SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.46 issue2Revisiting Shari'ah, democracy and human rights in NigeriaThe pastoral therapist as companion of a person displaying sexually deviant behaviour: A hermeneutic angle author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

In die Skriflig

On-line version ISSN 1018-6441

In Skriflig (Online) vol.46 n.2 Cape Town Nov. 2012

 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

 

Developing an integrated approach to interpret New Testament use of the Old Testament

 

Die ontwerp van 'n geïntegreerde benadering om Nuwe-Testamentiese gebruik van die Ou Testament te verstaan

 

 

Gregory Y. Phillips; Fika Janse van Rensburg; Herrie F. van Rooy

Research Unit for Reformed Theology, North-West University, South Africa

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to develop a specific approach to interpreting New Testament use of the Old Testament. The approach has integrated the most useful insights of studies in both Second Temple Judaism and present day literary theory in order to reach most consistently and effectively a valid explanation of the biblical data. In the process, several important hermeneutical issues have been addressed. The focus of New Testament use of the Old Testament in the person and redemptive work of Jesus should always be the goal of Christian interpretation. Whilst old and new texts mutually interpret one another, it has been argued that there has been no ultimate ambiguity about the author's intended, singular meaning or distortion of the original meaning of the old text. It is important to be aware that all readers come to a text with preconceived worldviews that are inevitably a mixture of biblical and unbiblical perspectives. However, this does not prevent a reader from attaining a valid understanding that adequately overlaps with the most probable meaning of the text as intended by the author. This most probable meaning is determined by the explanation that logically makes the most coherent and natural sense of most biblical data. The methodological procedure proposed has taken the grammatical-historical method as the normative starting point of exegesis. It has then proceeded to imitate the New Testament in consideration of the broader canonical context, before considering explanations derived from the Second Temple literature or present day literary theory.


OPSOMMING

Die bedoeling met hierdie artikel is om 'n benadering te ontwerp om die Nuwe-Testamentiese gebruik van die Ou Testament te verstaan. Dié benadering moet die mees bruikbare insigte van die navorsing oor die Tweede Tempelperiode en die hedendaagse literêre teorie integreer, met die oog daarop om op die mees konstante en effektiewe wyse 'n geldige verklaring van die Bybelse data te gee. In hierdie proses word etlike hermeneutiese vraagstukke onder die loep geneem. Aangesien die fokus van die Nuwe-Testamentiese gebruik van die Ou Testament die persoon en verlossingswerk van Jesus is, is dit nodig dat hierdie fokus by die Christen se verstaan ook teenwoordig is. Dit is so dat ouer en nuwer tekste mekaar interpreteer; dit hou egter nie in dat daar dubbelsinnigheid is oor die outeur se bedoelde enkele betekenis, of 'n skeeftrekking van die oorspronklike betekenis van die ouer teks nie. 'n Leser kom noodwendig na die teks met 'n spesifieke wêreldbeskouing, wat 'n mengsel is van Bybelse en onbybelse perspektiewe. Dit verhoed die leser egter nie om by 'n geldige verstaan van die teks uit te kom wat voldoende oorvleuel met die mees waarskynlike betekenis van die teks soos wat die outeur dit bedoel het en wat logieserwys die meeste van die bybelse data goed en organies verreken nie. Die voorgestelde benadering neem die grammaties-historiese metode as die normatiewe beginpunt vir eksegese, en volg dan die Nuwe Testament self na deur die breër kanoniese konteks te verreken. Eers dan word die literatuur van die Tweede Tempelperiode asook die literêre teorie van die huidige tyd verreken.


