SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.45 número4Towards a mature congregation - an empirical study of the development of a ministry modelNatural science knowledge and the Word of God índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


In die Skriflig

versão On-line ISSN 1018-6441

In Skriflig (Online) vol.45 no.4 Cape Town Jul. 2011

 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

 

'n Teologies-etiese beoordeling van aftrede

 

A theological-ethical judgement of retirement

 

 

E.J. de Beer

Skool vir Kerkwetenskappe, Potchefstroomkampus. Noordwes-Universiteit. Potchefstroom. E-pos: edmunddebeer@lantic.net

 

 


OPSOMMING

Alhoewel aftrede 'n redelike nuwe verskynsel op die arbeidsterrein is, is dit 'n verskynsel wat algemeen aanvaar word. Aftrede is alleen moontlik wanneer mense oud genoeg word om te kan aftree, en ook wanneer hulle genoegsame finansiële voorsiening gemaak het om te kan leef sonder om te werk. Die veroudering van bevolkings tesame met 'n tekort aan finansiële middele veroorsaak dat die huidige aftreepraktyk herevalueer word.
In hierdie artikel word aftrede teologies-eties beoordeel met die doel om aan die verskillende rolspelers bybelse riglyne te bied oor hoe hulle ingesteldheid teenoor aftrede behoort te wees.
Die historiese ontwikkeling van aftrede word eers ondersoek, waarna ondersoek ingestel word na die verskillende redes waarom mense aftree. Dit word gevolg deur 'n ondersoek na bybelse beginsels wat met werk en aftrede verband hou. Die belangrikste beginsel is dat God die mens as 'n altyd-werksame wese geskep het. Die redes waarom mense aftree, word in die lig van die vasgestelde beginsels beoordeel. Vanweë die gebrokenheid van die wêreld is daar talle redes waarom mense moet aftree. Die uitgangspunt behoort egter te wees dat 'n mens werksaam behoort te wees so lank as wat sy vermoëns dit toelaat.


ABSTRACT

Although retirement is a relatively new phenomenon on the labour scene, it is a phenomenon that is generally accepted. Retirement is only possible when people live long enough to retire and when there is enough financial provision to live without having to work. Older-growing populations coupled with a shortage of finances has in recent times led to a re-evaluation of retirement.
In this article, retirement is judged theological-ethically with the aim to give biblical guidance to different role players on what their attitude toward retirement should be.
Firstly, the historical development of retirement is explored after which the reasons why people retire are discussed. This is followed by an exploration of biblical principles regarding work and retirement. The most important principle is that God has created man as an ever-working being. The reasons why people retire are judged in the light of the set principles. The fall of man and the resulting consequences offer numerous reasons why people have to retire. The point of reference, however, should always be that man should work as long as his abilities allow him to.


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

Geraadpleegde bronne

ALBERTS, L. 1994. Met opset vroeg afgetree. (In Eloff, S.J. Wanneer die amandelboom bloei: riglyne vir die aftreetyd. Pretoria: Engedi. p. 121-122.         [ Links ])

ANON. 1992. Oorlewing in krisistye: deel 6 - personeel. Entrepreneur, 11(10): 10-11, Nov.-Des.         [ Links ]

ANON. 2007. Age equality: Helped the aged policy statement 2007. http://policy.helptheaged.org.uk/NR/rdonlyres/445DCD9D-4293-4716-9C5B-BB63F838A519/0/pstateageequality.pdf Date of access: 12 Nov. 2009.         [ Links ]

ANON. 2009a. We're fighting on to scrap forced retirement say Age Concern and Help the Aged. http://www.ageconcern.org.uk/AgeConcern/fighting-on-release-050309.asp Date of access: 12 Nov. 2009.         [ Links ]

ANON. 2009b. Slaggate by ontslag van werknemers na aftree ouderdom. Solidariteit arbeidsforum, 3(6):20, Aug.         [ Links ]

ATCHLEY, R.C. 1976. The sociology of retirement. New York: Wiley.         [ Links ]

BLACK, P. 1988. Senior burgers - geldbespaarder. Kaapstad: Nelson.         [ Links ]

CALVIN, J. 1978. Matthew, Mark and Luke. Vol. 1. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. (Calvin's New Testament commentaries.         [ Links ])

