SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.46 número2To cross ten seas: Calvin on the unity of the church - a contribution to a more responsible ecclesiologyTheocracy: Views on Calvin and the Confessio Belgica, art. 36 - a contribution to an important debate índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google


In die Skriflig

versão On-line ISSN 2305-0853
versão impressa ISSN 1018-6441

In Skriflig (Online) vol.46 no.2 Pretoria Nov. 2012




Pastorale begeleiding van die self-mutileerder


Pastoral guidance for the self-mutilator



Wentzel C. Coetzer

School of Ecclesiastical Sciences, Potchefstroom Campus, North West University, South Africa





In hierdie artikel het dit geblyk dat die toenemende voorkoms van self-mutilering onder jongmense in talle gevalle as uitlaatklep gedien het vir opgeboude druk en nie soseer as 'n selfmoordpoging nie. Heel dikwels was dit 'n uitvloeisel van mishandeling en/of seksuele misbruik en die persoon het dan hierdie metode gebruik om van innerlike pyn ontslae te raak. Gevoelens van alleenheid, 'n behoefte aan beheer, 'n behoefte om net iéts te voel, asook 'n behoefte om die self te straf, kon ook 'n rol gespeel het. Die gesinsklimaat was oor die algemeen van besondere belang. Hierdie probleem het aan pastorale beraders en aan die kerk 'n besondere uitdaging gebied deur onder andere veel meer op die probleem van pyn, asook die hantering daarvan te fokus. Dit het verband gehou met die feit dat ontkenning in die verlede 'n groot rol gespeel het in sekere kerklike kringe en ook binne sekere gesinne. As deel van 'n pastoraal-terapeutiese strategie in die begeleiding van die self-mutileerder kon aspekte soos die identifisering van die rol van leuens, die benutting van oplossings uit die verlede, vergifnis, nagmaal, gebed en meditasie gevolglik uiters belangrike komponente van die helingsproses gevorm het. Pastorale beraders sal hulleself ten volle op die hoogte moet bring van die verskynsel van self-mutilering ten einde in staat te wees om werklik te kan help.


In this article it seemed that the increase in the occurrence of self-mutilation among young people in many cases served as a pressure-relief valve and not a suicide attempt as such. It was very often the outcome of ill-treatment and/ or sexual abuse and the person used this method to get rid of the inner pain. Feelings of aloneness, a need to be in control, a need to feel at least something and a need to punish the self could also have played a role. The family climate was generally very important. This provided a special challenge for pastoral counsellors as well as the church by, among others, focussing more on the problem of pain and how to handle it. This was relevant to the fact that denial had played a significant role in certain church circles as well as within some families. As part of the pastoral-therapeutic strategy in helping the self-mutilator, aspects such as identifying the role of lies, the use of solutions from the past, forgiveness, the Lord's Supper, prayer, and meditation were therefore very important components in the healing process. Pastoral counsellors would have to be well informed about the phenomenon of self-mutilation in order to be able to be of real help.



“Full text available only in PDF format”




Aizenman, M. & Jensen, M.A.C., 2007, 'Speaking through the body: The incidence of self-injury, piercing, and tattooing among college students', Journal of College Counseling 10, 27-43.        [ Links ]

American Psychiatric Association (APA), 2000, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn., American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC.         [ Links ]

Bradshaw, J., 2005, Healing the shame that binds you, Health Communications, Deerfield Beach, FL.         [ Links ]

Brown, S.A., Williams, K. & Collins, A., 2007, 'Past and recent deliberate self-harm: Emotion and coping strategy differences', Journal of Clinical Psychology 63(9), 791-803., PMid:17674395        [ Links ]

Clark, J. & Henslin, E., 2007, Inside a cutter's mind , THINK, NavPress, Colorado Springs, CO.         [ Links ]

Freeman, H., 2003, 'Girls who cut', The Guardian, 02 Sept. 2003, viewed 25 June 2006, from,3605,1033775,00.html        [ Links ]

Gratz, K.L. & Roemer, L., 2008, 'The relationship between emotion dysregulation and deliberate self-harm among female undergraduate students at an urban commuter University', Cognitive Behavior Therapy 37(1), 14-25., PMid:18365795        [ Links ]

Gregston, M., 2006, The phenomenon of cutting, Heartlight Ministries, Hallsville, TX.         [ Links ]

Harmless, 2010a, Advice for young people, Harmless is a user led organization that provides a range of services about self harm (Factsheet 1), viewed 14 Sept. 2010, from        [ Links ]

Harmless, 2010b, Advice for friends and family, Harmless is a user led organization that provides a range of services about self harm (Factsheet 2), viewed 14 Sept. 2010, from        [ Links ]

