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versão On-line ISSN 2304-8557
versão impressa ISSN 0023-270X

Koers (Online) vol.77 no.2 Pretoria  2012




A post-Jungian perspective on the psychological development of Afrikaner cultural identity


'n Post-Jungiaanse perspektief op die psigologiese ontwikkeling van die kulturele identiteit van die Afrikaner



Martina KotzéI; Loura GriesselII

IBusiness School, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
IIDepartment of Industrial Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa





In order to enhance an understanding of different cultures and groups, post-Jungians are currently applying C.G. Jung's theory of personal ego and complexes to the cultural level of the psyche of groups. In the post-Jungian view, much of what tears groups apart can be understood as the manifestation of autonomous processes in the collective and individual psyche that organise themselves around the cultural identity and cultural complexes of groups. A post-Jungian model of the development of the Self, based on Jung's early identification of the archetypal patterns of Masculine and Feminine, was used to explore and discuss the development and formation of the Afrikaner cultural identity and its concomitant complexes within South Africa as they were shaped by important historical events. The interplay between the Masculine and Feminine principles led to the argument that, within the premises of the model, Afrikaner identity was forged by traumatic events in the static Feminine, which lead to a gross overemphasis of the Masculine in its dynamic and, more especially, in its static forms, reverberating in the notorious nationalist strategy of Apartheid. It was further argued that that the change and transformation of the Afrikaner cultural identity under the auspices of the dynamic Feminine was inevitable, leaving the Afrikaner in a situation in which the reconstruction of their cultural identity or identities is still emerging. It was concluded that, since all human cultures are seen as having their roots in and being centred around a religious viewpoint, as was evident in the Great Father-God, Calvinistic, patriarchal ethic of the Afrikanerdom, the individuation of the Afrikaner and the evolution of the Afrikaner cultural identity will most probably include a renewal of some of its religious viewpoints.


C.G. Jung se teorie oor persoonlike ego en komplekse word tans aangewend op die kulturele vlak van die psige van groepe, ten einde 'n beter begrip van verskillende kulture te bewerkstellig. Volgens die post-Jungiaanse perspektief kan die oorsake van dit wat groepe uitmekaar dryf dikwels toegeskryf word aan die manifestasie van outonome prosesse in die kollektiewe en individuele psige, wat hulself organiseer rondom kulturele identiteit en kulturele komplekse van groepe. 'n Post-Jungiaanse model van die ontwikkeling van die Self, gebaseer op Jung se vroeë identifisering van die argetipiese patrone van Manlik en Vroulik, is gebruik om die ontwikkeling en totstandkoming van die Afrikaner se kulturele identiteit en gepaardgaande komplekse, soos gevorm deur belangrike historiese gebeure, te ondersoek. Gebaseer op die interaksie tussen die Manlike en die Vroulike beginsels, is, binne die aanname van die model, geargumenteer dat die Afrikaner se identiteit sy oorsprong het in traumatiese gebeure wat in die statiese Vroulike plaasgevind het. Dit het tot die oorbeklemtoning van die Manlike in sy dinamiese en veral statiese vorme gelei, wat uiteindelik beslag gevind het in die berugte nasionale strategie van Apartheid. Daar is verder aangevoer dat die verandering en transformasie ten opsigte van die kulturele identiteit van die Afrikaner, onder die invloed van die dinamiese Vroulike, onvermydelik was. Dit het die Afrikaner in 'n situasie gelaat waar die rekonstruksie van hulle kulturele identiteit steeds in 'n vormingsproses was. Die gevolgtrekking is gemaak dat, aangesien alle kulture gewortel is in, en gesentreer word rondom bepaalde godsdienstige ootuiginge, soos dit duidelik was in die Vader-God, Calvinistiese, patriargale etiek van die Afrikanerdom, die individuasie van die Afrikaner, asook die evolusie van die Afrikaner kulturele identiteit, heelwaarskynlik die hernuwing van sommige van die godsdienstige oortuiginge van die Afrikaner sal insluit.



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Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship(s) which may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.

Authors' contribution

M.K. (University of the Free State) was mainly responsible for the section on Afrikaner history. L.G. (University of the Free State) was mainly responsible for the section on Jungian psychology. Both authors were involved in the conceptualisation of the study, as well as in the application of the Post-Jungian model on the Afrikaner history.



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Martina Kotzé
PO Box 339
Bloemfontein 9300
South Africa

Received: 19 Aug. 2010
Accepted: 02 Apr. 2012
Published: 13 Dec. 2012

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