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On-line version ISSN 2304-8557
Print version ISSN 0023-270X

Koers (Online) vol.86 n.1 Pretoria  2021 



[Un] Silencing the Genuine Voices of Young Emerging Scholars on Challenges Facing Young Academics in South African Universities



Makhura B. Rapanyane

Department of Cultural and Politica Studies, University of Limpopo,





There is a clear systemic motive to silence and undermine the genuine voices of young academics in comprehensive South African universities. The foregoing manifests in various ways including gate-keeping publishing techniques. Senior academics do not emphasize the significance of 'publish or perish' mantra as needed and on time for young emerging academics. This continued invidious practice is further perpetuated by the circulating scholarly reports and the media-alike which intentionally do not pay too much attention to this ongoing injustice. Where such is reported, it is often not given too much attention, or rather side-lined and even critiqued. This research article seeks to revisit all the various challenges facing young emerging scholars in South African universities. Due to complicated ethical reasons, the author does not dwell much on pin-pointing universities one by one. Also, this is because the problem seems to be a country-wide systemic instigation to undermine the new emerging voices of young emerging scholars who were previously marginalized and kicked out of the apartheid research system. I, therefore, adopt Afrocentricity as a theoretical lens to challenge the perpetuation of this continued intentional and discriminatory practice against publishing whilst young.

Keywords: Challenges facing Young emerging scholars, Afrocentricity, Research Interest Drivers, Publish or Perish, Post-graduate qualifications



1. Introduction

Research is of paramount importance in the productive growth and development of any country, globally (Griliches, 1979). Sadly, in the African continent, with South Africa not spared, only a little research output is recorded. Senior academics have taken up the task of gatekeeping knowledge of research to themselves only. In year 2011, the global countries had about 1.77% of their total Growth Domestic Product (GDP) on research, despite top leading research African countries like South Africa leading with only 0.76% of the total GDP. The continued tendency by senior academics in gatekeeping research techniques from young scholars is the principal driver of quality research output deterioration in the continent (Olukoju, 2002). The latter is presented as a reason for the continued perpetuation of the declining research investment in Africa, especially in African countries like Nigeria and others due to the crisis in research and academic publishing turning into circus. Not for the benefit of the nation and its growth, but rather also for the predatory research which seeks to enrich researchers who do not have an interest in researching but write to acquire funding (Wallace, 2019). We still do have such cases and ongoing predatory practices world-wide through journals who do not seek to publish quality research articles and reports, but rather publish works in exchange for publication fees (Wallace, 2019). Even if this is so, the research future of Africa and South Africa respectively dwells in the hands of their young emerging scientists, even though little is done to furnish them with support (Kumwenda, et al., 2017). Admittedly, the young emerging Africans' research profiles is brand new, and the process of building competence and confidence amongst these African researchers, for them to join the advanced international stage of competition is also relatively in the early stage. That is why the most relevant research which guides policy makers is still of deficient quality and quantity in the continent, added with the established political processes which are inadequately evaluating and correcting or compensating the already available research shortfalls (Kumwenda, et al., 2017). For a nation and its government to survive in the current international realistic sphere where countries are putting their national interests at the forefront of everything (Shai, 2016), we need young emerging researchers who can invest their time in doing thorough research with adopted data techniques on timely and significant societal problems both in Africa and South Africa so that our political decisions are informed by quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence. This research article concerned itself with finding and assessing the most recent challenges facing young emerging scholars in their efforts towards making scholarly contributions in the development of South Africa and African continent through their scientific contributions.


2. Aim and Objectives

2.1 Aim

To employ Afrocentricity as a theoretical and contextual lens to analyse the challenges facing young emerging African scholars in scientific scholarship contribution

2.2 Objectives

To analyse the drivers of the development of young academics

To explain the various challenges facing young academics in South Africa and Africa at large

To interpret the various challenges facing early career development to make meaning


3. Research Methodology

This research article is informed by a qualitative research approach (reinforcer of Afrocentric research methodologies). I have employed the use of both document review and semi-structured interviews to generate enough answers to my central questions and analyse the objective broadly. The documents that I have analysed are composed of books, journal articles, website reports, media reports. On the other hand, I have managed to interview a number of post-graduate students, particularly masters (5) and doctoral students (3) who emerged from various fields and universities pointed out in the Figure 1. All ethical procedures were explained and understood. The researched have all opted to have their data de-identified for the purpose of anonymity. I have ensured that all the data that I gathered is credible by not manipulating any information collected. My sampling targeted the already interested in research post-graduate students who were at an advanced stage of their completion of their thesis and dissertation reports and those who were already lecturers and aspires to become great scientists by engaging in publishing more articles and books. I maintained consistency, credibility, and dependability by not incorporating any outside views (particularly those who were not yet engaged in any research activity). From there, the principal sample used in the data collection drew straight from the aforementioned focus group listed students who managed to give their responses on time.



