SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.77 número2Human reproductive cloning and biotechnology: Rational, ethical and public concernsContextualising theological education in Africa by doing theology in a missional hermeneutic índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


Koers

versión On-line ISSN 2304-8557
versión impresa ISSN 0023-270X

Koers (Online) vol.77 no.2 Pretoria  2012

 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

 

Developing a scientific culture through supervision

 

Die ontwikkeling van 'n akademiese kuituur deur middel van studieleiding

 

 

Danie F.M. Strauss

Department of Philosophy, University of the Free State, South Africa

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

Through effective educational transmission cultural traditions are passed on to subsequent generations. The presence of alternative theoretical views of reality (paradigms) in various academic disciplines uprooted the positivistic conviction that genuine science ought to be 'objective' and 'neutral'. The background of this view is found in Renaissance and post-Renaissance philosophy, with its initial points of culmination in the thought of the 18th century philosopher, Immanuel Kant. He safe-guarded autonomous human freedom by restricting scholarship to phenomena (subject to the universal law of causality). The dialectic between nature and freedom gave direction to modern philosophy. Non-reductionist orientations eventually emerged recognising what is irreducible. Although a sound academic culture, operative within supervision to doctoral students, must pay attention to argumentative skills and informal logic, it must at the same time acknowledge the limitations of logic. The principle of sufficient reason refers human thinking beyond logic itself. The supervisor therefore should generate, amongst students, an awareness of the difference between reductionist and non-reductionist ontologies. Doctoral students must also realise that persistent themes and scientific revolutions go hand-in-hand. Some examples of seeing the aspects of reality as modes of explanation are given, before the seven aims of scientific endeavors identified by Stafleu are stipulated. This constitutes another important guideline that ought to be taken into account in supervising post-graduate work. Argumentative skills, scientific communication and the status of facts are discussed before a concluding formulation is given in which the overall argument of the article is summarised.


OPSOMMING

Deur middel van effektiewe opvoedkundige oordrag word kulturele tradisies deurgegee aan opeenvolgende geslagte. Die teenwoordigheid van alternatiewe teoretiese siening van die werklikheid (paradigmas) in verskillende vakgebiede het die positivistiese oortuiging dat 'egte' wetenskap 'objektief' en 'neutraal' is, ontwortel. Die agtergrond van hierdie seining gryp terug na die Renaissance en post-Renaissance filosofie wat sy aanvanklike kulminasiepunt in die denke van die 18de eeuse filosoof, Immanuel Kant, sou beleef. Hy wou die mens se outonome vryheid beveilig deur wetenskaplike denke tot verskynsels te beperk (onderworpe aan die universele kousaliteitswet). Die dialektiek tussen natuur en vryheid was rigtinggewend vir die moderne filosofie. Eventueel het nie-reduksionistiese oriëntasies verskyn wat erkenning verleen het aan dit wat onherleibaar is. Alhoewel 'n gesonde akademiese kultuur, wat in swang is by die begeleiding van doktorsgraadstudente, aandag moet gee aan argumentatiewe vaardighede en informele logika, moet dit tegelyk ook erkenning verleen aan die beperkinge van die logika. Die beginsel van toereikende grond verwys die menslike denke immers na dit wat die logika te bowe gaan. Die studiebegeleider moet daarom by die student 'n besef laat ontwikkel van wat die verskil tussen reduksionistiese en nie-reduksionistiese ontologieë is. Doktoraalstudente moet ook daarmee rekening hou dat duursame temas en wetenskaplike revolusies hand-aan-hand gaan. Voorbeelde van hoe die aspekte van die werklikheid as verklaringsmodi gesien kan word is gegee alvorens die sewe doestellinge van wetenskaplik-besig-wees, soos deur Stafleu geïdentifiseer, aangestip is. Dit beliggaam nog 'n ander riglyn wat verreken behoort te word by die begeleiding van nagraadse werk. Daarom word argumentatiewe vaardighede, kommunikasie en die status van feite bespreek alvorens die hele artikel opgesom word in 'n samevattende formulering van die oorkoepelende argument.


 

 

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

Acknowledgements

Competing interests

The author declares that he has no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced him in writing this article.

 

References

Aristotle, 2001, 'The Basic Works of Aristotle', in R. McKeon (ed.), with an Introduction by C.D.C. Reeve, The Modern Library, New York.         [ Links ]

Beth, E., 1965, Mathematical Thought, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.         [ Links ]

Brouwer, L.E.J., 1964, 'Consciousness, Philosophy, and Mathematics', in P. Benacerraf & H. Putnam (eds.), pp.78-84, Philosophy of Mathematics, Selected Readings, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Cassirer, E., 1957, Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft der neueren Zeit, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart.         [ Links ]

Darwin, C., 1859, 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life', with an Introduction by J.W. Burrow (ed.), 1968, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.         [ Links ]

Dawkins, R., 1987, The Blind Watchmaker, W.W. Norton Co., New York.         [ Links ]

Dawkins, R., 1996, River out of Eden, Phoenix, London.         [ Links ]

Dennet, D.C., 1995, Darwin's Dangerous Idea. Evolution and the Meanings of Life, Touchstone, New York.         [ Links ]

Diels, H. & Kranz, W., 1959-1960, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, vols. I-III. Weidmannsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin.         [ Links ]

Dooyeweerd, H., 1997, A New Critique of Theoretical Thought, in D.F.M. Strauss (gen. ed.), Collected Works of Herman Dooyeweerd, A Series vols. I-IV, Edwin Mellen, Lewiston.         [ Links ]

Einstein, A., 2006, The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, vol. 10, tranls. A. Hentschel, University Press, Princeton.         [ Links ]

Elkana, Y., 2006, 'Unmasking Uncertainties and Embracing Contradictions: Graduate Education in the Sciences', in G.M. Golde & G.E. Walker (eds.), Envisioning the Future of Doctoral Education. Preparing Stewards of the Discipline, pp. 65-96 Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate, Jossey-bass, San Francisco.         [ Links ]

Fraenkel, A., Bar-hillel, Y., Levy, A. & Van Dalen, D., 1973, Foundations of Set Theory, 2nd rev. edn., North Holland, Amsterdam.         [ Links ]

Gödel, K., 1964, 'What is Cantor's Continuum Problem?' in P. Benacerraf & H. Putnam (eds.), Philosophy of Mathematics, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Golde, C.M. & Walker, G.E., 2006, Envisioning the Future of Doctoral Education. Preparing Stewards of the Discipline, Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate, Jossey-bass, San Francisco.         [ Links ]

Goodfield, J., 1974, 'Changing Strategies: A Comparison of Reductionist Attitudes in Biological and Medical Research in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries', in T. Dobzhansky & F.J. Ayala (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. Reduction and Related Problems, pp. 65-86, University of California Press, Berkeley.         [ Links ]

Gould, S.J. & Eldredge, N., 1977 'Evolution's Erratic Pace', in Natural History 86, 5.         [ Links ]

Gould, S.J., 2002, The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.         [ Links ]

Greene, B., 2003, The Elegant Universe, W.W. Norton & Company Inc., New York.         [ Links ]

Hacohen, M.H., 2002, Karl Popper, The Formative Years 1902-1945, University Press, Cambridge.         [ Links ]

Heitler, W., 1972, Wahrheit und Richtrigkeit in den exakten Wissenschaften, in Abhandlungen der mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse Jahrgang 1972(3), pp. 45-64.         [ Links ]

Hersh, R., 1997, What is Mathemtics Really?, Oxford University Press, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Holton, G., 1988, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, Kepler to Einstein, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.         [ Links ]

Husserl, E., 1954, Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die Transzendentale Phänomenologie, Husserliana Band VI, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.         [ Links ]

Jonathan, J. (Chair), 2010, The PhD Study, An Evidence-based Study on how to meet the Demands of High-level Skills in an Emerging Economy, viewed 18 July 2011, from http://www.assaf.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/40696-Boldesign-PHD-small-optimised.pdf        [ Links ]

Kant, I., 1787, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 2nd edn. (references to CPR B - 1956), Felix Meiner, Hamburg.         [ Links ]

Kline, M., 1980, Mathematics, the loss of certainty, Oxford University Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Koestler, A. & Smythies, J.R. (eds.), 1972, Beyond Reductionism, Macmillan, New York.         [ Links ]

Kuhn, T., 1970, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd rev. edn., The University Press of Chicago, Chicago.         [ Links ]

Lategan, L.O.K. & Lues, L. (eds.), 2005, Doing Research. Bloemfontein, Tekskor.         [ Links ]

Lategan, L.O.K., Hey, D., Holtzhausen, S., Truscott, M., & Vermeulen, W., 2005, in L.O.K. Lategan & L. Lues (eds.), Doing Research, pp. 64-78, Tekskor, Bloemfontein.         [ Links ]

Lesham, S., 2007, 'Thinking about conceptional frameworks in a research community of practice: A case of a doctoral programme', in Innovations in Education and Teaching International 44(3), pp. 287-299.         [ Links ]

Margenau, H., 1982, 'Physics and the Doctrine of Reductionism', in J. Agassi & R.S. Cohen (eds.), Scientific Philosophy Today, Essays in Honour of Mario Bunge, Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 67, pp. 187-199, Reidel, Dordrecht.         [ Links ]

Penelope, M., 2000, Naturalism in Mathematics, University Press, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Planck, M., 1973, Vorträge und Erinnerungen, 5th edn., Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.         [ Links ]

Popper, K.R., 1974, 'Scientific Reduction and the Essential Incompleteness of All Science', in T. Dobzhansky, & F.J. Ayala (eds.), Studies in the Philosophy of Biology. Reduction and Related Problems, pp. 259-284, University of California Press, Berkeley.         [ Links ]

Portmann, A., 1990, A zoologist looks at humankind, transl. J. Schaefer, Columbia University Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Putnam, H., 1982, Reason, Truth and History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.         [ Links ]

Quine, W.V.O., 1953, From a logical point of view, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.         [ Links ]

Sarfati, J., 2010, The Greatest Hoax on Earth? Refuting Dawkins on Evolution, Creation Book Publishers, Atlanta.         [ Links ]

Schuurman, E., 1993, 'Techniek, Technologie en het Technisch Wereldbeeld', in H.A. Van der der Ploeg, M.H.J. Dulhaart & A.E. Vlug (reds.), Tastend Zien, Opstellen in dankbare herinnering opgedragen aan dr. F. De Graaff, pp. 191-206, Merweboek, Sliedrecht.         [ Links ]

Schuurman, E., 1995, Perspectives on Technology and Culture, Dordt College Press, Sioux Center.         [ Links ]

Schuurman, E., 2005, The Technological World Picture and the Ethics of Responsibility, Struggles in the Ethics of Technology, Dordt College Press, Dordt.         [ Links ]

Schuurman, E., 2009, Technology and the Future, 2nd edn., Paideia Press, Jordan Station.         [ Links ]

Shapiro, S., 2000, Philosophy of Mathematics, Structure and Ontology, Oxford University Press, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Smith, G.L., 1994, On Reductionism. Sewanee, Tennessee, viewed 22 January 2005, from http://smith2.sewanee.edu/texts/Ecology/OnReductionism.html        [ Links ]

Stafleu, M.D., 1980, Time and Again, A Systematic Analysis of the Foundations of Physics, Wedge, Toronto.         [ Links ]

Stafleu, M.D., 1987, Theories at Work: On the Structure and Functioning of Theories in Science, in Particular during the Copernican Revolution, University Press of America, Lanham.         [ Links ]

Stegmüller, W., 1987, Hauptströmungen der Gegenwartsphilosophie, vol. III, Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart.         [ Links ]

Strauss, D.F.M., 2003, 'The Achilles' heel of positivism', Koers - Bulletin for Christian Scholarship 68(2&3), 255-278.         [ Links ]

Strauss, D.F.M., 2006a, Reintegrating Social Theory - Reflecting upon human society and the discipline of sociology, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main.         [ Links ]

Strauss, D.F.M., 2006b, 'Filosofiese tendense in die wordingsgeskiedenis van ons verstaan van die fisiese natuur', Akademie Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskappe 25(2), 93-110.         [ Links ]

Strauss, D.F.M., 2009a, 'The Significance of a Non-Reductionist Ontology for The Discipline of Mathematics: A Historical and Systematic Analysis', Axiomathes: An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems 20, 19-52.         [ Links ]

Strauss, D.F.M., 2009b, Philosophy: Discipline of the Disciplines, Paideia Press, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Van den Beukel, A., 2005, 'Darwinisme: wetenschap en/of ideologie?', in C. Dekker, R. Meester & R. Van Woudenberg (eds.), Schitterend Ongeluk of Sporen van Ontwerp?, pp. 101-116, Ten Have, Kampen.         [ Links ]

Wallner, F., 1992, Acht Vorlesungen über den Konstruktiven Realismus, WUV Universitätsverlag, Vienna.         [ Links ]

Weyl, H., 1966, Philosophie der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaft, 3rd revised and expanded edn., R. Oldenburg, Vienna.         [ Links ]

Yourgrau, P., 2005, A World Without Time. The forgotten Legacy of Gödel and Einstein, Penguin Books, London.         [ Links ]

 

 

Correspondence:
Danie Strauss
PO Box 339
Bloemfontein 9300
South Africa
Email: dfms@cknet.co.za

Received: 11 Mar. 2011
Accepted: 29 Sept. 2011
Received: 14 Dec. 2012

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons