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African Natural History

versión On-line ISSN 2305-7963
versión impresa ISSN 1816-8396

Afr. nat. history (Online) vol.9  supl. Cape Town ene. 2013

 

Cretaceous faunas from Zululand and Natal, South Africa. The ammonite Subfamily Desmoceratinae Zittel, 1895

 

 

William James KennedyI; Herbert Christian KlingerII

IOxford University Museum of Natural History, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PW, and Department of Earth Sciences, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN, U.K. E-mail: jim.kennedy@oum.ox.ac.uk
IINatural History Collections Department, Iziko South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town, 8000 South Africa E-mail: hklinger@iziko.org.za

 

 


ABSTRACT

Three species of Desmoceratinae are described from KwaZulu-Natal/Eastern Cape Province. Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838) occurs in the Middle Albian to Middle Cenomanian of northern KwaZulu-Natal. Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846), and Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846) occur in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation of northern Eastern Cape Province. The latter also occurs in the Coniacian-Santonian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal.

Keywords: Cretaceous, ammonite, Desmoceratinae, KwaZulu-Natal, Eastern Cape, South Africa.


 

 

Introduction

The ammonite subfamily Desmoceratinae Zittel, 1895, is a small group of morphologically conservative ammonites with involute, little-ornamented shells, with collared constrictions, most prominent on the internal mould, in some. Eight genera are currently referred to the family (Wright, 1996) which ranges from Upper Aptian to upper Upper Maastrichtian. Three species, Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838), Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846), and Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846), are described below.

 

Repositories of specimens

BMNH: The Natural History Museum, London

MNHP: The Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.

OUM: Geological Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford.

SAM: South African Museum, Cape Town.

 

Field localities

Details of field localities are given by Kennedy & Klinger (1975); further descriptions of these localities are deposited in the Geological Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, the Natural History Collections Department, Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town, and the Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, London.

 

Conventions

Dimensions are given in millimetres: D = diameter; Wb = whorl breadth; Wh = whorl height; U = umbilicus; c = costal dimension; ic = intercostal dimension. Figures in parentheses are dimensions as a percentage ofthe diameter. The suture terminology is that of Korn et al. (2003): E = external lobe; A = adventive lobe (= lateral lobe, L, of Kullmann & Wiedmann, 1970); U = umbilical lobe;I=in-ternal lobe.

 

Systematic palaeontology

Superfamily DESMOCERATOIDEA Zittel, 1895

Family DESMOCERATIDAE Zittel, 1895

Subfamily DESMOCERATINAE Zittel, 1895

Genus and Subgenus Desmoceras Zittel, 1884

(=Latidorsella Jacob, 1907, p. 295; Phyllodesmoceras Spath, 1925, p. 100; Lunatodorsella Breistroffer, 1947, p. 76)

 

Type species

Ammonites latidorsatus Michelin, 1838, p. 101, pl. 12, fig.9, by the subsequent designation of Böhm, 1895, p. 364.

 

Diagnosis

Involute, whorl section compressed to subquadrate to depressed reniform; straight to sinuous constrictions, most prominent on internal moulds with associated collar ribs most conspicuous on shell present or not, otherwise near-smooth but for dense growth lines and striae. Suture with bifid E/A, A/U2 and regularly declining auxiliaries; A, U2 and auxiliary lobes trifid.

 

Occurrence

Upper Aptian to Upper Cenomanian, southern England, southern France, northern Spain, southern Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Serbia, Poland, Sardinia, Crimea, Mozambique, Angola, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Madagascar, South India, Japan, Mexico and Venezuela.

 

Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838) Figs 1-5

1838 Ammonites latidorsatus Michelin, p. 101, pl. 12, fig. 9.

1907 Tetragonites Timotheanus (?Mayor, sp.) Stoliczka sp.; Crick, p. 172, pl. 13, fig. 5.

1907 Desmoceras sp. (cf. latidorsatum Michelin sp); Crick, p. 211, pl. 14, fig. 1.

1907 Desmoceras inane, Stoliczka, sp. Crick, p. 212, pl. 14, figs 2, 3.

1923 'Tetragonites timotheanus'; Spath, p. 41, footnote 5.

1967 Tetragonites aff. T. subtimotheanus Wiedmann; Murphy, pp. 63, 65.

1968 Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Mich.); Wiedmann &Dieni, p.131, pl. 12, figs2,6-13, text-fig. 81 (with synonymy).

1990 Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Marcinowski & Wiedmann, p. 62, pl. 7, figs 2, 3 (with synonymy).

1996 Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838): Kennedy in Gale etal., p. 551, text-figs. 11h-j; 13d,o; 17l (pars).

1997 Desmoceras latidorsatum (Michelin): Delamette, Charrolais, Decrouez&Caron, pl. 13, fig. 8; pl. 18, fig. 1.

1997 Desmoceras latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Arkadiev & Bogdanova, p. 120, pl. 45, figs 2-6.

2000 Desmoceras latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Arkadiev, Atabekian, Baraboshkin & Bogdanova, p. 107, pl. 9, figs 3-5.

2000 Desmoceras latidorsatum Michelin; Monod, Busnardo & Guerrero-Suastegui, p. 386, fig. 5f.

2003 Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Kawabe & Haggart, p. 315, figs 3-5.

2006 Desmoceras latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Joly in Gauthier, p. 97, text-fig. 53, pl. 33, figs 1, 2.

2007 Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Kennedy & Latil, p. 458, pl. 2, fig. 1; pl. 6, figs 2, 3; text-fig. 4.

2007 Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Szives, p. 98, pl. 3, fig. 25; pl. 14, fig. 10; pl. 19, figs 3, 4; pl. 26, figs 1, 2; pl. 28, fig. 6.

2009 Desmoceras (Desmoceras) latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Kennedy & Bilotte, p. 46, pl. 2, figs 6, 7, 19-28; pl. 8, figs 21-23; text-fig. 4.

2011 Desmoceras latidorsatum (Michelin, 1838); Kennedy in Gale et al., p. 75.

 

Type

The holotype by monotypy, and now lost, is the original of Michelin, 1838, p. 101, pl. 12, fig. 9, from the Albian Gault Clay of Aube, France. Joly in Gauthier (2006, p. 97, pl. 3, fig. 1) has designated a specimen in the Laboratoire de Paleontologie of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, no. B46095, ex d'Orbigny Collection 5773-B1, as neotype. It is from the condensed Albian of Escragnolles, Var, France, and is reillustrated here as Fig. 1.

 

Material

OUM KX4808, from the Middle Albian Mzinene Formation at locality 53 of Kennedy & Klinger (1975, p. 288), derelict dam site on Indabana 13162, 2.2 km south of the farm Izwehelia, north of Hluhluwe, 27°52'24"S, 32°19'02"E. SAM PCZ022449 (ex A686), PCZ022449a (ex A599), PCZ022450 (ex A785), PCZ022451 (ex A1057),PCZ022452 (ex A1079), PCZ022453a-d (ex D991a-d), D922, PCZ022454 (ex D994), PCZ022455a-b (ex D997a, b), PCZ022456a-b (ex D1388a, b), PCZ022457 (ex D2491), PCZ022458 (exSM (27)), OUM KX4636-4644, from the Lower to Middle Cenomanian Mzinene Formation at locality 62 of Kennedy & Klinger (1975, p. 289), hill slopes at and extending west from the western end of the Skoenberg, 27°52'17"S, 32°20'26"E, northern KwaZulu-Natal. OUM KX11481 and 11482, from bed 2 of the Upper Albian Mzinene Formation at locality 61 of Kennedy & Klinger (1975, p. 289, text-fig. 6), hill slopes and gullies west of the western 'horn' of the Skoenberg, 27°52'19"S, 32°20'19"E, northern KwaZulu-Natal. OUM KX5026, from the Upper Albian Mzinene Formation at locality 65 of Kennedy & Klinger (1975, p. 289), dam site excavations 1300 m southwest of the farm Izwehelia, 27°51' 38"S, 32°19'30"E, northern KwaZulu-Natal.

Crick (1907) recorded a series of specimens from the 'deposit at the north end of False Bay' that come from the Skoenberg in the environs of locality 62 that we refer to Desmoceras (D.) latidorstum:

BMNH C18223, the original of Desmoceras sp. (cf. latidorsatum Michelin sp.) of Crick, 1907, p. 211, pl. 14, fig. 1.

The following specimens referred to Desmoceras inane Stoliczka sp. by Crick (p. 213); his specimen (a) is BMNH C18234; (b) is BMNH C18235; (c) is BMNH C18236 (1907, pl. 14, fig. 2); (d) is BMNH C18237 (1907, pl. 14, fig. 3).

BMNH C18143, the original of Tetragonites Timotheanus Stoliczka sp. (?Mayor sp.) of Crick, p. 172, pl. 13, fig. 5.

 

Description and discussion

Desmoceras (D.) latidorsatum is chiefly known from small nuclei. A number of species/subspecies have been named, as reviewed in detail by Wiedmann & Dieni (1968, p. 132). The range of variation of these nuclei varies between assemblages, and the following forms are recognized on the basis ofwhorl proportions and the presence/absence of constrictions:

formacomplanata Jacob, 1907 (p. 38, pl. 14 (4), fig. 10; pl. 15 (5), fig. 2);

forma media Jacob, 1907 (p. 37, pl. 16 (4), fig. 14);

forma inflata Breistroffer, 1933, p. 193 (as nomen novum for var a Kossmat, 1897 as emended by Jacob, 1907, p. 35, pl. 14 (4), fig. 13;

forma perinflatum Cooper & Kennedy, 1979 (p. 237, figs 37-38, 39d-f).

Howarth (1985, p. 82) recognized as Desmoceras (Desmo-ceras) latidorsatum lemoinei Collignon, 1928, a compressed and constricted subspecies from the Lower Cenomanian of Angola. To what extent this variation in juveniles is reflected in adults is unclear, as so few have been described and illustrated. Stoliczka (1865, p. 148) mentioned individuals from the Upper Albian or Cenomanian Utatur Group of South India that are up to 180 mm in diameter, and figured an example 150 mm in diameter, with most ofthe bodychamber preserved, a whorl breadth to height ratio of 1.05, and 10 increasingly conspicuous sinuous constrictions with associated adapical collar rib. A large (131-mm diameter) Indian specimen is illustrated here as Fig 5. Renz (1972, p. 717, pl. 10, fig. 1) figured an individual 100 mm in diameter with comparable constrictions on the internal mould that are barely expressed on the surface of the shell, and a larger, 143 mm internal mould with strong sinuous constrictions, both specimens with a whorl breadth to height ratio of0.96. They are from the Upper Albian of Venezuela. Kennedy & Latil (2007, fig. 4) figured a crushed internal mould 201 mm in diameter with a 180° sector of body chamber preserved, with five sinuous constrictions and associated collar ribs on the body chamber, from the Upper Albian of southwest France. These specimens are interpreted as the macroconch of the species. We have been unable to recognize the micro-conch with confidence: are the smaller constricted juveniles microconchs, and unconstricted individuals ofthe same size juvenile macroconchs?

A Middle Albian representative of the species (OUM KX4808; Fig. 4D-E) has the following dimensions:

Coiling is involute, with over 70% of the previous whorl covered, the umbilicus small, comprising 19.4% of the diameter, shallow, the umbilical wall flattened and outward-inclined, the umbilical shoulder narrowly rounded. The whorl section is compressed, the whorl breadth to height ratio 0.85, the flanks veryfeeblyconvex, subparallel, the ventrolateral shoulders broadly rounded, the venter flattened and very feebly convex. The specimen retains corroded shell, the surface poorly preserved, with traces of falcoid growth lines and riblets that are convex on the inner flank, concave on the outer flank, and cross the venter in a shallow convexity. At one point a riblet strengthens over the venter and precedes the feeblest of constrictions. This individual corresponds most closely to forma complanata.

A series ofsmall individuals from the upper Upper Albian have the following dimensions:

All are globose individuals with a very depressed reni-form whorl section, and whorl breadth to height ratio of up to 1.61. SAM-PCZ022459-61 retain recrystallized shell, with ornament perfectly preserved. It consists of growth lines and striae only. These are prorsiradiate and markedly flexuous, convex on the inner flank, concave on the middle and outer flank, projected forwards on the ventrolateral shoulder, and cross the venter in a linguoid projection. The striae and growth lines strengthen periodically where they precede very feeble constrictions on the shell surface, most obvious on the venter. They lack the strengthened ventral rib developed by some Cenomanian examples of the species described, and correspond to forma perinflatum. OUM KX5626 (Fig. 4F-H), the largest Upper Albian example seen is a wholly septate fragment with a maximum preserved whorl height of 62.6 mm. The penultimate whorl has a whorl breadth to height ratio of 1.05. At the greatest preserved diameter, the ratio is 0.86. The 90° whorl sector bears three strong constrictions.

The more numerous Cenomanian representatives of the species range from 23 to 150 mm in diameter:

These Cenomanian representatives (Figs 3A-J, 4A-C) are all very involute at small diameters, becoming progressively more evolute as size increases. The umbilicus is ofmoderate depth, with a flattened, undercut wall and narrowly rounded umbilical shoulder. The whorl section is invariably depressed, reniform, with a whorl breadth to height ratio of 1.1 to 1.32, the greatest breadth below mid-flank in the smaller specimens. Most specimens are weathered, and show neither ornament nor constrictions. SAM PCZ022454, (ex D994) is a particularly evolute juvenile, and although rather worn, has broad, distant, linguoid ventral ribs.

SAM-PCZ022449a (ex A599) is a well-preserved internal mould 68 mm in diameter. There are 6-7 strong flexuous constrictions per halfwhorl. SAM-PCZ022458 (exD2491) is the largest specimen with the shell well preserved, and bears 6-7 distinct collar-ribs per whorl. These arise at the umbilical seam, and are prorsiradiate and flexuous, straight to feebly convex on the inner flank, concave on the mid- to outer flank, and strongly projected across the ventrolateral shoulder. They strengthen markedly into a convex linguoid peak over the venter. These main ribs are succeeded by a shallow constriction, most obvious on the ventrolateral shoulders and venter; a marked ventral lip precedes the constrictions. There are traces of low, feeble ribs on the shell surface between constrictions. SAM-PCZ022462 (ex 2383), a very large specimen is a phragmocone, still septate at 150 mm diameter. The surface is rather ill-preserved, but shows a pronounced ventral linguoid lip preceding the constrictions, plus rather feebly developed striae between. It closely resembles the large Indian specimen figured by Stoliczka (1865, pl. 74, fig. 3).

The Desmoceras sp. (cf. latidorsatum, Michelin sp.) of Crick (1907, p. 211, pl. 14, fig. 1, BMNH C18223) is illustrated here as Fig. 2M-O. It is a phragmocone 42.7 mm in diameter, retaining heavily corroded recrystallized shell, with a whorl breadth to height ratio of 1.05, the umbilicus comprising 20% of the diameter. The small specimens referred to Desmoceras inane by Crick (1907, p. 212, pl. 14, figs 2, 3, BMNH C18235-18237; Fig. 2A-I herein) range up to 20.7 mm in diameter, with umbilical diameters of 15-20% and whorl breadth to height ratios of 1.0. They lack ornament, and are regarded as juvenile latidorsatum. Crick's Manuan Creek specimen of Desmoceras sp. is BMNH C18274 (1907, p. 241, pl. 15, fig. 3), illustrated here as Fig. 2J-L. It is 36.8 mm in diameter, and retains heavily corroded recrystallized shell.

The whorl breadth to height ratio is 1.03; the umbilicus comprises 13% of the diameter.

BMNH C18143, the original ofTetragonites Timotheanus (?Mayor sp.) Stoliczka sp. ofCrick (1907, p. 172,pl. 13, fig. 5), is illustrated here as Fig. 2P-R. It is not a Tetragonites,as recognized by Spath (1923, p. 41), but a very corroded phragmocone of D. (D.) latidorsatum.

 

Occurrence

Middle Albian to Upper Cenomanian, southern England, southern France, northern Spain, southern Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Serbia, Poland, Sardinia, Crimea, Mozambique, Angola, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, Madagascar, South India, Japan, Mexico and Venezuela.

 

Genus Desmophyllites Spath, 1929

(=Schlüteria de Grossouvre, 1894, p. 126, non Fritsch in Fritsch & Kafka, 1887, p. 33; Schlütericeras Collignon, 1938, p. 92, non Hyatt, 1903, p. 110)

 

Type species

Desmoceras larteti Seunes, 1891, p. 19, pl. 12 (3), fig. 2; pl. 13 (4), figs 2, 3, by the subsequent designation ofSpath, 1921, p. 46, as type species of Schlüteria, of which Desmophyllites is the replacement name.

 

Desmopyhyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846)

Fig. 6A-S

1846 Ammonites diphylloides Forbes, p. 105, pl. 8, fig 8.

1850 Ammonites diphylloides Forbes; d'Orbigny, p. 213.

1865 Ammonites diphylloides Forbes; Stoliczka, p. 119 (pars), pl. 59, figs 8, 9 only.

1879 Ammonitesselwynianum Whiteaves, p. 104, pl. 13, fig. 1.

1894 Desmoceras pyrenaïcum de Grossouvre, p. 168, (pars), pl. 37, fig. 9 only.

1898 Desmoceras diphylloides (Forbes); Kossmat, p. 108 (173), pl. 19 (25), figs 8, 9.

1898 Desmoceras phyllimorphum Kossmat, p. 110 (175), pl. 19 (25), fig. 10.

1901 Desmoceras salsense de Grossouvre, p. 463.

1907 Puzosia (Latidorsella) diphylloides Forbes; Pervinquière, p. 140, pl. 6, figs 1-7.

1921 Schlüteria woodsi Spath, p. 45, pl. 7, fig. 1.

1921 Desmoceras simplex van Hoepen, p. 19, pl. 3, figs 11-16, text-fig. 10.

1921 Desmoceras crassum Van Hoepen, p. 20, pl. 4, figs 3, 4; text-fig. 11.

1922 Schlüteria simplex van Hoepen; Spath, p. 129.

1922 Schlüteria simplex van Hoepen; Spath, p. 129. 1922 Schlüteria crassa van Hoepen; Spath, p. 129.

1931 Desmoceras diphylloides Forbes; Basse, p. 23, pl. 2, figs 3, 4.

1931 Desmoceras (Latidorsella) diphylloides var. Besairiei Collignon, p. 15, pl. 2, figs 8, 9; pl. 2, figs 5-8.

1938 Schlüteria larteti (Seunes); Collignon, p. 42, pl. 7, fig. 3; text-figs k, l.

1952 Schlüteria selwyniana (Whiteaves); Usher, p. 63, pl. 5, figs 3, 4; pl. 6, figs 1-3.

1953 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes); Spath, p. 21, pl. 2, figs 5, 6.

1955 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes); Matsumoto & Obata, p. 121, pl. 24, figs 1-5; pl. 30, fig. 1.

1958 Desmocerasselwynianus Anderson, p. 215, pl. 40, fig. 2.

1958 Desmophyllites siskiyouensis Anderson, p. 215, pl. 35, fig. 3; pl. 41, figs 1-3.

1959 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes); Matsumoto, p. 9, pl. 3, fig. 3; text-fig. 2.

1961 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes; Collignon, p. 61, pl. 25, figs 1, 2; text-fig. 2.

1961 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes var. besairiei Collignon, p. 63, pl. 25, figs 4-6; text-fig. 3.

1961 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes var. inermis Collignon, p. 63, pl. 24, figs 4, 5; pl. 25, fig. 3.

1961 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes var. lata Collignon, p. 64, pl. 25, figs 7, 8; text-fig. 4.

1961 Desmophyllites phyllimorphus (Kossmat); Collignon, p. 65, pl. 26, fig. 1; text-fig. 5.

1961 Desmophyllites larteti (Seunes); Collignon, p. 66, pl. 26, fig. 2; text-fig. 6.

1963 Desmophyllites phyllimorphus (Kossmat); Jones, p. 34, pl. 10, figs 4-6.

1965 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes); Howarth, p. 388, pl. 11, fig. 3.

1966 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes); Collignon, p. 84, pl. 489, fig. 1973.

1966 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes var. besairiei Collignon; Collignon, p. 9, pl. 458, fig. 1870.

1966 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes var. inermis Collignon; Collignon, p. 9, pl. 458, fig. 1871.

1966 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes var. lata Collignon; Collignon, p. 27, pl. 466, fig. 1900.

1971 Desmophyllitesphyllimorphus Kossmat; Collignon, p. 36, pl. 655, fig. 2414.

1971 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes; Collignon, p. 37, pl. 655, fig. 2415.

1971 Desmophyllites larteti Seunes; Collignon, p. 37, pl. 655, fig. 2416.

1977 Desmophyllites diphylloides; Kennedy, text-figs 31, 33.

1980 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes); Blasco de Nullo, Blasco & Proserpio, p. 483, pl. 2, figs 9-15.

1983 Desmophyllites diphylloides Forbes; Collignon, p. 191.

1985 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Henderson & McNamara, p. 54, pl. 4, figs 1-4.

1989 Desmophyllites; Kennedy, text-fig. 17d.

1992 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Kennedy & Henderson, p. 405, pl. 6, figs 1-9; pl. 16, figs 1-3, 7-8; pl. 17, 4-7; text-fig. 3f (with full synonymy).

1993a Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Kennedy & Cobban, p. 120, pl. 1, figs 1-8; text-fig. 5c.

1993b Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Kennedy & Cobban, p. 411, text-fig. 5, 21.

1995 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Kennedy in Kennedy, Bilotte & Melchior, p. 397, pl. 4, figs 1,2,6, 7, 14; text-fig. 16.

1995 Desmophylllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Kennedy, p. 241, pl. 1, figs 1, 2.

1997 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Arkadiev & Bogdanova, p. 120, pl. 48, fig. 2.

1997 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes); Alabushev & Wiedmann, p. 22, pl. 6, figs 3-5.

2000 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Arkadiev, Atabekian, Baraboshkin & Bogdanova, p. 108, pl. 12, fig. 1.

2004 Desmophyllites diphylloides (Forbes, 1846); Ifrim, Stinnes-beck & Lopez-Oliva, p. 1594, text-figs 8c-d, 9e, f.

 

Types

The lectotype, by the subsequent designation of Matsumoto & Obata (1955, p. 122) is no. C22682 in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London, the original of Forbes, 1846, pl. 8, fig. 8; paralectotypes are BMNH C22683-5, all from the Upper Maastrichtian Valudavur Formation of Pondicherry, South India (Fig. 6A-J)).

 

Material

The holotype of Schlüteria woodsi Spath, 1921, p. 45, pl. 7, fig. 1, an unregistered specimen in the collections of the Durban Museum, together with the 'immature specimen (diameter = 17 mm)' mentioned by Spath.

The holotype of Desmoceras simplex van Hoepen, 1921, p. 19, pl. 3, figs 11, 12, and two paratypes, the original ofvan Hoepen's pl. 3, figs 13-16, text-fig. 10, and a further speci- men in the collections of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum), Pretoria.

The holotype and paratype of Desmoceras crassum Van Hoepen, 1921, p. 20, pl. 4, figs 3, 5; text-fig. 11, in the collections of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum), Pretoria.

SAM-PCP022484a,b (ex D1703a,b)SAM-PCP022485a-c (ex D1712a-c)PCP022486 (ex D1703c) PCP 6724PCP022487 (ex 4805)PCP 022488 (ex 4365)PCP022489 (ex7028) PCP022490 (ex7069)

All specimens are from the Middle Santonian to lowest Campanian Mzamba Formation at locality 1 of Kennedy & Klinger (1975, p. 281), cliff and foreshore exposures 1 km north of the mouth of the Mzamba River in northern Eastern Cape Province, coordinates 31°05'50"S, 30°10'30"E. The section is described in detail by Klinger & Kennedy (1980).

 

Dimensions

 

Description

Specimens vary from 8.5 to 90 mm in diameter. Coiling is involute, with a tiny, deep umbilicus. The whorl section is compressed, with whorl breadth to heightratios of0.75-0.91. The umbilical wall is rounded and undercut, the umbilical shoulder narrowly rounded. The greatest whorl breadth is below mid-flank. The inner and middle flanks are flattened and subparallel, the ventrolateral shoulders and venter broadly rounded. The shell surface is ornamented by growth lines and striae, straight and prorsiradiate on the inner and middle flanks, flexed forwards and concave on the outer flank and ventrolateral shoulder, and crossing the venter in a narrow, convex, linguoid projection. The ventrolateral shoulders and venter bear up to four periodic low, rounded collar ribs per half whorl, succeeded by shallow constrictions on the outer flank, ventrolateral shoulders and venter. The constrictions are much better developed on the internal mould, where they extend to the umbilical shoulder. They are narrow, straight, and prorsiradiate on the inner flank, flex forwards and are concave on the outer flank and ventro-lateral shoulder, and project forwards into a narrow convex ventral peak.

The suture (Van Hoepen, 1921, text-figs 10, 11) is deeply and intricately incised, with narrow-stemmed bifid E/A and A/U2, and A deeply and intricately incised and trifid.

 

Discussion

The type material of Desmophyllites diphylloides was revised by Kennedy & Henderson (1992, p. 405, pl. 6, figs 1-9; pl. 16, figs 1-3, 7-8; pl. 17, 4-7; text-fig. 3f), and is based on juveniles up to 40 mm in diameter ; the lectotype is illustrated here as Fig. 6A-D, a paralectotype as Fig. 6E-J. The Mzamba material of the same diameter differs in no significant respects. Henderson & McNamara (1985, p. 54, pl. 4, fig 1-4) described an assemblage ofover 30 specimens, septate to a diameter of 80 mm. These specimens show constrictions weakening markedly at the largest diameters, as in the present material, including the holotype of Schlueteria woodsi Spath, 1921 (p. 45, pl. 7, fig. 1), illustrated here as Fig. 6R,S. We follow Matsumoto (1959, p. 9) and Henderson & McNamara (1985, p. 54) in regarding selwynianum Whiteaves (1879), pyrenaicum de Grossouvre, 1894 (pars; see also Kennedy in Kennedy, Bilotte & Melchior, 1995, p. 397, pl. 4, figs 1, 2, 6, 7, 14; text-fig. 16), phyllimorphum Kossmat, 1898, and the varieties of diphylloides recognized by Collignon (1931, 1938, 1961, 1966,1971) as a synonyms. That woodsi of Spath is no more than an adult diphylloides is noted above. Desmoceras crassum of van Hoepen (1921, p. 20, pl. 4, figs 3, 4; text-fig. 11) is based on juveniles 30.2-36 mm in diameter with whorl breadth to height ratios of 0.78-0.8 that differ in no significant respects from the type series. The type material of Desmoceras simplex van Hoepen, 1921 (p. 19, pl. 3, figs 11-16; text-fig. 10) ranges from 25.7-44 mm in diameter, internal moulds showing well-marked sinuous constrictions, as in Californian and French specimens referred to diphylloides (Matsumoto, 1959, pl. 3, fig. 3; Kennedy in Kennedy et al., 1995, pl. 4, fig. 6).