I have analysed all the data collected using all the technical steps of Thematic Content Analysis (TCA) better explained by Anderson (2017). To draw the main themes, I took the collected data and read, re-read, interpreted and placed it into relevant required categories (development of research interest; challenges to young black academics; my own interpretations of the challenges facing young black academics) for the purpose of making myself familiar with attending to the central objective (Terre-Blanche & Durrheim, 2002). The analysis process encompassed a re-categorization of the studied data again and again and splitting into smaller relevant and understandable themes that make sense. These themes were all highlighted and interpreted to make meaning in answering the questions underlined in the semi-structured interviews. The ensuing theme focuses on the role of Afrocentricity as the theoretical lens in this research article.


4. The Role of the Theory: Afrocentric Youth Perspective

I have employed Afrocentricity as the contextual and theoretical lens mostly because I deemed it very much relevant due to its ability to signify the influence of cultural, historical, and ground conditions in the analysis of African problems. I intended to look away from adopting any Western-Eastern informed theoretical lens because they would be foreign to what is really happening in Africa (Asante, 2003). In other means, this article seeks to contribute to the unmuting of the marginalized emerging young scholars in the scientific scholarship contribution (Author 2020a). There are several reasons which are tabled for the Afrocentric character of this research article. First, it is my epistemological identity that is uncompromised throughout the process of conceptualizing and operationalizing this research. Second, the unit of analysis for this research article is South Africa' academic institutions. Third, this article is dependent fairly largely on the experiences of myself and those of the semi-structured interviewees on the contribution of the emerging young scholars in the academia (Shai & Iroanya, 2014). Fourth and last, the principal driver behind this research article has been to promote the interests of Africans by generating a clear comprehension of the significant challenges facing emerging young scholars in the existing institutions of higher learning (Author 2020b). The latter is significant in context, especially when one views global knowledge production machinery driven largely by global north developed countries. By employing Afrocentricity as the contextual and theoretical lens, I place myself at the centre of analysing African problems (which pillars the principle of the theory) and also unmutes the genuine historically marginalized voices of the young emerging scholars in the academy (Asante, 2003). It is equally for this reason that this article is contributing to the epistemic justice by historically and philosophically depicting that the Afrocentric youth perspective is one genuine voice amongst thousands of voices that can speak the realities of young emerging scholars. The ensuing part of the article explores the principal drivers of research interest amongst emerging young academics.


5. Drivers of Research interest Amongst Young Black Academics

There several ways through which young academics can develop a strong research interest. I became interested in research when I enrolled for my Hons (International Politics), and then fully realized that there was so much of interest when doing research (Author, 2018). The methods, techniques, analytic tools, theories explored, data collection methods and a whole lot of writing made me realize that I could explore a career in research (Author, 2018). Despite all the challenges that I personally gone throughout; research is still my number one priority up to today in academia. For some, it is a significant tool for the post-graduate education sector. Others see classroom learning followed by deep critical interactions with senior research outside classroom as one of the main initiators of the deep interest in research.

I cannot speak for millions of researchers who had various research interest drivers prior becoming established academics. But I hasten to point out that some are driven by books they read which make them to want to generate new knowledge, which ultimately falls into great interest in research (Fournier-Viger, 2016). Others see how scientists are able to recommend scientific solutions through their intelligent exploratory techniques in various scientific award-platforms (Ishaku, 2020). I am reminded of how one of my former mentees got encouraged to become a researcher from the classroom discussions about various scientific methods through which one can generate knowledge. The young researcher stimulated great interest in research due to the desire to join a team of scientists who generate brand-new knowledge and earn their scientific recognition or fame, like many more other researchers who researched and wrote and broke grounds. I am again reminded of another scholar (now PhD holder) who developed a greater interest in research when she heard of the great stories told in her high schools about well recognized scientists like Isaac Newton, Pythagoras, Euclid, Stephen Hawking, Robert Hooke, Aristotle, Plato, Albert Einstein etc. and many more including the contemporary scientists: Runoko Rashidi, James William Dubois, Anta Diop, Asante MK, Ama Mazama, Ndlovu-Sabelo Gatsheni, Siphamandla Zondi, Kgothatso Shai, Martin Bernal, Archie Mafege, Lwazi Lushaba and Tsehloane Keto and many more critical thinkers who conduct scientific decolonial and Afrocentric research (Sophia, 2020). We cannot overrule the fact that some young emerging scholars develop great interest in research through various daily interactions with their own relatives who survive on research funds or earn living through research, whilst some young emerging academics became lecturers when they were still young and then started to develop great interest in research. The latter is driven by the fact that teaching jobs in public and private universities in South Africa requires that lecturers conducts deep research and publish continuously to get promotion (CHE 2015: 102; MacFarlane 2011). This propels first time lecturers to engage further in research and then continuously engage scholarship contribution for a longer period. However, in doing so, there are several challenges which they are exposed to and these challenges are serious as they deserve attention.


6. Various Challenges to Young Emerging Researchers

Most people and scholars alike see a researcher as someone who has written a master's or PhD Report and then got a job in a University or College, then that was it (AARHUS University, Undated ). Well at least I do not share this general view with them. A researcher to me is someone who has researched deeply. A person who has written both master's and PhD theses and then engaged in writing journal articles and books outside their qualifications (The Conversation, 2013). They do not do so because they want funding or whatsoever, they do so because they want to keep pace with contributing towards the development of scholarship in their special field (The Conversation, 2013). That is why for a PhD holder to become a Professor, there are certain requirements to be met. Amongst these include the number of post-graduate (Hons, Master's and PhD) research students one has supervised and the number of research articles one has written and published in Government recognized Journals. Both are requirements (ranging from different number of students supervised and written journal articles) in becoming an Associate/Assistant Professor or a Full Professor (Subbaye, 2017). But in this article, I have adopted emerging young researchers inclusive of Master's and PhD candidates who have an immense interest in research. These are my centre of analysis. They are at the centre of various challenges facing emerging young academics in various South African Universities.

Those who are Master's Candidates and have written several journal articles have engaged with me and shared various difficulties facing their interest in research. These participants outline several challenges they face in the early stages of research career development. Some are related to the research ambitions sustainability through different support machineries including words of support from peers, mentorship from well advanced researchers in the field. Some outline that there is lack of funds to go to the field and conduct research. Young emerging researchers are facing senior researchers (the very same people) who are supposed to help them with fear at times, because they often make the environment uncomfortable due to the limited time they have for the junior emerging young scholars on research consultations. Others indicated that they only wanted funding schemes and laboratory equipment for sample data collection and practical/ field research work and their failure at accessing research funds became a huge barrier towards their research interest development, coupled with lack of words of encouragement from senior scholars. Some of the quotations, generated of several Masters' Students who have indicated that:

... during my first attempt at publishing, I wanted my supervisor to help me so that I can write a journal article about maritime law. But he postponed my journal article meetings until I saw that he was never interested (Male Respondent)

...There is need for mentorship programmes and placement opportunities where young African researchers can be given opportunity to showcase their skills"(Male Respondent)

...for us to fully become developed researchers, we need grants that are specifically for journal article writing which should be awarded once one is given a go-ahead to the filed to conduct research. Senior researchers also need to engage with young black emerging researchers relating to any research grants" (Female Respondents).

Some of the emerging black PhD candidates that I have engaged with have spilled it out that at their advanced stage, they are supervised by some of the people who are not interested in research anymore. Professors who have lost interest in research and are no longer writing. They appear not interested whenever they are engaged on research and the generation of publications (Author 2020b). This move has discouraged many scholars in pursuing careers in research or considering it as the sole career option. Other challenges have to do with publications of manuscripts in relevant Department of Higher Education (DHET) accredited journals, explained better by Wallace in "Publish and be damned: the damage being created by predatory publishing" (Wallace, 2019). Alternative select PhD responses describe some of the challenges facing young black researchers include the following observations:

The principal challenge is the problem of lack of funding to these emergingyoung scholars and also know how to structure a research paper/ journal article (Male respondent)."