 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

References

Beale, G.K., 1989, 'Did Jesus and his followers preach the right doctrine from the wrong texts? An examination of the presuppositions of Jesus' and the apostles' exegetical method', Themelios 14(3), 89-96.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K. (ed.), 1994a, The right doctrine from the wrong texts? Essays on the use of the Old Testament in the New, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K., 1994b, 'Introduction', in G.K. Beale (ed.), The right doctrine from the wrong texts? Essays on the use of the Old Testament in the New, pp. 7-1o, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K., 1994c, 'The use of the Old Testament in Revelation', in G.K. Beale (ed.), The right doctrine from the wrong texts? Essays on the use of the Old Testament in the New, pp. 57-276, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K., 1999, 'Questions of authorial intent, epistemology, and presuppositions and their bearing on the study of the Old Testament in the New: A rejoinder to Steve Moyise', Irish Biblical Studies 21(November), 151-180.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K. 2oo6, 'Did Jesus and the apostles preach the right doctrine from the wrong texts? Revisiting the debate seventeen years later in the light of Peter Enns' book, Inspiration and incarnation', Themelios 32(1), 18-43.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K., 2007, 'A surrejoinder to Peter Enns', Themelios 32(3), 14-25.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K. & Carson, D.A. (eds.), 2007, Commentary on the New Testament use of the Old Testament, Baker Academic & Nottingham: Apollos, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Bock, D.L., 2006, 'Scripture citing Scripture: Use of the Old Testament in the New', in D.L. Bock & B.M. Fanning (eds.), Interpreting the New Testament text: Introduction to the art and science of exegesis, pp. 255-276, Crossway, Wheaton, IL.         [ Links ]

Collins, J.J. & Evans, C.A. (eds.), 2006, Christian beginnings and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Dodd, C.H., 1952, According to the Scriptures: The substructure of New Testament Theology, Nisbet, London.         [ Links ]

Ellis, E.E., 1993, Prophecy and hermeneutic in early Christianity, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Ellis, E.E., 1996, 'The New Testament's use of the Old Testament', in B. Corley, S.W. Lemke & G. Lovejoy (eds.), Biblicalhermeneutics: A comprehensive introduction to interpreting Scripture, pp. 40-58, Broadman & Holman Publishers, Nashville, TN.         [ Links ]

Enns, P., 2003, 'Apostolic hermeneutics and an Evangelical doctrine of Scripture: Moving beyond a modernist impasse', Westminster Theological Journal 65, 263-287.         [ Links ]

Enns, P., 2005, Inspiration and incarnation: Evangelicals and the problem of the Old Testament, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Enns, P., 2007, 'Response to Professor Greg Beale', Themelios 32(3), 5-13.         [ Links ]

Evans, C.A., 1992, 'Midrash', in J.B. Green, S. McKnight & I.H. Marshall (eds.), Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, pp. 544-548, IVP, Downers Grove, IL.         [ Links ]

Evans, C.A., 2004, 'The Old Testament in the New', in S. McKnight & G.R. Osborne (eds.), The face of New Testament studies: A survey of recent research, pp. 130-145, Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Fitzmyer, J.A., 2000, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Christian origins: Studies in the Dead Sea Scrolls and related literature, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI/Cambridge.         [ Links ]

Grudem, W., 1994, Systematic theology: An introduction to biblical doctrine, IVP, Leicester/ Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Hays, R.B., 1989, Echoes of Scripture in the letters of Paul, Yale University Press, New Haven.         [ Links ]

Hays, R.B. & Green, J.B., 1995, 'The use of the Old Testament by New Testament writers' in J.B. Green (ed.), Hearing the New Testament: Strategies for interpretation, pp. 222-238, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Helyer, L.R., 2002, Exploring Jewish literature of the Second Temple period: A guide for New Testament students, IVP, Downers Grove, IL.         [ Links ]

Herbert, E.D. & Tov, E. (eds.), 2002, The Bible as book: The Hebrew Bible and the Judaean desert discoveries,,The British Library, London.         [ Links ]

Kaiser, W.C. Jr., 2007, 'Does the New Testament accurately use the Old Testament?' in W.C. Jr. Kaiser & M. Silva (eds.), Introduction to biblical hermeneutics: The search for meaning, revised and expanded edn., pp. 95-106, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Lindars, B., 1976-1977, 'The place of the Old Testament in the formation of New Testament theology: Prolegomena', New Testament Studies 23, 59-66.         [ Links ]