Hemfelt, R., Minirth, F. & Meier, P., 2003, Love is a choice, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, TN.         [ Links ]

Hicks, K.M. & Hinck, S.M., 2008, 'Concept analysis of self-mutilation', Journal of Advanced Nursing 64(4), 408-413., PMid:19006819        [ Links ]

Holm, A.L. & Severinsson, E., 2008, 'The emotional pain and distress of borderline personality disorder: A review of the literature', International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 17, 27-35., PMid:18211401        [ Links ]

Holm, A.L. & Severinsson, E., 2010, 'Desire to survive emotional pain related to self-harm: a Norwegian hermeneutic study', Nursing and Health Sciences 12, 52-57., PMid:20487326        [ Links ]

Horning, G., 2010, 'Cutting', Cosmopolitan October, 107-108.         [ Links ]

Kern, J., 2007, Scars that wound: Scars that heal, Standard Publishing, Cincinnati, OH.         [ Links ]

Kruger, R., 2010, 'Pastorale begeleiding van die emosioneel verwonde person met betrekking tot geïnternaliseerde leuens', PhD Proefskrif, Departement Praktiese Teologie, Potchefstroom, Noordwes-Universiteit.         [ Links ]

Lax, R., 2010, 'Self-harm: Looking behind the injury', Practice Nurse 39(4), 5.         [ Links ]

Levenkron, S., 1999, Cutting: Understanding and overcoming self-mutilation, W.W. Norton, New York City.         [ Links ]

McDonald, A.N., 1995, Repressed memories, Can you trust them?, Fleming H. Revell, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Meier, P.D., Minirth, F.B., Wichern, F.B. & Ratcliff, D.E., 2000, Introduction to psychology and counselling, Christian perspectives and applications, Baker Books, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Minirth, B. & Byrd, W., 1994, Christian psychiatry, Fleming, H. Revell, Grand Rapids, MI.         [ Links ]

Pattison, E.M. & Kahan, J., 1983, 'The deliberate self-harm syndrome', The American Journal for Psychiatry 140(7), 867-872.         [ Links ]

Penner, M., 2008, Hope and healing for kids who cut, Zondervan, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Ryan, K., Allen Heath, M., Fischer, L. & Young, E.L., 2008, 'Superficial self-harm: Perspectives of young women who hurt themselves', Journal of Mental Health Counseling 30(3), 237-254.         [ Links ]

Scholtz, J.G. & Fiedeldey, A.C., 1994, 'Die belewenis van self-mutilasie by Grenspersoonlikheidsversteuring', South African Journal of Psychology 24(3), 138-144.         [ Links ]

Selekman, M.D., 2002, Living on the razor's edge, W.W. Norton, New York.         [ Links ]

Selekman, M.D., 2010, 'Helping selfharming students', Educational Leadership 67(4), 49-53.         [ Links ]

Shamos, J., 2007, 'Body crimes', African Journal of Psychiatry November, 255-256.         [ Links ]

Sim, L., Adrian, M., Zeman, J., Cassano, M. & Friedrich, W.N., 2009, 'Adolescent deliberate self-harm: linkages to emotion regulation and family emotional climate', Journal of Research on Adolescence 19(1), 75-91.        [ Links ]

Strong, M., 1998, A bright red scream: Self-mutilation and the language of pain, Viking, New York City.         [ Links ]

Swannell, S., Martin, G., Scott, J., Gibbons, M. & Gifford, S., 2008, 'Motivations for self-injury in an adolescent inpatient population: Development of a self-report measure', Australasian Psychiatry 16(2), 98-103., PMid:18335365        [ Links ]

Swenson, C.R., 1999, 'Book reviews of "A bright red scream: Self-mutilation and the language of pain", by Marilee Strong, and "Cutting: Understanding and overcoming self-mutilation", S. Levenkron (reviewer), Psychiatric Services 50(9), September, 1234-1235.         [ Links ]

Thurman, C., 1999, The lies we believe, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville.         [ Links ]

Welsh, P., 2004, Students' scars point to emotional pain, USA Today, 28 June, viewed 27 October 2010, from        [ Links ]

Whitlock, J., 2010, What do we know about self-injury? (Fact sheet) Cornell research program on self-injurious behavior in adolescents and young adults, viewed 11 October 2010, from        [ Links ]

Yip, K., 2006, 'A strengths perspective in working with an adolescent with self-cutting Behaviors', Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 23(2), 134-146.        [ Links ]



Wentzel Coetzer
PO Box 19320
Noordbrug 2522
South Africa

Received: 09 Mar. 2011
Accepted: 28 July 2011
Published: 29 Nov. 2012

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons