SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.75 número2The informatisation of our image of the human beingA consumer perspective on food labelling: Ethical or not? índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


Koers

versión On-line ISSN 0023-270X

Koers (Online) vol.75 no.2 Pretoria  2010

 

The role of God in the father/son relationship during identity formation - a Gestalt theoretical perspective

 

Die rol van God in die vader-/seunverhouding gedurende identiteitsvorming - 'n Gestalt teoretiese perspektief

 

 

H.B. Grobler

Institute for Child, Youth & Family Studies, Huguenot College, WELLINGTON and Department of Theology, Unisa, PRETORIA. E-mail: h.awareness@gmail.com

 

 


ABSTRACT

This article is based on research done within the Afrikaans-speaking community in the area of the Drakenstein Municipality, Western Cape province, South Africa. The focus falls specifically on one concept that was outlined during the research, namely the perceptions of fathers and adolescent sons on identity formation within their relationship as well as the role that God plays. Combined qualitative/quantitative research was conducted with emphasis on semi-structured interviews with fathers (n=4) and adolescent boys (n=4) and an auto-ethnography of the author as the dominant component. The less-dominant quantitative component consisted of questionnaires completed by fathers (n=42) and adolescent boys (n=180). Metatheoretical assumptions and theoretical assumptions as grounding for the male identity are discussed as part of the author's paradigmatic perspective. Furthermore, empirical findings are discussed and recommendations are made. From the discussions with fathers and their sons it was clear that both fathers and sons have a need to stand in close relationship to each other and to God. It is within this relationship where their identities are formed. However, fathers seemed to be resistant of transferring their beliefs to their sons. Adolescent boys also indicated no need to one day transfer learned behaviour from their fathers to their sons.

Key concepts: father/son relationship ,Gestalt therapy theory identity formation religion self, sense of


OPSOMMING

Hierdie artikel word gebaseer op navorsing wat gedoen is binne die Afrikaanssprekende gemeenskap in die area van die Drakenstein munisipaliteit, Wes-Kaap provinsie, Suid-Afrika. Die fokus val spesifiek op een konsep wat tydens die navorsing uitgelig is, naamlik die persepsies van vaders en adolessente seuns oor identiteitsvorming binne hulle verhouding, asook die rol wat God speel. Gekombineerde kwalitatiewe/kwantitatiewe navorsing is uitgevoer met die klem op semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude met vaders (n=4) en adolessente seuns (n=4) en 'n outobiografie van die outeur as die dominante komponent. Die minder dominante kwantitatiewe komponent het bestaan uit vraelyste wat voltooi is deur vaders (n=42) en adolessente seuns (n=180). Metateoretiese en teoretiese aannames vir die begronding van manlike identiteit word bespreek as deel van die skrywer se paradigmatiese perspektief. Verder word empiriese bevindings bespreek en aanbevelings gemaak. Vanuit die besprekings met vaders en seuns was dit duidelik dat albei partye 'n behoefte het aan 'n hegte verhouding met mekaar en met God. Dit is binne hierdie verhouding waar hulle identiteit gevorm word. Dit blyk egter dat vaders 'n weerstandigheid toon om hulle geloofsoortuigings aan hulle seuns oor te dra. Adolessente seuns het ook aangedui dat hulle geen behoefte het om gedrag wat hulle van hulle vaders geleer het eendag aan hulle seuns oor te dra nie.

Kernbegrippe: Gestalt terapie teorie identiteitsvorming religie self, gewaarwording van, vader-/seunverhouding


 

 

Full text available only in pdf format.

