshwater habitats, seven are terrestrial forms, and the remainder either marine or estuarine. The fauna includes 117 members of the suborder Corophiidea, 260 of the suborder Gammaridea, 105 of the suborder Hyperiidea and a single described representative of the suborder Ingolfiellidea.

Keywords: Amphipoda, South Africa, taxonomy, biodiversity, species list, new species.


 

 

INTRODUCTION

The principal aims of this paper are to add three new species and several new records to the South African amphipod fauna, and to provide a single, unified and taxonomically-updated listing of all amphipod species currently known from continental South Africa, including marine, freshwater and terrestrial components of the fauna. This is accomplished though the collation of all existing published records from the region and the incorporation of taxonomic revisions derived from the global literature.

No listing of all known South African representatives of the order Amphipoda has been published since that of K.H. Barnard (1940). Subsequent literature has in fact been almost completelydivided into separate components dealing with marine, freshwater or terrestrial species respectively and, indeed, within the marine fauna, into separate planktonic and benthic publications. The last major review ofthe planktonic marine suborder Hyperiidea was published by Dick (1970) and very little additional research has been done on this group in South African waters since that time, although there have been some revisions of the taxonomy of the group as a whole, and these have resulted in some additional records and changes in the nomenclature of South African species, as detailed here. The benthic marine Amphipoda of Southern Africa were last listed by Griffiths (1976a), but many additional species and records have been documented since that time, principally by Griffiths (1976b,c, 1977, 1979). Many existing taxa have also been subject to taxonomic revision by authors working outside the region, and these changes are documented in the text that follows. The familial classification ofmarine amphipods has also undergone considerable revision since 1976 and the present list follows the familial structure suggested in the comprehensive review of the families and genera of marine gammaridean Amphipoda by Barnard & Karaman (1991), except where well-accepted subsequent changes in familial taxonomy have taken place. Thus, changes in familial structure subsequent to Griffiths (1976a), but appearing in Barnard & Karaman (1991) are not discussed individually in the taxonomic account that follows, but the sources ofthose changes post-1991 are detailed and referenced. A considerable number of additional freshwater amphi- pod species have been described from southern Africa in recent decades, and these fall into two distinct groups - members of the suborder Gammaridea falling within the families Paramelitidae and Sternophysingidae, and those within of the suborder Ingolfiellidae. A revision of the South African Paramelitidae was published by Stewart & Griffiths (1995), while new species within the Sternophysingidae have been described by Holsinger & Straskraba (1973), Griffiths (1981, 1991), Holsinger (1992) and Griffiths & Stewart (1996). A key to all known freshwater species in both groups in the region is also provided in Griffiths & Stewart (2001).

The Ingolfiellidae of the wider southern African region have been described by Griffiths (1989, 1991), but of these only one marine, interstitial species, Ingolfiella berrisfordi, has been recorded from within South Africa itselfand this is thus the only representative included here. The larger, cave-dwelling, freshwater species are presently formally known only from Namibia, Zaire and Zambia, although South African records can be expected. Indeed, samples ofat least one freshwater ingolfiellid from the Northern Cape Province of South Africa have been informally reported to the authors, although to date these remain unidentified.

Only seven species ofterrestrial amphipods (two ofwhich are introduced) are known from South Africa and these are all illustrated and described in Griffiths (1999). No additional species have been reported since that time.

The Appendix to this paper provides a listing of all valid marine, freshwater and terrestrial amphipod species known from within the political boundaries of continental South Africa, out to the limits ofthe Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Some of the marine species listed by Griffiths (1976a) and freshwater species included by Griffiths (1981, 1989, 1991) and Griffiths & Stewart (2001) are thus excluded, since those papers covered a wider southern African region. Species occurring in the sub-Antarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands are also excluded, since, although these islands politically form part of South Africa, they fall within a quite different biogeographical province. The crustacean fauna of the islands has also been separately described by Branch et al. (1991) and readers are referred to that paper for a list of, and key to, all known amphipods from the islands.

In the taxonomic text that follows, additional references and notes are provided only for those species that have been added to the fauna, or which have experienced a name change, subsequent to the most recent monograph for that group. The monographs chosen as departure points are Dick (1970) for the Hyperiidea, Griffiths (1976a) for benthic marine taxa, Stewart & Griffiths (1995) for the freshwater family Paramelitidae and Griffiths (1999) for the terrestrial Amphipoda. Species whose status have remained unchanged since they were treated in those monographs thus simply appear in the tabulated faunal list (Appendix 1), with no additional text entry. There is no single monograph on the freshwater family Sternophysingidae, although an illustrated key to known species in the wider region is given in Griffiths & Stewart (2001). All South African representatives of that family are thus detailed in text entries below. Within the suborder Ingolfiellidea only one described species occurs in South Africa; thus a text entry is provided for this. Where new species are added to the fauna, these are illustrated. For illustrations of previously recorded species, readers are referred to the publications listed.

To date, the total number of amphipod species known from South Africa is 482, comprising 336 benthic and 105 planktonic (Hyperiidea) marine species, 35 freshwater species and seven terrestrial species. This is a great increase from the 256 full species (excluding subspecies, some of which have subsequently been elevated to species rank) listed by K.H. Barnard (1940). The rapid recent growth rate of the known fauna is further indicative that even the greatly enhanced list given here remains far from complete. The deep sea remains particularly poorly sampled, with less than one quantitative benthic invertebrate sample taken per 1000 km2 in the 75% of the South African EEZ that lies deeper than 1000 m (Griffiths et al. 2010). This is further illustrated by the findings of one of the few papers on abyssal amphipods from the region (Griffiths 1977), which described a small collection of only seven species, two of which were new to science, with four of the remaining five being new records for the region! Even the coastal fauna of some parts of the region is poorly explored, as exemplified in this account, where we add ten new records and two new species to the fauna from a series of samples with a total area of only 2.8 m2 and collected from intertidal and shallow reef habitats in Sodwana Bay, one of the most intensively dived and sampled sites in the county.

 

TAXONOMIC SECTION

Suborder COROPHIIDEA

 

Family Ampithoidae

Ampithoe kava Myers, 1985, new record

Fig. 1

 

 

Ampithoe ramondi J.L. Barnard 1970: 50, figs 18-19 (non Audouin, 1826).

Ampithoe kava Hughes & Lowry 2009: 161-164, figs 5-6.

 

Material

Collected from intertidal beds of the seagress Thalasso-dendron cillatum on Jesser Point, Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, March 2010. Deposited in Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48146.

 

Remarks

This represents the first record ofthis species from South Africa. A. kava is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, previous records including the Red Sea, Mauritius, Australia, Tonga, Fiji and Hawaii. A. kava is similar to A. ramondi, but differs in the male gnathopod 2; in A. ramondi the thumb-like process is separated from the palm by a round-bottomed excavation, whereas in A. kava it is separated by an acute cleft. A. kava also has a ventral rounded spur on the distal end of uropod 1, which is absent in A. ramondi.

 

Cymadusacavimana (Sivaprakasam, 1970), new record

Fig. 2

 

 

Ampithoe cavimana Sivaprakasam 1970: 65-68, fig. 1; Ledoyer 1982: 116-117, fig. 37.

Cymadusa cavimana Appadoo & Myers 2004: 343; Hughes & Lowry 2009: 174-178, figs 13-14.

 

Material

Recorded from algal turfs in 1-7.5 m of water off Jesser Point in Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, in March 2010. Deposited in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48147.