Desmophyllites larteti (Seunes, 1891) ( p. 19, pl. 12 (3), fig. 2; pl. 13 (4), figs 2, 3 (see Hancock & Kennedy, 1993, p. 154, pl. 2, figs 1-3,10,11,14; pl. 3, figs 1, 4, 5) is much more compressed, with an arched venter and 4-5 markedly biconcave constrictions per half whorl.

 

Occurrence

Lower Santonian to Upper Maastrichtian, South India, Madagascar, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, Western Australia, Japan, Alaska, British Columbia, California, Arkansas, Mexico, Argentina, Angola, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Crimea and southeastern France.

 

Genus Damesites Matsumoto, 1942

(ICZN name no. 1349)

(= Kotoceras Yabe, 1927, p. 36 (ICZN rejected name no. 1264, non Kobayashi, 1934, p. 391; Neokotöceras Anderson, 1958, p. 219)

 

Type species

Desmoceras damesi Jimbo, 1894, p. 172, pl. 1, figs 2, 3;

ICZN Opinion 555, 1959.

 

Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846)

Figs 7A-J

1846 Ammonites Sugata Forbes, p. 113, pl. 10, figs 2a-c.

1864 Ammonites Sugata Forbes; Stoliczka, p. 60, pl. 32, figs 4-6; pl. 33, figs 1, 2.

Non 1890 Desmoceras sugata Forbes; Yokoyama, p. 185, pl. 20, fig. 11 (=Damesites damesi intermedius Matsu-moto, 1942).

1898 Desmoceras Sugata Forbes; Kossmat, p. 111 (176), pl. 18 (24), fig. 11; pl. 19 (25), fig.1).

1921 Hauericeras?sugata (Forbes); Spath, p. 46, pl. 6, fig. 3.

1921 Desmoceras compactum van Hoepen, p. 21, pl. 4, figs 5-7; text-fig. 12.

1922 Hauericeras? sugata (Forbes); Spath, p. 131.

?1931 Desmoceras sugata (Forbes); Basse, p. 21, pl. 2, figs 19, 20.

1942 Damesites sugata (Forbes); Matsumoto, p. 27, text-fig. 1f.

1955 Damesites sugata (Forbes); Matsumoto &Obata, p. 128, pl. 26, figs 4, 5; pl. 27, figs 3, 4; text-fig. 3.

1961 Damesites sugatus Forbes; Collignon, p. 67, pl. 27, figs 1-2; text-fig. 7.

1965 Damesites sugatus Forbes; Collignon, p. 20, pl. 421, fig. 1750-1751.

?1980 Damesites compactus (van Hoepen); Summesberger, p. 278, pl. 1, figs 3-4; text-fig. 4.

1989 Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846); Haggart, p. 195, pl. 8.4, figs 14-23 (with additional synonymy).

1991 Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846); Kennedy & Henderson, p. 471, text-figs 1, 2.

1993 Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846); Alabushev & Wiedmann, p. 554, text-figs 1, 2.

?1996 Damesites damesi (Jimbo, 1894); Cooper & Greyling, p. 19, figs 7i-l.

2003 Damesites sugata (Forbes, 1846); Cooper, p. 155, text-figs 6e-f, 7d.

1997 Damesites sugata (Forbes); Alabushev & Wiedmann, p. 22, pl. 6, figs 6, 7; pl. 11, fig. 2; text-figs 4a, 7.

 

Types

The lectotype is BMNH C22647, the original of Forbes, 1846, pl. 10, figs 2a-c, illustrated here as Fig. 7D, E. There are three paralectotypes, BMNH C22675 (Fig. 7F, ofwhich BMNH C3561a is a further fragment) and BMNH 24196a, b, while BMNH C3561b may be a further paralectotype. The type material is from Vridachellum (Verdachellum), South India.

 

Material

The original of Hauericeras sugata (Forbes) of Spath, 1921, p. 46, pl. 6, fig. 3, in the collections of the Durban Museum. The holotype of Desmoceras compactum van Hoepen, 1921, p. 21, pl. 4, figs 5-7; text-fig. 12, in the collections of the Ditsong Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum), Pretoria. Both are from the Middle Santonian to lowest Campanian Mzamba Formation at locality 1 of Kennedy & Klinger (1975, p. 281), cliff and foreshore exposures 1 km north of the mouth of the Mzamba River in northern Eastern Cape Province, coordinates 31°05'50"S, 30°10'30"E. The section is described in detail by Klinger & Kennedy (1980). SAM-PCZ022494 (formerly Z1061), from the Coniacian or Santonian St Lucia Formation on the north bank of the Munywana Creek on the farm Insleep, in northern KwaZulu-Natal.

 

Dimensions

Description

The Durban Museum specimen (Spath, 1921, p. 46, pl. 6, fig. 3; Fig. 7A-C herein) is 32.5 mm in diameter, and retains recrystallized shell. Coiling is very involute, the umbilicus comprising less than 10% of the diameter, the umbilical wall flattened and outward inclined, the umbilical shoulder narrowly rounded. The whorl section is compressed, with a whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.8 approximately, the flanks very feebly convex, subparallel, the greatest breadth just below mid-flank. The ventrolateral shoulders are broadly rounded, the venter feebly convex with a strong siphonal keel. There are traces of delicate growth lines, most obvious on the outer flank and ventrolateral shoulder. They are prorsiradiate, near-straight on the flanks, very feebly concave on the inner flank, very feebly convex at mid-flank and concave on the outer flank, projecting forwards on the ventrolateral shoulders and venter, where they join the siphonal keel.

SAM-PCZ022494 (Fig. 7G-J herein ) is a well-preserved individual 45.3 mm in diameter, retaining extensive traces of partially exfoliated shell. Coiling is very involute, the umbilicus comprising 8.6% of the diameter, the umbilical wall flattened and outward-inclined, with a narrowlyrounded umbilical shoulder. The whorl section is compressed, with a whorl breadth to height ratio of0.86. The flanks are flattened and subparallel, the ventrolateral shoulders broadlyrounded, the venter feebly convex, with a strong siphonal keel. The exfoliated shell bears traces ofgrowth lines only. The internal mould bears narrow prorsiradiate constrictions, four of which are detectable in an approximately 120° sector of whorl (Fig. 7H). They are near-straight on the flanks, very feebly concave on the umbilical shoulder and inner flank, very feebly convex at mid-flank, and more markedly concave on the outer flank and ventrolateral shoulder, projecting strongly forwards on the venter to join with the siphonal keel.

 

Discussion

On the basis of the type material and other specimens from South India revised by Kennedy & Henderson (1991, p. 471, figs 1, 2), together with abundant material from the Middle Coniacian of Pilmisi, Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu (OUMNH Collections), Damesites sugata is a compressed species with a whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.63 to 0.82, with near-straight prorsiradiate constrictions that are very feebly concave on the inner flank, very feebly concave at mid-flank, more markedly concave on the outer flank and ventrolateral shoulder (not convex as stated by Kennedy & Henderson, an error) and projected forwards on the venter.

The holotype ofDesmoceras compactum van Hoepen, 1921 (p. 21, pl. 4, figs 5-7; text-fig. 12) is 18.2 mm in diameter, with a whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.83 and an umbilical diameter of 10% according to van Hoepen. He separated his species from sugata on the basis of his species having a lower keel, the greatest whorl breadth at the external edge of the flanks and constrictions that are slightly convex towards the middle of the flanks. A slight convexity in the constriction at mid-flank is shown by the paralectotype of sugata, BMNH C22675 (Fig. 7F ), and we regard compactum as a probable synonym of sugata. Matsumoto & Obata (1955, p. 132) thought the holotype of compactum too small for satisfactory comparison with other species of the genus. Collignon (1961, p. 70, pl. 26, fig. 4; text-fig. 8) referred a series of much larger specimens up to 68 mm in diameter to compactum. They have whorl breadth to height ratios of 0.80-0.88, and are thus stouter than most sugata at the same diameter. Haggart (1989, p. 196) suggested that Damesites damesi (Jimbo, 1894) intermedius Matsumoto, 1954 ( p. 270, pl. 22 (6), fig. 4) is a further synonym ofsugata. The constrictions of the holotype are close to those of one of the present specimens (Fig. 7H).

Cooper & Greyling (1996, p. 19, Fig. 7i-l) referred two specimens from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation 3 km north of the classic cliff outcrop of the Formation to Damesites damesi (Yabe, 1904). Their smaller specimen, 28.8 mm in diameter has a whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.63, their larger specimen, approximately 92 mm in diameter, has a whorl breadth to height ratio of 0.68. The specimens are described as having constrictions that seem to be biconcave and projected strongly forwards on across the venter, with weak spiral ornament on the body chamber, creating a reticulate pattern. They may be further specimens of the present species.

 

Occurrence

Coniacian to Campanian, South India, Madagascar, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, Angola, southeastern France, Austria?, British Columbia, Canada and Washington State and California in the U.S.A.

 

Acknowledgements

Kennedy acknowledges the support ofthe staffofthe Geological Collections, Oxford University Museum of Natural History, and the Department ofEarth Sciences, Oxford, and the financial assistance ofthe Oppenheimer Fund (Oxford). Klinger acknowledges the support of the Collections Department, Iziko South African Museum, and financial support from the NRF (South Africa).

 

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Received 8 March 2013.
Accepted 18 September 2013

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