CAMERON, B. & HEYSTEK, M. 2000. Retirement: the amazing and scary truth. Dainfern: Worth Publishing.         [ Links ]

COETZEE, J.C. 1993. Konsekwent gelowige in jou werk. (In Die Almanak van die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika vir die jaar 1993. Potchefstroom: Potchefstroom Herald. p. 59-61.         [ Links ])

DE BEAUVOIR, S. 1972. The coming of age. New York: Putnam.         [ Links ]

DE BEER, E.J. 1998. 'n Teologies-etiese beoordeling van aftrede. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. (Th.M.-verhandeling.         [ Links ])

DE BEER, E.J. 2004. Die vergoeding vir arbeid in Suid-Afrika: 'n teologies-etiese studie. Potchefstroom: NWU. (Ph.D.-proefskrif.         [ Links ])

DELITZSCH, F. 1982. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon: commentary on the Old Testament in ten volumes. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.         [ Links ]

D'EPINAY, C.L. & BICKEL, J-F. 1995. Retirement. (In Heikkinen, E., Kuusinen, J.E. & Ruoppila, I., eds. Preparation for aging. New York: Plenum. p. 39-54.         [ Links ])

ECKLEY, S. 1989. Probleme van en moontlikhede vir die bejaarde. (In Vensters vir bejaardes. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. p. 6-11.) (Instituut vir Reformatoriese Studie. Reeks F3: Versamelde werke, no. 34.         [ Links ])

GOEDHART, J.A. 1995. Does work stress enhance the rate of aging? (In Heikkinen, E., Kuusinen, J.E. & Ruoppila. I., eds. Preparation for aging. New York: Plenum. p. 165-173.         [ Links ])

GOUDZWAARD, B. 1993. Economic life: a confession. (In Venster op bestuurs-etiek: 'n uitdaging vir Christensakelui. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. p. 102-114.) (Instituut vir Reformatoriese Studie. Reeks F3. Versamelde werke, no. 43.         [ Links ])

HENDRIKSEN, W. 1976. The Gospel of Matthew. Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth Trust. (New Testament commentary.         [ Links ])

HEYNS, J.A. 1986. Teologiese etiek. Dl. 2/1. Pretoria: NG Kerkboekhandel.         [ Links ]

JORDAAN, J. & HEYSTEK, M. 1993. Beplan só vir 'n gelukkige aftrede. Stellenbosch: Helderberg.         [ Links ]

KEIL, C.F. & DELITZSCH, F. 1981. The Pentateuch. Vol. 3. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. (Commentary on the Old Testament in ten volumes, vol. 1.         [ Links ])

KONING, W. 1986. Om de kwaliteit van werken in de toekomst. Radix, 12(1):56-83, Jan.         [ Links ]

LASLETT, P. 1995. The third age and the disappearance of old age. (In Heikkinen, E., Kuusinen, J.E. & Ruoppila, I., eds. Preparation for ageing. New York: Plenum. p. 9-16.         [ Links ])

LEHOHLA, P. 2005. Census 2001: stages in the life cycle of South Africans. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.         [ Links ]

LIPMAN, A. & OSGOOD, N.J. 1982. Retirement: the emerging social institution. (In Osgood, N.J., ed. Life after work. New York: Praeger. p. 29-64.         [ Links ])

LLOYD-JONES, D.M. 1984. Studies in the sermon on the mount. Vol. 2. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.         [ Links ]

LONGMAN, P. 1997. Should there be an affirmative action policy for hiring older persons? (In Scharlach, A.E. & Kaye, L.W., eds. Controversial issues in aging. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 40-43.         [ Links ])

MARAIS, P.W. 1993. Afgetree! Wat nou? Pretoria: HAUM.         [ Links ]

MARSHALL, P. 1991. Calling, work and rest. Potchefstroom: PU for CHE.         [ Links ]

MCKENNA, M. 2008. Longer life may mean a later retirement. http://www.expatica.com/de/lifestyle_leisure/lifestyle/Longer-life-may-mean-later-retirement_11469.html Date of access: 5 Nov. 2009.         [ Links ]

MCMILLAN, M. 1993. Coping with retirement. Halfway House: Southern Book Publishers.         [ Links ]