 

Remarks

This is a new record for South Africa, and the African mainland. This species has previously been found in India, Australia, Indonesia, Madagascar and Mauritius. C. cavimana is notable for the shape of the palmar process on gnathopod, which forms a flattened platform for the swollen tip of the dactyl. It differs from C. filosa, the only other Cyamadusa species known from South Africa, based on the form of gnathopod 2, but also on the number ofsetae on the margins of coxae 1-4, C. filosa having setae all along this margin, and C. cavimana having only a patch of slender setae on the later coxae.

 

Macropisthopus stebbingiK.H. Barnard, 1916

Macropisthopus stebbingi K.H. Barnard 1916: 260-262, pl. 27, fig. 15-17.

Ampithoe stebbingi Griffiths 1979: 137, fig. 3D-E.

Although we maintain the original name for this species, some clarification of the reasons for doing so is required. The species was first described as the type of a new genus by K.H. Barnard (1916), but Griffiths (1979) proposed that the genetic distinction between Ampithoe and Macropisthopus, which is based largely on the expanded, oar-like pereiopod 5 in the former, was inadequate to distinguish between genera, and suggested that they should be amalgamated under the name Ampithoe. This recommendation appears to have gone unnoticed in the subsequent literature, which has included revision of Ampithoe itself by Conlan & Bousefield (1982). Since M. stebbingi also continues to be recognized as the type of the monotypic genus Macropisthopus in the subsequent monograph by J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1991) we consider it best to retract the proposal to amalgamate the genera and to retain the original generic name.

 

Peramphithoe africana, sp. nov.

Amphithoe humeralis Griffiths 1979: 132-133, figs 1-3 (non Stimpson, 1864).

non Perampithoe humeralis Conlan & Bousfield 1982: 61-63, fig. 11.

Conlan & Bousfield (1982) place A. humeralis in their new genus Perampithoe, but suggested that the South African specimens described by Griffiths (1979) represent a separate species, based on various differences in the shape and structure ofthe limbs and mouthparts. Since an illustrated description of the South African material has already been published by Griffiths (1979), the species described there is now simply elevated to species rank. The type material was previously deposited in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A13660.

 

Perampithoe falsa (K.H. Barnard, 1932)

Ampithoe falsa K.H. Barnard 1932: 34; 1937 170-171; Ruffo 1969: 57-62, figs 18-20.

Paramphithoe falsa Conlan & Bousfield 1982: 60.

The best available description ofthis species is the detailed one given by Ruffo (1969) and the species is listed here since it has been reallocated to the new genus Perampithoe by Conlan & Bousefield (1982).

 

Family Aoridae

 

Aorainflata Griffiths, 1976

Aora inflata Griffiths 1976b: 19-21, fig. 5.

Described from False Bay, in coarse sand.

 

Autonoe hirsutipes (Stebbing, 1895)

Lembos hirsutipes Myers 1976: 460-466, figs 101-104.

Autonoe hirsutipes Myers 1988: 188.

This species has been redescribed in detail by Myers (1976) and subsequently moved to the genus Autonoe by Myers (1988).

 

Bemlos teleporus (K.H. Barnard, 1955)

Lembos teleporus Ledoyer 1982: 291-294, fig. 108.

Bemlos teleporus Myers 1988: 188.

Transferred to the genus Bembos in the course of a revision of the subfamily by Myers (1988).

 

Grandidierella nyala (Griffiths, 1974)

Neomicrodeutopus nyala Griffiths 1974c: 283-285, fig. 7.

Grandidierella nyala Myers 1981: 214.

Neomicrodeutopus was incorporated into Grandidierella by Myers (1981).

 

Xenocheira leptocheira (Walker, 1909)

Lembos leptocheirus Griffiths 1975: 114.

Bembos leptocheirus Myers 1988: 188.

Moved to Bembos by Myers (1981) and then again to Xenocheira in J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1991).

 

Family Caprellidae

The following account follows the familial classification proposed by Myers & Lowry (2003), who proposed a suborder Corophiidea Leach, 1814 to incorporate the former suborder Caprellidea, plus the Caprogammaridae, Dulichiidae and Podoceridae. In this system those Caprellids divided amongst the families Caprellidae, Pthiscidae and Aeginellidae by Griffiths (1976a) have been merged into a single family Caprellidae. The parasitic 'whale lice' remain unchanged in the family Cyamidae. Note that this system supersedes that of Laubitz (1993), who proposed a new taxonomy for the Caprellidea that involved erection of several new families, in addition to those previously used.

 

Metaproto novaehollandiae (Haswell, 1880)

Metaproto novaehollandiae Guerra-García & Lowry 2009: 313-315, fig. 12.

Added to the fauna based on a first record in South Africa by McCain & Steinberg (1970).

 

Family Corophiidae

 

Apocorophium acutum (Chevreux, 1908)

Corophium ascherusicum Costa (partim) K.H. Barnard 1916: 272-274.

Apocorophium acutum Mead et al. 2011: 2485.

The samples collected from Durban Bay by K.H. Barnard in 1915 (Barnard 1916) and which he identified as C. ascherusicum were re-examined by Crawford (1937) who noted that they comprise a mixture of both what is now Mono-corophium ascherusicum and the now widely distributed introduced form Apocorophium acutum.

This appears to have been overlooked by subsequent authors, who failed to list A. acutum as part of the regional fauna.

 

Cheiriphotis durbanensis K.H. Barnard, 1916

Cheiriphotis durbanensis Ledoyer 1982: 191-194, fig. 65.

Formerly incorrectly synonymized with Cheiriphotis megacheles, but differs from that species on the basis of its oblique palm and biramus uropod 3.

 

Monocorophium acherusicum (Costa, 1857)

Corophium acherusicum Bousfield 1973: 201, pl. LXII.2. Moved to Monocorophium from Corophium by Bousfield & Hoover (1997).

 

Siphonoecetes erythraeus Ruffo, 1959, new record

Siphonoecetes erythraeus Ledoyer 1982: 317-318, fig. 118.

Griffiths (1976a) listed two South African representatives of the genus Siphonoecetes, but the genus had subsequently been divided into three subgenera by Just (1983). Two of these subgenera are found in South Africa. The subgenus Centraloecetes, which is characterized by a row of long pectinate setae along the distal margin of the peduncle of uropod 3 and by having spines only on articles 2 and 3 of the flagellum of antenna 2, is represented by S. delavallei, first reported by K.H. Barnard (1925). The subgenus Orientocetes, which lacks pectinate setae on the distal margin of the peduncle of uropod 3 and has several strong spines along each margin of article 1, as well as on articles 2 and 3 of antenna 2, is represented by S. (Orientocetes) orientalis, first reported by K.H. Barnard (1916).

Here we provide the first confirmed record of a third species S. (Orientocetes) erythraeus from South Africa, although divers have in fact been aware of the existence of this species for some time, referring to it by the common name 'jumping sand' (Jones 2008).