The main issue relates to the research funding required and we are not even considered when we are applying for it. They award funding to selected topics (Male respondent)

The proofreading fees are just too much as we are not English native speakers and also that we are not always engaged on the importance of researching in the academia (female respondent).

Other PhD candidates have further advanced the arguments that South African Private and Public universities alike need to have senior researchers and programmes, rules and schemes that favour the development of young emerging researchers with their various innovative ideas. Funders also need to start funding academicians so that they can know that they can be able to engage with primary data sources every time they deem it fit in agreement with Matebeni (2014) who explained why there are very few black professors in South Africa. I have also discovered that PhD candidates agree that senior researchers in Africa see themselves as teachers and not researchers (Matebeni, 2014). They are committed too much without time to offer journal article writing research mentorship to young academics (male respondent). Even in cases where they are co-authored by emerging young researchers, they often do not contribute much or critique the papers for improvement or perhaps write papers of their own and invite young emerging scholars to contribute in the development and improvement of their papers. This is to say that it should happen (though not propelled) since scholarship is deemed the contestation of ideas (Nyawasha, 2020). All these combined reasons often put young scientists at a disadvantage and prevent them from publishing in high impact journals since they do not know anything yet about publishing.

One other respondent has argued that she felt she did not know if she was supposed to enrol for post-graduate at first, forcing her to graduate and go look for a job, even though she knew whole heartedly that she wanted to become a researcher. She looked for a job and thought less about a career in academia. After realising that she was on a wrong path, she was advised to register for post-graduate honours, although she has been able to pinpoint that South African universities leave research to old academics who last published papers 10-20 years ago and these are the same people who have access to the much needed research grants to proceed with writing journal articles and books outside their field work (female respondent). Further augmented by Maserumule (2012: 2) who has observed that:

When the young becomes old it refuses to consider new perspectives and inevitably reproduced itself in a hegemony used as a firewall against anything new. One can just imagine the extent of conservatism of the old especially when the antagonists of emerging knowledge are septuagenarians, whose ideational outlook is steeped in the past, determined to impose the irrelevance of their scholarship orientation as relevant.

And it was further outlined that "In appropriating to itself the self-proclaimed epithet of the connoisseurs of scholarship, swashbuckling its gerontological imagination as the finite of science, the old disturbs the birth of the new" (Maserumule, 2012: 3).


7. Interpretations of the Various Challenges Facing Young Emerging Academics: Are Master's/ PhD qualifications alone enough to earn young Black scholars a living?

The answer to my question goes both ways. For those who want to be scientists or scholars, academics or researchers, No, it is not enough. For those who want to just earn a living, yes, it is enough. We need to remember the main motive behind one registering for a postgraduate degree. If we can be able to dis-integrate the difference at an earlier stage, we would then be able to know if young scholars/ academics register post-graduate degrees for the purpose of getting a job and earning a living or rather to become a young researcher who aspires to help contribute towards the development of his or her country scholarship. In this case, South Africa is not sparred at all. When one gets a PhD, it comes with more than attaching two letters of one's name and surname combined on the qualification and think that this will give one a life full of publications and research (Gruszczynska, 2016). Some academics (candidates and post-doc studies) are often unprepared for the too much work that still needs to be done for one to secure a good future in independent research or active professorship.

Even if everything during writing and submitting a research report went just fine without any stress, all remain an exception instead of a rule on walking the same paths, other senior committed researchers have done. Often, even those who completed are faced with difficulties and confusion after taking too much of their lifetime preparing a thesis that only bring emptiness to themselves. Those who consider themselves job seekers are lost in the after-process and they are in difficult positions to discover the same thing to offer them similar sense of purpose and intensity (Robins & Kanowski, 2008). I am not arguing that everyone should take the road of becoming researchers, but attempting at all steps to try to show that both master's and PhD holders need to know the significance of doing research and publishing at an early stage at all costs as it increases their chances of getting employed and developing own research profiles (Lee & Kamler, 2008), even if the challenges are too broad and almost impossible to handle. Coping with these challenges is a good start at securing a good and enjoyable academic post. Looking at the above challenges, I am able to spot that the most requiring challenge relates to the issue of accessing funds for continuous research projects (Kumwenda, et al., 2017). In some instances, lack of access to resources, is quite an unexpected hurdle that makes young aspiring future researchers discover themselves as disconnected from all various sources of research support (professional development, networking and career advice from relevant research mentors) at the most vulnerable times (Gruszczynska, 2016). My interpretation of the collected data shows that our young emerging academics especially those who have not been employed by Universities (either Master's or PhD candidates) are cut off from resources that are supposed to be permanent in research exploration. Re-acquiring those resources without official institutional affiliation is impossible once they are off the system to be on their own.

The afore-mentioned is another big challenges demonstrating insufficient support from their supervisors. This happens during and after the official relations. Some argue that they may have maintained some sort of informal connection with their previous supervisors, but report misguided expectations or mismatch- if well intentioned information (Gruszczynska, 2016). Highlighting that a lot of supervisors were able to secure their academic jobs when the economic climate was still friendlier and do not comprehend the harsh reality that faces post-docs or post-graduate students in trying to find academic jobs. This is despite the fact that at times, even those who are able to stay in contact with their supervisors and try by all means to convince them to teach them research skills, their ideas are often dismissed, resulting in ex-supervisees thinking that they are doing a failed job (Gruszczynska, 2016). We are all know that the same advanced Master's and PhD students are struggling with their time too especially in keeping everything together at times, hustling for research funds, whilst looking for a couple of part-time jobs (at times, they might be family expectations contributing to the ongoing pressure), whilst unemployed, they find it very much difficult to run after senior researchers who gatekeep information and access to advanced research mechanism and tools (Wolff, 2015).

I am reminded of my post-graduate Hons, MA and current PhD supervisor who once mentioned the significance of publishing in academia to survive. The ability to write and invest time in publishing journal articles and books together can make or break an academic career - plain and simple . If done willingly and with love, it can build a young researcher into becoming a heavyweight or authoritative voice in the various disciplines. The same ensures that one becomes appealing to universities as primary employers of academics (McGrail, et al., 2006). Admittedly, it is also one of the most challenging aspect of choosing to be an academic. Either as part time job or one's prolonged future-plan aimed at landing one into a job. All these challenges are a true reflection of what young emerging researchers go through. The data at my disposal narrates a lot of challenges. The admired "life of mind" that post-graduate students who aspires to be researchers often does not materialize. Even in cases where they are awarded the academic position and are able to secure the coveted lectureship, the reality of research intricates a whole combination of sobering mix of academic politics, intensive teaching, family financial demands, friends chills, social life, administration at times (Robins & Kanowski, 2008), and a new set of principles to live up to like "publish or perish" (Bretag, 2012) And those who feel the burden of being in the system that keep pressurising them at times feel disillusioned and keep wondering if they are in the right place. We have young emerging researchers and PhD holders who have decided to opt out of the academic system and work outside the fields, yet they have prepared many years to be in the academia. Even those who stay in the system because they are earning a living, they are pressured by their peers who engage in extensive research projects as they have always had the desire to become researchers and received full supervisory and grants support. Zaini (2009) contends that the ingredient of a successful academic career is "publishing, publishing and publishing" and is further supported by Opthof (1997) who interjects that universities with a good research reputation to keep, need scholars who can publish research findings indexed in high-impact academic journals in order to endorse any promotion. So, to answer whether we can earn a living or not having holding Masters' or PhD in the contemporary period, it goes both ways. But the challenges remain very much active barriers on young emerging scholars.


8. Summary of Major Findings

It has been discovered in this research that most of the respondents have developed research interests through various platforms including during the undergraduate classroom learning; interests at furthering to do post-graduate qualifications; outside classroom engagement with people who are involved in research in their jobs (either in government or in Non-Profit Organizations [NPO]). The classroom interpretations of various theories, methods of research and learning about those who are credited with developing these theories (example Molefe Kete Asante credited with Afrocentricity) have also become a leading figure in driving research interests/ ambition. Others do develop research ambitions during their times of obtaining post-graduate qualifications, like Master's or PhD degrees, others have long developed research ambitions earlier in their life (Even at their homes) where their parents are working as senior researchers at various governmental or NPOs or research institutes. This means there are a lot of potential researchers throughout Africa and in South African Public and Private academic institutions respectively, although they need to be nurtured and given enough information for preparation of careers in research so that they can contribute and compete globally with their fellows elsewhere.

I have also discovered that there are various challenges facing those who already are on the path of attempting to develop themselves as young black academics. These challenges range from: lack of research grants/funds; dis-interest from supervisors who also do not motivate these young researchers into taking careers in the academia; lack of grants which cover proof reading fees during the early stages of preparing a manuscript; lack of information about journal submissions procedures; lack of mentorship schemes which train researchers from as young as those who are doing Hons; we also have a backlog of lecturers who do not have interest in research or writing journal articles or books, most of which are not published but supervising; at times, some of our universities demands that co-authorship with supervisors and in cases, where a supervisor does not publish nor show interest in writing any research papers, then the future of the young emerging academic is poised to fail; some young emerging academics are just de-motivated right from the start as they see the journey to be challenging from the start as supervisors make it hard; some challenges include those who have not mastered the skills of writing research papers or data analytics, reducing a full dissertation into a research manuscript for journal submission.

Even when they are not told in time that in academia, its either you "publish or perish," this article seeks to bring awareness about the challenges facing young emerging scholars in the academia and also interpret various challenges in order to make meaning. The central research question engaged with is posed and answered with yes and a no. I was able to analyse the collected data and apply the data triangulation tool to check agreements and even disagreements. There are those who believe by mere passing and having a post-graduate qualification will furnish them with a job in Universities and there are those who were able to argue that nurturing researchers from a young age can help build a nation as researchers are able to fulfil their research duties with available grants and funds. Even if so, researchers believe that South African Universities should not fail emerging young scholars simply because they are not yet employed in the official academic institutions, they believe that senior researchers need to make them believe that having a mere academic master's or PhD degree is not enough when one is to become a researcher. They are also of the view that the idea of "publish or perish" should be taught in classrooms so that emerging researchers can know what kind of environment they are getting themselves into.


9. Conclusion and recommendations

In this Afrocentric article, I have put myself in the forefront of every unit of analysis. Positioning my voice as an active voice in the analysis so that I can present clear objectives which all answers the central questions of the challenges facing emerging young scholars and also if holding a master's or PhD degrees is enough to becoming a researcher. I have outlined several drivers of research interests amongst young emerging scholars who seek to pursue a career as researchers. By so doing, I sought to show that research interest starts somewhere and develops into a great desire if nurtured; visionary killed if discouraged. I have also outlined several challenges facing young scholars in various South African Universities (without naming any university for ethical procedural complications). These challenges are discussed with quotation backing from respondents who opted for de-identification. Thereafter engaged in interpreting these challenges to explore if ever holding a Masters' or PhD qualifications is enough for one to consider being called a researcher and make a good living out of it. After careful consideration, I can present that holding a Masters' or PhD qualifications qualifies one to earn a living, but not becoming a researcher due to various reasons presented and including the challenges outlined. Below I make a number of recommendations that needs to be taken into consideration by the South African higher education sector in dealing with the scourge of various challenges facing young emerging academics.

We need a government that prioritizes research funding that considers various research ideals from young emerging researchers. This is because of the need to invest in young emerging researchers in South Africa so that we can be able to develop new innovations, all important in the development of the country. We do not need research funding bodies which are selective (funding certain topics and leaving others). We need governmental research funding bodies and private research bodies who are able to fund all research initiatives at all costs because we do not know if a certain rejected research topic might become a big societal issue tomorrow since our policy makers would not have been made aware of it on time.

To fully realize the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, we need a government that is willing to steer funding towards post-graduate studies so that it can encourage pupils to start preparing for research careers earlier in their lives. The same will then lead to basic countrywide research output linked to economic growth.

South African senior researchers and those who hold relevant qualifications needs to start increasing the pace at which they do research in order to stay focused because of the immense potential in becoming future basket of ideals that solve African various problems.

We also need supervisors who are able to endeavour to work outside their academic comfort zones in pursuing knowledge so that they can encourage young emerging scholars to join the team in making research collaborations with the developed global north and apply new knowledge and skills to our African continent through scientific applied research.

Senior researchers are also advised to make contact with relevant research stakeholders such as south African local research institutes, governmental research bodies in order to keep interacting with their emerging scholars so that scholars do not feel lost when opting for a career in research or academic career.

We also need independent research organizations which are able to liaison with the DHET for the purpose of administering research funds. This is to promote and encourage independent researchers who are not yet employed by universities to continue doing research outside the University framework.



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Makhura B. Rapanyane

Published: 31May 2021

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