MÖLLER, P.H. & GERBER, E.P. 1988. An integrated sociological model for explaining adjustment to role transition during retirement. South African journal of sociology, 10(2):175-187, Nov.         [ Links ]

MORRIS, L. 1992. The Gospel according to Matthew - a pillar commentary. Michigan: Eerdmans.         [ Links ]

MURCHIE, K. 2008. Male retirement increases. http://www.financemarkets.co.uk/2008/10/24/male-retirement-age-increases/ Date of access: 5 Nov. 2009.         [ Links ]

NORVAL, E.J.G. 1966. Arbeid: prinsipiële ondersoek van arbeid met 'n kritiese toespitsing op enkele aktuele hoofprobleme van die arbeidsetiek. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. (Ph.D.-proefskrif.         [ Links ])

PARKER, S. 1982. Work and retirement. London: Allen & Unwin.         [ Links ]

PETERSEN, R. 1990. Die arbeider is sy loon werd. (In Venster op die sakewêreld: perspektiewe op bedryfsetiek. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. p. 179-188.) (Instituut vir Reformatoriese Studie. Reeks F3. Versamelde werke, no. 36.         [ Links ])

RHEEDER, A.L. 2009. Die waarde van menswaardigheid in die bioetiek. In die Skriflig, 43(2):315-340.         [ Links ]

RIDDERBOS, H. 1975. Paul: an outline of his theology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.         [ Links ]

RUSHDOONY, R.J. 1973. The institutes of biblical law. The Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company.         [ Links ]

SHARLACH, A.E. & KAYE, L.W. 1997. Is gerontology biased toward a negative view of the aging process and old age? (In Scharlach, A.E. & Kaye, L.W., eds. Controversial issues in aging. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 185-186.         [ Links ])

SMIT, F. 2009. Is oud, sieklik en arm dalk jou lot? http://www.beeld.com/Content/InDiepte/Nuus/1979/d3163c0dea774faa88f45855fd54f0e8/27-08-2009%200208/Is_oud,_sieklik_en_arm_dalk_jou_lot Datum van gebruik: 5 Nov. 2009.         [ Links ]

SSA see STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA

STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA. 1999. The people of South Africa population census 1996. http://www.statssa.gov.za/census01/Census96/HTML/CIB/Population/216.htm Date of access: 5 Nov. 2009.         [ Links ]

STERNS, A.A. & STERNS, H.L. 1997. Should there be an affirmative action policy for hiring older persons? (In Scharlach, A.E. & Kaye, L.W., eds. Controversial issues in aging. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. p. 35-39.         [ Links ])

STRYDOM, H. 1989. Feite en vrese ten opsigte van veroudering. (In Vensters vir bejaardes. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO. p. 18-23.) (Instituut vir Refor-matoriese Studie. Reeks F3. Versamelde werke, no. 34.         [ Links ])

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 1967. Age discrimination in Employment Act. http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/adea.cfm Date of access: 5 Jan. 2010.         [ Links ]

VAN NIEKERK, R. 1992. Senior ... en gelukkig. Wellington: Bybelkor.         [ Links ]

VAN RENSBURG, F.A. 1990. The changing role of the elderly in development and the workforce. Rehabilitation in S.A., 34(1):127-131, Mar.         [ Links ]

VAN TONDER, E. 1997. Kry 'n tweede kans. Rooi Rose, 55(8):34-36.         [ Links ]

VAN WYK, J.H. 1996. Arbeidsetiek: 'n teologies-etiese benadering. In die Skriflig, 30(2):155-183.         [ Links ]

VELEMA, W.H. 1980. Bijbelse uitgangspunte van 'n Calvinistische beroepsethiek. Potchefstroom: PU vir CHO.         [ Links ]

VILJOEN, C. 1994. 'n Ideaal verwesenlik. (In Eloff, S.J. Wanneer die amandelboom bloei: riglyne vir die aftreetyd. Pretoria: Engedi. p. 128-130.         [ Links ])

WARD, R.A. 1984. The aging experience. New York: Harper & Row.         [ Links ]

WARR, P. 2007. Work, happiness and unhappiness. Mahwa: Erlbaum.         [ Links ]

WENHAM, G.J. 1981. Numbers. Leicester: InterVarsity. (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries.         [ Links ])

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License