Siphonoecetes (Orientocetes) erythraeus samples were collected by hand from sandy substrata at 18 m depth in False Bay (collector Georgina Jones). The specimens agree closely with those described and figured by Ledoyer (1982) and are hence not figured again here. They are best distinguished from S. (Orientocetes) orientalis by having a single spine on the palms of both gnathopods 1 and 2 (as opposed to five on gnathopod 1 and four on gnathopod 2 in S. orientalis). The most distinctive characteristic in the field is, however, the distinctive Y-shaped abode and unusual mode of locomotion. The tubular stem of the abode is formed of a variety ofcemented gastropod shells, calcareous polychaete tubes, barnacle shells, sand grains, etc, while the two branches each consist of a single flat piece of shell or stone (see image on p. 95 ofJones 2008). The animal moves either by crawling slowly forward or by flicking the enlarged second antennae against the substratum, resulting in the unusual mode of backward jumping locomotion that gives it the common name 'jumping sand'. Similar modes of locomotion in other Siphonoecetinae are described by Just (1988), who gives a detailed account ofvarious abodes and modes of locomotion within this group.

 

Family Cyamidae

 

Syncyamus aequus Lincoln & Hurley, 1981

Syncyamusaequus Lincoln & Hurley, 1981:188-194, figs 1-3.

Described as a new species ectoparasitic on common, blue-white and Indo-Pacific bottlenosed dolphins collected on the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal coasts of South Africa. Notable for its small adult size of less than 3 mm.

 

Family Ischyroceridae

 

Africoecetes armatus (Griffiths, 1974)

Concholestes armatus Griffiths 1974c: 278-281, fig. 5.

Africoecetes armatus Just 1983: 133: Just 1984: 229-234, figs 4-6.

Just (1983) provided a revision of the subfamily Siphono-ecetinae in which he erected and diagnosed the new genus Africoecetes to accommodate the species described by Griffiths (1974c). In a subsequent paper (Just 1984) he also provided a full redescription of the species.

 

Ericthoniusdifformis Milne-Edwards, 1830, new record

Ericthonius difformis Chevreux & Fage 1925, 354-355, fig. 362; Myers & McGrath 1984: 387-388, figs 5-6.

 

Material

This species was recorded from the South African naval harbour (previously a British Royal Navy facility) at Simonstown, near Cape Town, in May 2013, where it co-occurs with E. braziliensis. The material is deposited in Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48240.

 

Remarks

Ericthonius difformis can be distinguished from E. brasil-iensis by the form of the enlarged male gnathopod 2. In E. brasiliensis this bears a large postero-distal projection that terminates in two teeth, separated by a V-shaped incision. In E. difformis the projection is undivided and ends as a single tooth. This species appears to be introduced from its native range in Britain and the North Sea, probably on a naval vessel.

 

Ericthonius ledoyeri Barnard & Karaman, 1991, new record

Fig. 3

 

 

Ericthonius latimanus Ledoyer 1986: 625-628, fig. 238a .

Ericthonius ledoyeri J.L. Barnard & Karaman 1991: 189.

 

Material

This species is recorded here for the first time in South Africa. It was found in October 2009 in Sodwana Bay, northern KwaZulu-Natal, in algal turfs on Two-Mile Reef, at 22 m depth and is depositied in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48148.

 

Remarks

This species was known previously from Madagascar and Mauritius. E. ledoyeri differs from E. brasiliensis and E. pugnax mainly in the form of gnathopod 2: E. ledoyeri having a distinct palm on article 6, and a series of spines on the lower margin of the expanded tooth of article 5. Pereiopod 3 also differs between the species of this genus, having an ovoid article 2 in E. ledoyeri, as opposed to E. brasiliensis, where it is quadrate and E. pugnax, where it has a distinct lobe.

 

Ericthonius pugnax Dana, 1852, new record

Ericthonius pugnax Ledoyer 1986: 628, fig. 239.

 

Material

Collected in 1995 from 1-5 m depth amongst fouling on mussel rafts adjacent to Port Elizabeth harbour.

 

Remarks

This species is here recorded from South Africa for the first time, although it has a wide Indo-Pacific distribution, including Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Korea, India, Madagascar and Mauritius. The specimens agree closely with those described and figured by Ledoyer (1982) and are hence not figured again here. E. pugnax can be distinguished from E. brasiliensis, which has long been known from the region, by the form of pereiopod 3 (= p5 in the numbering system used by Ledoyer). In E. brasiliensis article 2 is quadrate, but in E. pugnax it is postero-distally extended to form a hooked lobe. The form of gnathopod 2, with its expanded toothed article 5, is distinctive in species of this genus, but is very variable within species, depending on state of maturity (see fig. 239 of Ledoyer (1986)).

 

Jassa marmorata Holmes, 1903

Jassa marmorata Conlan 1990: 2053-2055, figs 2-6, 17.

Conlan (1990) revised the genus Jassa, and provided a key to worldwide species. She placed South African specimens of Jassa falcata in one of three species: J. marmorata, J. morinoi and J. slatteryi.

 

Jassa morinoi Conlan, 1990

Jassa morinoi Conlan 1990: 2057-2058, figs 2-6 ,8, 10, 19.

Conlan (1990) revised the genus Jassa, and provided a key to worldwide species. She placed South African specimens of Jassa falcata in one of three species: J. marmorata, J. morinoi and J. slatteryi.

 

Jassa slatteryi Conlan, 1990

Jassa slatteryi Conlan 1990: 2058-2059, figs 2-10, 20.

Conlan (1990) revised the genus Jassa, and provided a key to worldwide species. She placed South African specimens of Jassa falcata in one of three species: J. marmorata, J. morinoi and J. slatteryi.

 

Notopoma africana Lowry & Berents, 1996

Notopomaafricana Lowry & Berents 1996:91-95, figs 9-12.

Described from deep waters offSt Lucia, KwaZulu-Natal.

 

Family Kamakidae

 

Aorchoides crenatipalma (K.H. Barnard, 1916)

Lemboides crenatipalma K.H. Barnard 1916:240-242, pls28. Aorchoides crenatipalma Myers & Lyons 1987: 268-272, figs 1-3.

Myers & Lyons (1987) transfered this species from Lemboides to Aorchoides Ledoyer, 1972.

 

Family Neomegamphopidae

 

Varohios serratus sp. nov.

Figs 4, 5

Holotype

Male 2.5 mm, from algal turf at 12 m on Two-Mile Reef, Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 1 October 2010. SAM A48143.

Allotype

Female 2.6 mm, from algal turf at 12 m on Two-Mile Reef, Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 1 October 2010. SAM A48144.

Paratypes

Five additional specimens deposited as SAM A48145.

 

Material

Five specimens from 12 m at Four Buoy on Two-Mile Reef, Sodwana Bay, South Africa 1. October 2009. Two specimens from 22 m Bikini Reef off Two-Mile Reef, Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 2 October 2009.

 

Description of male holotype

Eyes ovoid, semi-transparent with a black core. Antenna 2 inset, well behind antenna 1 insertion. Accessory flagellum small, 2-articulate, with second articel much smaller than first. Mandibular palp 3-articulate, with clavate distal article. Maxilla 1 with 2-articulate palp. Maxilliped with 4-articulate palp.

Gnathopod 1 greatly enlarged and chelate, with only six articles. Article 5 is produced distally into a long curved chela; the other is formed by the dactyl. Gnathopod 1 dactyl with a hooked protuberance. Palm with a secondary tooth near the hinge. Interior surface of fifth article covered in long setae. Gnathopod 2 is subchelate and smaller than gnathopod 1. Cutting edge of dactyl with several proxi-mally-pointing teeth, and palm with flange with undulating margin on the interior side. Pereiopods 3 and 4 similar; 7 segmented with article 4 overhanging 5 anteriorly. Basis of pereiopods 5-7 enlarged, being almost circular on pereiopod 5, pear-shaped on 6 and oval on 7. Epimeral plates rounded.

Uropods biramous. Uropod 1 with long ventral spine on peduncle. Uropod 2 rami unequal. Outer rami slightly shorter than inner. Uropod 3 with small second segment on outer ramus. Telson with a dorso-distal depression flanked by a lateral boss on each side. Each side is tipped with a large spine, three setae and two setules. Distal to each boss is a small proximally pointing spine, and a setule.

In alcohol, specimens have patches of dark pigment behind the eye, dorsally and on coxal plate 1 and 4, the bases of the pleopods and the peduncle of uropod 1.

 

Remarks

The genus Varohios was established by J.L. Barnard (1979) for members of the Neomegamphopidae that exhibit a highly chelate, 6-articulate gnathopod 1 in the male. Barnard hypothesized that in the adult male articles 6 and 7 fuse, as the related genus Neomegamphopus is carpochelate, with a projection on the propodus, which could be analagous to the boss on the distal segment of Varohios.

This new species is allocated in Varohios primarily because of the form of gnathopod 1, which displays the chelate propodus and fused dactyl characteristic ofthe genus. There are currently three species recognized in the genus Varohios. V. topianus possess a similar gnathopod 1 to specimens from this study, but lacks any serration on the secondary palmar tooth. Article 5 ofgnathopod 1 is also longer in V. topianus than in V. serratus., with a length to width ratio of about 3:1 as opposed to 2:1. The telsons of V.pseudochelatus and V chelatus bear fewer long setae than V serratus, with V. pseudochelatus bearing none, and V. chelatus with one on each side. V. serratus also differs from V. pseudochelatus and V. chelatus by gnathopod 1, which is only moderatelychelate in those species. In V. chelatus, as illustrated by Walker(1904), gnathopod 1 bears seven articles, instead of the six typical of adult males of the genus. However, Walker noted that his specimen may be a juvenile, which are known to bear seven articles.

 

Suborder GAMMARIDEA

 

Family Amaryllididae

 

Amaryllis macrophthalma Haswell, 1880?

Amaryllis macrophthalma Ledoyer 1986: 718-720, fig. 275 (? non Haswell 1880).

Lowry & Stoddart (2002) suggested that published African specimens actually belong in Erikus, and differ from the type specimen of A. macrophthalma. This requires further investigation. Both Amaryllis and Erikus were moved from Lysianassidae to Amaryllididae by Lowry & Stoddart (2002).

 

Devo conocephala (K.H. Barnard, 1925)

Bathyamaryllis conocephala Griffiths 1977: 112-115, fig. 5.

Lowry & Stoddart (2002) placed B. conocephala in their new genus, Devo, which they placed in the family Amarylli-didae.

 

Family Amathillopsidae

 

Cleonardopsis carinata K.H. Barnard, 1916

Cleonardopsis carinata K.H. Barnard 1916: 176-178, pl. 27.

This species was incorrectly placed in Eusiridae, based on mouthpart morphology, body carination and gnathopod shape and was moved to Amathillopsidae by Lowry (2006).

 

Family Ampeliscidae

 

Ampeliscainsignis (K.H. Barnard, 1916)

Triodis insignis K.H. Barnard 1916: 140-142, pl. 24. Triodos has been synonymized with Ampelisca by Karaman & Barnard (1981).

 

Family Amphilochidae

 

Rostrogitanopsis mariae (Griffiths, 1973)

Gitanopsis mariae Griffiths 1973: 275, fig. 4. Karaman (1980) created a new genus, Rostrogitanopsis, for G. mariae.

 

Family Aristiidae

 

Aristiassymbioticus K.H. Barnard, 1916

Aristias symbioticus Ledoyer 1986: 728-731, fig. 280.

Moved from Lysianassidae to the newfamilyAristiidae by Lowry & Stoddart (1997).

 

Family Atylidae

 

Lepechinella occlo J.L.Barnard, 1973

Lepichinella occlo Griffiths 1977: 109, fig. 2.

Recorded for the first time in South Africa by Griffiths(1977) from 550-860 m depth off Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal). Formerly listed under family Dexaminidae, this group has now been reallocated to subfamily Lepechinellinae within the family Atylidae, following Bousfield & Kendall (1994).

 

Nototropis granulosus (Walker, 1904)

Atylus granulosus Ledoyer 1982: 332-334, fig. 123. Nototropis granulosus K.H. Barnard 1955: 90, fig. 40. Formerly in Dexaminidae, this group has now been placed in its own subfamily Nototropiinae within the family Atylidae following Bousfield & Kendall (1994).

 

Nototropis guttatus (Costa, 1851)

Atylus guttatus Griffiths 1976a: 38.

Nototropis guttatus Bousfield & Kendall 1994: 28-29, fig. 13. As above, formerly placed in family Dexaminidae, but now in the new subfamily Nototropiinae within the family Atylidae, following Bousfield & Kendall (1994).

 

Nototropis homochir (Haswell, 1885)

Atylus homochir Griffiths 1976a: 38. Nototropis homochir Stebbing 1910: 455; Bousfield & Kendall 1994: 28.

As above, formerly in Dexaminidae, but now in the new subfamily Nototripiinae, within Atylidae, following the revision by Bousfield & Kendall (1994).

 

Nototropis swammerdamei (Milne-Edwards, 1830)

Atylus swammerdamei Griffiths 1976a: 38.

Nototropis swammerdamei Bousfield & Kendall 1994: 28.

As above, formerly in Dexaminidae, but now in the new subfamily Nototripiinae, within Atylidae, following the revision by Bousfield & Kendall (1994).

 

Family Bolidiellidae

 

Bollegidia capensis Ruffo, 1974

Bollegidia capensis Ruffo 1974: 405, figs 3-5.

A minute (0.8 mm) species described from interstitial sands in Table Bay and currently only known from the type locality, although probably much more widespread and overlooked by other workers, due to its small size.

 

Family Calliopiidae

J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1991) combined Calliopiidae with Eusiridae. However, subsequent publications retain the family (Bousfield & Hendrycks 1997). South African genera include Calliopiella Schellenberg 1925 and Metale-ptamphopus Chevreux 1911.

 

Family Cheirocratidae

 

Incratella inermis (Ledoyer, 1968)

Cheirocratus inermis Griffiths 1975: 121, fig. 5; Ledoyer 1982: 451-452, fig. 170.

J.L. Barnard & Drummond (1982) erected a new genus, Incratella, for C. inermis. Ren (2006) created the newfamily, Cheirocratidae, and placed Incratella in it. This article is in Chinese, but a synopsis of the family is provided in English by Coleman & Lowry (2009).

 

Family Colomastigidae

 

Colomastix armata Ledoyer, 1979, new record

Fig. 6

 

 

Colomastix armata Ledoyer 1982: 149-152, fig. 51.

 

Material

Specimens were collected from Quarter-Mile reef in Sodwana Bay, northern KwaZulu-Natal at 7.5 m depth on 4 October 2009 and deposited in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48149.

 

Remarks

This species was described from Madagascar and is here recorded from South Africa for the first time. Colomastix armata is distinguishable from other Colomastix species of the region by article 6 of pereiopods 1 to 5, which have a strongly denticulate hind margin. The inner ramus of uropod 1 on males is also notable, being longer than the outer ramus, and inwardly curved.

 

Colomastix plumosa Ledoyer, 1979, new record

Fig. 7

 

 

Colomastix plumosa Ledoyer 1982: 158, fig. 55; Lyons & Myers 1990: 1220-1221, fig. 19; LeCroy 2009: 360-363, figs 7-8.

 

Material

Specimens were collected from seagrass beds in rock pools along Jesser Point, Sodwana Bay in northern KwaZulu-Natal in March 2010 and are deposited in Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48150.

 

Remarks

This species is known from Madagascar, Australia, Japan and the Red Sea, and is here recorded from South Africa for the first time. C. plumosa is distinct from the other Colomastixspecies ofthe region, having denselysetose rami on uropods 2 and 3.

 

Yulumara improvisa Griffiths, 1976

Yulumara improvisa Griffiths 1976b: 17-19, fig. 4. Described from Oudekraal on the Cape Peninsula, in the holdfasts of kelps, Laminaria pallida.

 

Family Cyphocariidae

The four South African Cyphocaris species are moved from Lysianassidae to their own family, Cyphocariidae, as established by Lowry & Stoddart (1997).

 

Family Cyproideidae

 

Unguja yaya Griffiths, 1976

Unguja yaya Griffiths 1976b: 15-17, fig. 3.

Described from Oudekraal, on the Cape Peninsula, in the holdfasts of the kelp Laminaria pallida.

 

Family Dexaminidae

 

Guernea tumulosa Griffiths, 1976

Guernea tumulosa Griffiths 1976b: 21-23, fig. 6.

Described from Oudekraal on the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, on the holdfasts of kelps, Laminaria pallida.

 

Family Dikwidae

 

Dikwa acrania Griffiths, 1974

Dikwa acrania Griffiths 1974c: 266, fig. 2; Griffiths 1977: 108-109, fig. 1.

Dikwa was moved to new family Dikwidae, from Acantho-notozomatidae, by Coleman & Barnard (1991).

 

Family Epimeriidae

Coleman & Barnard (1991) created the new family Epimeriidae. South African members of this family include Epimeria cornigera, Epimeria longispinosa and Epimeria semiarmata.

 

Family Eurytheneidae

 

Eurythenes obesus (Chevreux, 1905)

Eurythenes obesus Stoddart & Lowry 2004: 445-451, figs 12-15.

Stoddart & Lowry(2004) created the familyEurytheneidae for Eurythenes and redescribed E. obesus.

 

Eurythenes gryllus (Lichtenstein in Mandt, 1822)

Eurythenes gryllus Stoddart & Lowry 2004: 429-445, figs 1-11.

Eurythenes gryllus is removed from synonymy with E. obesus. Stoddart & Lowry (2004) redescribed the species and placed it in Eurytheneidae.

 

Family Hyalidae

 

Parhyale hawaiensis (K.H. Barnard, 1916)

Parhyale hawaiensis Ledoyer 1986: 1013-1014, fig. 400; Stock 1987: 180-182, figs 1-9.

Stock (1987) synonymized P. inyacka with P. hawaiensis.

 

Family Iphimediidae

 

Iphimedia excisa ( K.H. Barnard, 1932)

Panoploea excisa K.H Barnard 1932: 129, fig. 73.

Iphimedia excisa Watling & Holman 1980: 619; J.L. Barnard & Karaman 1991: 395.

Now included in the genus Iphemedia by Watling & Holman (1980) and subsequent authors.

 

Iphimedia gibba (K.H. Barnard, 1955)

Cypsiphimedia gibba K.H. Barnard 1955: 87-89, fig. 43.

Iphimedia gibba Watling & Holman 1980: 619, fig. 4; Barnard & J.L. Karaman 1991: 195. Watling & Holman (1980) redescribed this species and transfered it to Iphimedia.

 

Iphimedia stegosaura (Griffiths, 1975)

Panoploea stegosaura Griffiths 1975: 100-102, fig. 2.

Cypsiphimedia stegosaura Karaman & Barnard 1979: 108.

Iphimedia stegosuara J.L. Barnard & Karamen 1991: 395.

Karaman & Barnard (1979) transfered this species from Panoploea to Cypsiphimedia, but Barnard & Karamen (1991) subsequently amalgamated this genus with Iphimedia.

 

Family Izinkalidae

 

Izinkala fihla Griffiths, 1977

Izinkala fihla Griffiths 1977: 116, fig. 6-7; Ledoyer 1986: 768-770, fig. 298.

Described from KwaZulu-Natal by Griffiths (1977) this genus has recentlybeen moved to its own family by Lowry& Stoddard (2010).

 

Family Leucothoidae

 

Leucothoe euryonyx Walker, 1901

Leucothoe dentitelson Griffiths 1975: 140.

Leucothoe euryonyxKrapp-Schickel 1975: 98, pl. 4; Ledoyer 1986: 658-661, figs 246, 251. Krapp-Schickel (1975) placed L. dentitelson in synonymy with L. euryonyx.

 

Family Liljeborgiidae

 

Isipingus epistomata (K.H. Barnard, 1932)

Liljeborgia epistomata K.H. Barnard 1955: 89-90, fig. 44.

Isipingus epistomatus J.L. Barnard & Karaman 1987: 864. J.L.Barnard & Karaman (1987) created a new genus, Isipingus, for L. epistomata.

 

Family Lysianassidae

 

Socarnopsis septimus (Griffiths, 1975)

Socarnes septimus Griffiths 1975: 150-152, fig. 15.

J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1991) created the genus Sept-carnes for S. septimus. Lowry & Stoddart (1997) subsequently synonymized Septcarnes with Socarnopsis.

 

Family Maeridae

Krapp-Schickel (2008) created a new family, Maeridae, from 40 Melitid genera. South African genera included in Maeridae are Ceradocus, Elasmopoides, Elasmopus, Jerbarnia, Maera, Mallacoota, Othomaera, Parelasmopus, Quadrimaera, Quadrivisio and Zygomaera.

 

Ceradocus (Denticeradocus) isimangaliso sp. nov.

Figs 8, 9

Holotype

Male 6 mm, from Thalassodendron ciliatum bed in a rockpool on Jesser Point, Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 3 March 2010, SAM A48141.

Paratype

Male 7.5 mm, from Thalassodendron ciliatum bed 1.5 m subtidally, off Jesser Point, Sodwana Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 2 March 2010. SAM A48142.

Description of holotype male

Body length 6 mm. Antenna 1 ofunequal length, with the left antennae being half body length and shorter than the right, which measures approximately two-thirds body length. Accessory flagellum 4-articulate on the left, and 7-articulate on the right.

Head with subocular notch. Eyes dark and compact. Mandible with 3-articulate palp. First article with distal projection, molar with serrated setae. Maxilla 1 inner plate triangular, outer plate with distally serrated setae and forked setae. Palp with two articles. Maxilla 2 inner plate with two fringing rows of setae and an oblique row of long setae. Inner plate with several rows of distal setae. Maxilli-pedal palp 4-articulate. Article 2 longest at 2.5 times length of article 1. Gnathopods subchelate. Gnathopod 1 smaller than 2, ventral edge of article 4 produced distally into a tooth. Ventral margins of articles 4-6 densely setose. Article 5 and 6 subequal. Palm not well defined, but with several short spines. Two spines on hind margin. Gnathopod 2 asymmetrical, that of right side larger. Palm oblique, with two palmar notches. Palmar corner defined by a large tooth.

Metasome segments 1-3 serrated dorsally. All have fine teeth of approximately equal size. Segment 1 with 24 teeth, Segment 2 with 27 teeth and Segment 3 with 27 teeth. Epimeral plates 1 and 2 with fine tooth at end of crease and defined corner tooth. Epimeral plate 3 with two teeth below corner tooth and eight along posterior margin.

Urosome segments 1 and 2 serrated dorsally: urosome Segment 1 with 10 teeth of approximately equal size, and urosome Segment 2 with nine irregular teeth. Uropod 3 rami semi-quadrate, less than twice length of peduncle. Telson deeply cleft, with a combination of long and short terminal spines, 6-8 in number. One inner subterminal spine on each side in the cleft between the two halves ofthe telson. Fine lateral setae.

Remarks

This species is typical of Ceradocus with enlarged, subchelate gnathopod 2, pleon denticulate dorsally and extended uropod 3. It is allocated to the subgenus Denticeradocus because of its dorsally multidentate metasome segments 1-3. There are 35 species in the genus Ceradocus, 18 of which are assigned to Denticeradocus.

Gnathopod 2 of C. isimangaliso is quite similar to C. rubromaculatus, but the epimeral plates 1 and 2 are smooth, not deeply serrated as in C. rubromaculatus. C. mahala-fiensis is also close to C. isimangaliso with a similar gnathopod 2 and unserrated epimeral plates 1 and 2. However, the dorsal teeth on urosome segments 1 and 2 are too few, being 5 and 4 in C. mahalafiensis and 11 and 9 in C. isimangaliso. C. tattersalli has similar epimeral plates to C. isimangaliso, but the male gnathopod 2 is very oblique, and lacks a defining tooth at the corner of the palm. The telsons ofC. rubromaculatus, C. mahalafiensis and C. tatter-salli also differ from C. isimangaliso, with fewer terminal spines, and lacking the inner spine along the cleft.

 

Ceradocus rubromaculatus (Stimpson, 1855)

Ceradocus capensis K.H. Barnard 1957: 8.

Ceradocus rubromaculatus Sheard 1939: 299, 277; J.L. Barnard 1972: 220-221, fig. 129.

Although recent literature treats C. capensis as valid, K.H. Barnard re-examined C. rubromaculatus from the region and suggested that, based on the characters Sheard used, C. capensis falls within the natural variation of C. rubro-maculatus.

 

Elasmopus alalo Myers, 1986, new record

Fig. 10

 

 

Elasmopus pseudaffinis Ledoyer 1982: 480-482, figs

181-182.

Elasmopus alalo Lowry & Hughes 2009: 646-649, figs 1-2.

 

Material

Current specimens were collected from seagrass beds on Jesser Point, Sodwana Bay in northern KwaZulu-Natal in March 2010 and are depositied in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48151.

 

Remarks

This species is a new record for South Africa. It is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, including Australia, Madagascar, Mauritius, Micronesia, the South China Sea and Tonga. The male gnathopod 2 of E. alalo is sparsely setose, with numerous spines. The dactyl folds into a sinus on the palm, and is approximately half the length of the propodus. E. alalo may be differentiated from E. affinis, which shows a similar gnathopod 2, by the distal article ofthe mandibular palp, which is elongate (three times longer than broad), while that in E. affinis is short. The telson also differs between E. alalo and E. affinis, with E. alalo having pointed inner lobes, and E. affinis having rounded ones.

 

Othomaera bruzelii (Stebbing, 1888)

Maera bruzeli Griffiths 1975: 123-125, fig. 7.

Krapp-Schickel (2001) divided Maera into seven genera, and placed M. lobata in Orthomaera.

 

Orthomaera lobata (Griffiths, 1976)

Maera lobata Griffiths 1976b: 23-25, fig. 7.

Described from Stillbaai, in shelly sand. Krapp-Schickel (2001) divided Maera into seven genera, and placed M. lobata in Orthomaera.

 

Orthomaera simplex (Reid, 1951)

Maera komma Griffiths 1975: 128, fig. 9.

Krapp-Schickel (2001) divided Maera into seven genera, and places M. komma in synonymy with Orthomaera simplex.

 

Othomaerathrixa (Griffiths, 1975)

Maera thrixa Griffiths 1975: 130, fig. 10.

Krapp-Schickel (2001) divided Maera into seven genera, and placed M. lobata in Orthomaera.

 

Quadrimaera pacifica (Schellenberg, 1938), new record

Maera pacifica Griffiths 1976b: 25-26, fig. 8.

Maera pacifica Ledoyer 1982: 534-538, figs 201-203.

Quadrimaerapacifica Krapp-Schickel 2009:627-629, fig. 20.

 

Material

Recorded from shallow seagrass beds off Jesser Point in Sodwana Bay, northern KwaZulu-Natal and deposited in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48125.

 

Remarks

Previously recorded by Griffiths (1973) from southern Mozambique and hence listed by Griffiths (1976b), as that guide covers the wider southern African region. This study extends the range for the first time into South Africa itself. Krapp-Schickel (2001) divided Maera into seven genera, and placed M. pacifica in Quadrimaera.

 

Zygomaera emarginata (Griffiths, 1975)

Maera emarginata Griffiths 1975: 125-127, fig. 8.

Krapp-Schickel (2001) divided Maera into seven genera and placed M. emarginata in her new genus Zygomaera.

 

Family Melitidae

 

Dulichiella appendiculata (Say, 1818)

Melita appendiculata Barnard & Barnard 1983: 667, fig. 45.

Dulichiella appendiculata Jarrett & Bousfield 1996: 13, figs 5-6; Lowry & Springthorpe 2007: 12-19, figs 7-10.

Jarrett & Bousfield (1996) moved M. appendiculata to the genus Dulichiella. However, in their detailed revision of the genus Lowry & Springthorpe (2007) considered it unlikely that the South African material in fact represents the true D. appendiculata, which has a North American distribution. The South African material should thus be re-examined to ascertain its correct identity.

 

Nuuanu castellana (Griffiths, 1977)

Valettiella castellana Griffiths 1977: 119-122, figs 8-9.

Described from 550 m depth off northern KwaZulu-Natal, but subequently transferred to Nuannu by Lowry & Watson(2002).

 

Melita excavata Ledoyer, 1979, new record

Fig. 11

Melita excavata Ledoyer 1982: 572-574, fig. 217.

 

Material

Specimens were collected from Two-Mile Reefin Sodwana Bay, northern KwaZulu-Natal, at 22 m depth in October 2009 and are depositied in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48152.

 

Remarks

Melita excavata is a new record for South Africa. Formerly, this species has been known only from a single specimen from Madagascar. M. excavata may be distinguished from the other South African Melita species by the pattern of dorsal teeth on pleon segments 1 to 5, being 3-3-0-3-5. Male specimens also have a characteristic gnathopod 2, with an enlarged dactyl tip which fits into a sinus on the palm. In his description of the species, Ledoyer suggested that the male gnathopods were equal, but could not confirm it, because his specimen was damaged. The Sodwana Bay material is intact, and confirms that both gnathopods are of equal size.

 

Roropisa epistomata (Griffiths, 1974)

Eriopisa epistomata Griffiths 1974a: 186-187, fig. 4.

Victoriopisa epistomata Karaman & J.L. Barnard 1979: 150.

Roropisa epistomata Karaman 1984: 55-56.

Karaman & Barnard (1979) erected the new genus Victoriopisa to accommodate this and two other species, but Karaman (1984) subsequently moved this species once again to another new genus Roropisa.

 

Verdeia subchelata (Schellenberg, 1925)

Melita subchelata K.H. Barnard 1932: 211, fig. 130. Verdeia subchelata Lowry & Springthorpe 2007: 55-57, fig. 41-44.

Lowry & Springthorpe (2007) created the new genus Verdeia and placed M. subchelata in it.

 

Victoriopisa chilkensis (Chilton, 1921)

Victoriopisa chilkensis Karaman & J.L. Barnard 1979: 149150.

Eriopisa chilkensis Ledoyer 1982: 495-497, fig. 186.

Victoriopisa chilkensis ssp griffithsi Karaman 1984: 65-66.

Karaman & J.L. Barnard (1979) erected the new genus Victoriopisa to accommodate this species, as well as the Australian australiensis (Chilton 1923) and South African epistomata (Griffiths 1974a), but the latter has subse- quently been moved once again to Roropisa (see above). Karaman (1984) recognized the South African form as a separate subspecies.

 

Family Phliantidae

 

Pereionotusalaniphlias (J.L. Barnard, 1970), new record

Fig. 12

 

 

Pereionotus alaniphlias Ledoyer 1986: 869-872, fig. 342; Lyons & Myers 1993: 590-593.

 

Material

Specimens were collected from12.5 monTwo-Mile Reefin Sodwana Bay, northern KwaZulu-Natal in October 2009 and are depositied in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48153.

 

Remarks

This species is recorded here from South Africa for the first time. It is previously known from Fiji, Society Islands, Madagascar, Mauritius, India and the Red Sea. P. alaniphlias is distinguished from P. natalensis by the dorsal margin of the metasome: P. alaniphlias having a strong row of dorsal carinae. Article 2 of pereiopod 5 in P. alaniphlias is also ovoid, rather than extending into a broad lobe, as it is in P. natalensis.

 

Pereionotus natalensis (K.H. Barnard, 1940)

Palinnotus natalensis K.H. Barnard 1940: 445-446, fig. 22. Pereionotus natalensis Ledoyer 1986: 872, fig. 343. Palinnotus has been treated as a synonym of Pereionotus by Ledoyer (1986) and subsequent authorities.

 

Family Phoxocephalidae

Basuto stimpsoni (Stebbing 1908)

Mandibulophoxus stimpsoni J.L. Barnard 1957: 436.

non? Mandibulophoxus stimpsoni Griffiths 1976a: 66.

Basuto stimpsoni J.L. Barnard & Drummond 1978: 531.

The genus Basuto was created by Barnard & Drummond (1978) to accommodate the former M. stimpsoni. Jarrett & Bousfield (1994) suggested that the M. stimpsoni depicted by Griffiths (1976a) differed from the M. stimpsoni of J.L. Barnard (1957), and may represent an undescribed Basuto sp. However, these field guide illustrations may not have been drawn with sufficient taxonomic accuracy for such a distinction to be made. Nevertheless, the current identification should be checked.

 

Griffithsius latipes (Griffiths, 1976)

Mandibulophoxus latipes Griffiths 1976b: 27-30, figs 9-10. Griffithsius latipes Jarrett & Bousefield 1994: 76, fig. 2; Hoffmann 2003: 1-3, figs 1-13.

Described from intertidal sandy beaches in Namibia and the Cape Peninsula. Placed into its own genus by Jarrett &Bousfield (1994).

 

Family Platyischnopidae

 

Indischnopus capensis (K.H. Barnard, 1925)

Platyichnopus capensis K.H. Barnard 1925: 338-340, pl. 34, figs 13-14.

Platischnopus herdmani Griffiths 1976a: 65, fig. 39b (non Walker 1904).

Indischnopus capensis J.L. Barnard & Drummond 1979: 33-37, figs 19-20.

J.L. Barnard & Drummond (1979) created the new genus Indischnopus and revived the name I. capensis for South African material, which was previously allocated to I. herd-mani. I. herdmani remains a valid species, but is confined to India and Sri Lanka and differs from South African material.

 

Family Pontogeneiidae

J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1991) combined Pontogeneiidae with Eusiridae. However, subsequent publications retain the family (Bousfield & Hendrycks 1995). South African genera include Dautzenbergia, Eusiroides, Paramoera and Paramoerella.

 

Dautzenbergia grandimana Chevreux, 1900

Dautzenbergia grandimana Griffiths 1977: 109-112, fig. 3. Recorded for the first time in South Africa by Griffiths (1977) from benthic samples collected off KwaZulu-Natal.

 

Paramoerellainterstitialis Ruffo, 1974

Paramoerella interstitialis Ruffo 1974: 412-418, figs 6-8.

A minute (2.2 mm) interstitial species described from intertidal sand in Table Bay. Probably far more widespread, but overlooked by other workers, who conventionally work with a sieve size too course to collect this tiny species.

 

Family Pontoporeiidae

 

Bathyporeia cunctator d'Udekem d'Acoz & Vader, 2005

Bathyporeia sp. Griffiths 1974a: 192; 1974b: 293; 1975: 135.

Bathyporeia cunctator d'Udekem d'Acoz & Vader 2005: 2767-2772, figs 5-8.

South African representatives ofthis genus were listed by earlier authors either (incorrectly) as B. gracilis,oras Bathyporeia sp. D'Udekem d'Acoz & Vader erected three new species from the region, but one ofthese, B. griffithsi,is so far recorded only from Namibia, so is excluded from the present listing.

The genus Bathyporeia was formerly included in family Haustoriidae by Griffiths (1976a).

 

Bathyporeia gladiura d'Udekem d'Acoz & Vader, 2005

Bathyporeia gladiura d'Udekem d'Acoz & Vader 2005: 2772-2779, figs 11-15.

South African representatives ofthis genus were listed by earlier authors either (incorrectly) as B. gracilis,oras Bathyporeia sp. D'Udekem d'Acoz & Vader erected three new species from the region, but one ofthese, B. griffithsi,is so far recorded only from Namibia, so is excluded from the present listing.

The genus Bathyporeia was formerly included in family Haustoriidae by Griffiths (1976a).

 

Family Stegocephalidae

 

Austrocephaloides australis (K.H. Barnard, 1916)

Stegocephaloidesaustralis Ledoyer 1986: 962-964, fig. 379.

Berge & Vader (2001) divided Stegocephaloides into two genera and placed S. australis in their new genus Austro-cephaloides.

 

Family Stenothoidae

 

Knysmetopa grandimana (Griffiths, 1974)

Parametopa grandimana Griffiths 1974c: 324, fig. 18; Griffiths 1977: 122-123, fig. 10.

J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1987) created the genus Knysmetopa for P. grandimana.

 

Probolisca ovata (Stebbing, 1888)

Probolisca ovata Griffiths 1976b: 30, fig. 11.

Described from Oudekraal, on the west coast ofthe Cape Peninsula, from the holdfasts of kelp, Laminaria pallida Greville.

 

Family Sternophysingidae

 

Sternophysinx alca Griffiths, 1981

Sternophysinx alca Griffiths 1981: 92-93, fig. 8.

Freshwater species found in small freshwater pools in caves in Makapansgat, Limpopo Province, where they can occur in the same pools as S. robertsi. For an illustrated key to this and other species in the genus, see Griffiths &Stewart (2001).

 

Sternophysinx basilobata Griffiths, 1991

Sternophysinx basilobata Griffiths 1991: 81-85, figs 1-2.

Freshwater form found in Boesmans Gat Cave in the Kuruman District, Northern Cape Province, where they occur together with the larger and less abundant S. megacheles.