Longenecker, R., 1975, Biblical exegesis in the apostolic period, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Longenecker, R.N., 1987, '''Who is the prophet talking about?" Some reflections on the New Testament's use of the Old', Themelios 13(1), 4-8.         [ Links ]

Longenecker, R., 1999, Biblical exegesis in the apostolic period, 2nd edn., Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Marcos, N.F., 2006, 'Rewritten Bible or imitation? The vestments of the high-priest', in P.W. Flint, E. Tov & J.C. VanderKam (eds.), Studies in the Hebrew Bible, Qumran, and the Septuagint presented to Eugene Ulrich. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum, vol. 101, pp. 321-336, Brill, Leiden.         [ Links ]

Marshall, I.H., 1994, 'Counter response in favour of C.H. Dodd's view: An assessment of recent developments' in G.K. Beale (ed.), The right doctrine from the wrong texts? Essays on the use of the Old Testament in the New, pp. 195-216, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

McCartney, D.G., 1988, 'The New Testament's Use of the Old Testament', in H.M. Conn (ed.), Inerrancy and hermeneutic: A tradition, a challenge, a debate, pp. 101-116, Baker Book House Grand Rapids, Michigan.         [ Links ]

Mickelsen, A.B., 1963, Interpreting the Bible: A book of basic principles for understanding the Scriptures, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Moo, D., 1986, 'The problem of sensus plenior' in D.A. Carson & J.D. Woodbridge (eds.), Hermeneutics, authority and canon, pp. 179-211, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Moyise, S., 1994, 'Does the New Testament quote the Old Testament out of context?', Anvil 11, 133-143.         [ Links ]

Moyise, S., 1999, 'The Old Testament in the New: A reply to Greg Beale', Irish Biblical Studies 21, 54-58.         [ Links ]

Moyise, S. 2000, 'Intertextuality and the study of the Old Testament in the New Testament', in S. Moyise (ed.), The Old Testament in the New Testament: Essays in honour of J.L. North, pp. 14-41, Sheffield Academic Press Sheffield.         [ Links ]

Moyise, S., 2001, The Old Testament in the New: An introduction, Continuum, London.         [ Links ]

Moyise, S. (ed.), 2008, Evoking scripture: Seeing the Old Testament in the New, T & T Clark London.         [ Links ]

Moyise, S. & Menken, M.J.J., 2004, The Psalms in the New Testament, T & T Clark, London and New York.         [ Links ]

Moyise, S. & Van Rensburg, F.J., 2002, 'Isaiah in 1 Peter 3:13-17: Applying intertextuality to the study of the OT in the NT,' Scriptura 80, 275-286.         [ Links ]

Neusner, J., 2004, Judaism and the interpretation of Scripture: Introduction to the Rabbinic Midrash, Hendrickson, Peabody, MA.         [ Links ]

Poythress, V.S., 1986, 'Divine meaning of Scripture', Westminster Theological Journal 48, 241-279.         [ Links ]

Schiffman, L., Tov, E. & VanderKam, J.C. (eds.), 2000, The Dead Sea Scrolls fifty years after their discovery 1947-1997, Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem.         [ Links ]

Snodgrass, K., 1994, 'The use of the Old Testament in the New', in G.K. Beale (ed.), The right doctrine from the wrong texts? Essays on the use of the Old Testament in the New, pp. 29-51, Baker, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Thiselton, A.C., 1992, New horizons in hermeneutics, HarperCollins, London.         [ Links ]

Tov, E., 2001, Textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible, 2nd rev. edn., Fortress, Assen, Maastricht/Van Gorcum, Minneapolis.         [ Links ]

VanderKam, J.C., 2001, An introduction to early Judaism, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

VanderKam, J.C. & Flint, P., 2002, The meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: their significance for understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity, Harper, SanFrancisco, New York.         [ Links ]

Vanhoozer, K.J., 1998, Is there meaning in this text, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

 

 

Correspondence:
Greg Phillips
9 Leopold Street
King William's Town 5601
South Africa
Email: gregcarolphillips@gmail.com

Received: 25 Oct. 2010
Accepted: 11 Mar. 2011
Published: 16 Nov. 2012

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License