 

Sternophysinx calceola Holsinger, 1992

Sternophysinx calceola Holsinger 1992: 116-119, figs 1A-D, 3-5.

A freshwater species easily distinguished from all other species in the genus by the distinctive calceoli on the second antennae of both sexes. Found in pools in caves in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces as well as in Chaos Cave near Potchefstroom (North West Province) where it co-occurs with S. filaris.

 

Sternophysinx filaris Holsinger & Straskraba, 1973

Sternophysinx filaris Holsinger & Straskraba 1973: 75-76.

Griffiths 1981: 95, fig. 7A.

Distinguished by thread-like setae on posterior margins of pereiopods 5-7. Found in freshwater pools in caves and in springs in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces and co-occurs with S. calceola in Chaos Cave near Potchefstroom (North West Province).

 

Sternophysinx megacheles Griffiths & Stewart, 1995

Sternophysinx megacheles Griffiths & Stewart 1995: 81-86, figs 3-4.

Known only from freshwater pools in Boesmans Gat Cave in the Kuruman district, Northern Cape Province, where found together with the smaller and more common S. basilobata.

 

Sternophysinx robertsi (Methuen, 1911)

Eucrangonyx robertsi Methuen 1911: 948-957, pls 49-51;

K.H. Barnard 1927: 141-209. Sternophysinx robertsi Holsinger & Straskraba 1973: 72-74, fig. 1; Griffiths 1981: 95, fig. 7B.

In freshwater pools caves and springs in the Makapan Caves and vicinity.

 

Sternophysinx transvaalensis Holsinger & Straskraba, 1973

Sternophysinx transvaalensis Holsinger & Straskraba 1973: 76-79, figs 4-5; Griffiths 1981: 95, fig. 7C.

A freshwater species reported in surface streams in the Northern Drakensberg region of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces. An additional sample has subsequently been collected from caves in the De Hoop Nature Reserve near Swellendam in the Western Cape Province (over 1000 km from the previous unpublished record). Given the enormous distribution gap between these records genetic analysis ofthese samples would be interesting, as the current distribution, which based on morphological identification, seems unlikely. The specimens identified by K.H. Barnard (1949) as Crangonyx (=Sternophysinx) robertsi were transferred to S. transvaalensis by Griffiths (1981).

 

Family Talitridae

 

Afriorchestia quadrispinosa (K.H. Barnard, 1916)

Talorchestia quadrispinosa K.H. Barnard 1916: 217, pl. 27: figs 29-32.

Afriorchestia quadrispinosa Lowry & Coleman 2011: 58-60: fig. 2.

Lowry & Coleman (2011) erected the new genus Afri-orchestia to accommodate a group of West African land-hoppers with sculptures pleosomes and placed T. quadri-spinosa in this genus. Further details on the distibution patterns of this species are given by Baldanzi et al. (2013) and an additional new species found on beaches along the south coast of South Africa during that study still awaits formal description.

 

Eorchestia rectipalma (K.H. Barnard, 1940)

Orchestia rectipalma K.H. Barnard 1940: 473, fig. 32. Bousfield (1984) established the genus Eorchestia, and placed O. rectipalma in it.

 

Floresorchestiaancheidos (K.H. Barnard, 1916)

Talorchestia ancheidos K.H. Barnard 1916: 221-222, pl. 27, figs 35, 36 Orchestia ancheidos Griffiths 1976: 79 Bousfield (1984) established the genus Floresorchestia, and placed O. ancheidos in it.

 

Platorchestia platensis (Kröyer, 1845)

Orchestia platensis Bousfield 1973:160, pl. 46. Bousefield (1982) created the new genus Platorchestia with the type species being P. platensis.

 

Family Temnophliantidae

Formerly Temnophiidae; spelling revised by J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1987) to conform with correct Latin derivation.

 

Hystriphlias hystrix (K.H. Barnard, 1954)

Temnophlias hystrix K.H. Barnard 1954: 130, fig. 8. J.L. Barnard & Karaman (1987) created the genus Hystri-phlias for T. hystrix.

 

Family Uristidae

Lowry & Stoddart (1992) elevated Uristinae from a subfamily of Lysianassidae to family status. South African genera include Euonyx, Ichnopus, Stephonyx and Uristes.

 

Ichnopus macrobetomma Stebbing, 1917

Ichnopus macrobetomma Stebbing 1917: 38, pl. 96.

Formerly placed in synonomy with I. taurus by Griffiths (1974c). However, upon examination ofthe holotype, Lowry & Stoddart (1992) concluded that it should remain a separate species until more complete material can be collected.

 

Stephonyx biscayensis (Chevreux, 1908)

Euonyx biscayensis Ledoyer 1986: 748-751, fig. 289.

Lowry & Stoddart (1989) established the genus Stephonyx, and placed E. biscayensis in it, but suggested that southern African specimens likely belong to another, as yet undes-cribed, species of Stephonyx.

 

Family Urothoidae

 

Urothoidesinops J.L. Barnard, 1967

Urothoides inops Griffiths 1977: 112, fig. 4.

Recorded for the first time in South Africa by Griffiths (1977) from samples dredged at 550 m off KwaZulu-Natal.

 

Family Wandinidae

 

Pseudocyphocaris coxalis Ledoyer, 1986, new record

Fig. 13

 

 

Pseudocyphocaris coxalis Ledoyer 1986: 804, fig. 313.

 

Material

Found in Sodwana Bay, northern KwaZulu-Natal on Two-Mile Reef at 12.5 and 22 m in October 2009. Depositied in the Iziko South African Museum under catalogue number SAM A48154.

 

Remarks

Pseudocyphocaris coxalis is previously known only from Madagascar. This species is recognized by its highly expanded coxa 4, which completely covers coxae 1 to 3, and its simple gnathopod 1. It is differentiated from Cyphocaris, which similarly displays an enlarged coxa 4, by its entire, rather than cleft telson.

 

Suborder HYPERIIDEA

No local publications adding to the regional South African fauna within this group have been published subsequent to the previous review by Dick (1970), so no species entries are listed below. However, a listing of all known South African Hyperiidea is included in the Appendix

 

Suborder INGOLFIELLIDEA

 

Family Ingolfiellidae

 

Ingolfiella berrisfordi Ruffo, 1974

Ingolfiella berrisfordi Ruffo 1974: 400-405. Trianguliella berrisfordi Stock 1976: 64; Griffiths 1989: 60-61. This tiny, interstitial species is the only member of the suborder currently reported from South Africa and has been recorded only from course intertidal sand at Bloubergstrand, near Cape Town. This habitat is very poorly explored, however, and the distribution is probably much more extensive. At least one larger freshwater ingolfiellid has also been informallyreported to the authors as having being observed in caves in the Northern Cape Province, but remains uncollected and undescribed. Given that several freshwater species occur in Namibia, more similar records from South Africa can be expected.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Funding support for this project was provided by the African Coelacanth Ecosystem Project, a grant to C.L.G. through the NRF SEAChange programme, the Marine Research Institute of the University of the Cape Town, and the O'Brien Foundation. Special thanks goes to the October 2009 and March 2010 ACEP field teams for assisting with two successful field trips to Sodwana Bay. We are particularly grateful to Rob Anderson, John Bolton, Chris Boothroyd and Catherine Browne for their assistance with planning and execution of the field work.

 

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Received 25 June 2013.
Accepted 23 August 2013

 

 

Appendix

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