 

 

List of references

BERK, L.E. 2003. Child development. 6th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.         [ Links ]

BOSMA, H. & GERLSMA, C. 2003. From early attachment relations to the adolescent and adult organization of self. (In Valsiner, J. & Connolly, K. Handbook of developmental psychology. London: Sage. p. 450-488.         [ Links ])

DELPORT, C.S.L. 2005. Quantitative data collection methods. (In De Vos, A.S., Strydom, H., Fouché, C.B. & Delport, C.S.L. Research at grass roots for the Social Sciences and human service professions. 3rd ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik. p. 159-191.         [ Links ])

FOUCHÉ, C.B. 2005. Qualitative research designs. (In De Vos, A.S., Strydom, H., Fouché, C.B. & Delport, C.S.L. Research at grass roots for the Social Sciences and human service professions. 3rd ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik. p. 267-273.         [ Links ])

FOUCHÉ, C.B & DE VOS, A.S. 2005. Quantitative research designs. (In De Vos, A.S. Strydom, H., Fouché, C.B. & Delport, C.S.L. Research at grass roots for the Social Sciences and human service professions. 3rd ed. Pretoria: Van Schaik. p. 132-143.         [ Links ])

GINGER, S. 2007. Gestalt therapy: the art of contact. London: Karnac.         [ Links ]

GORSKI, P. 1998. Racial and gender identity development in white male multicultural educators and facilitators: toward individual processes of self-development. file://E:\Paul%20Gorski%20-%20Dissertation%20-%20Review% 20of% 20the%20Literature Date of access: 6 Sept. 2006.         [ Links ]

GROBLER, H.B. 2007. Manlike identiteit: 'n begeleidingsraamwerk vir vaders en hul seuns. Pretoria: Universiteit van Suid-Afrika. (Doktorale proefskrif.         [ Links ])

JOYCE, P. & SILLS, C. 2001. Skills in Gestalt counselling & psychotherapy. London: Sage.         [ Links ]

KAPLAN, P.S. 2000. A child's odyssey: child and adolescent development. Belmont: Wadsworth.         [ Links ]

KINDERMANN, T. 2003. Children's relationships and development of person-context relations. (In Valsiner, J. & Connolly, K. Handbook of developmental psychology. London: Sage. p. 407-430.         [ Links ])

LINDEGGER, G. 2006. The father in the mind. (In Richter, L. & Morrell, R. BABA: Men and fatherhood in South Africa. Cape Town: HSRC. p. 121-131.         [ Links ])

LOUW, D.A & EDWARDS, D.J.A. 2003. Sielkunde: 'n inleiding vir studente in Suider-Afrika. 2e dr. Johannesburg: Heinemann.         [ Links ]

LOUW, D.A. & LOUW, A. 2007. Child and adolescent development. Bloemfontein: ABC.         [ Links ]

LOUW, D.J. 1997. Die rol van Godsbeelde/voorstellinge in die ontwikkeling van lidmate se geloof - 'n pastoraal-diagnostiese model. Praktiese teologie in Suid-Afrika, 12(1):64-79.         [ Links ]

MANDARA, J., MURRAY, C.B. & JOYNER, T.N. 2005. The impact of fathers' absence on African American adolescents' gender role development. Sex roles, 53(3 & 4):207-220.         [ Links ]

MAREE, K. & PIETERSEN, J. 2007. Sampling. (In Maree, K., ed. First steps in research. Pretoria: Van Schaik. p. 172-181.         [ Links ])

MINSKY, R. 2005. Beyond nurture: finding the words for male identity. http://human-nature.com/free-associations/minskynurture.html. Date of access: 27 Sept. 2006.         [ Links ]

NEUMAN, W.L. 2003. Social research methods. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.         [ Links ]

NICOLOSI, J. 2004. Fathers of male homosexuals: a collective clinical profile. file://E:\Fathers%20of%20Male%20Homosexuals%20A%20Collective%20Clinical%20Profile Date of access: 6 Sept. 2006.         [ Links ]

NIEUWENHUIS, J. 2007. Qualitative research designs and data gathering techniques. (In Maree, K., ed. First steps in research. Pretoria: Van Schaik. p. 70-97.         [ Links ])

PERLS, F.S. 1992. Ego hunger and aggression. New York: Gestalt Journal.         [ Links ]

PLECK, J.H. 2007. Why could father involvement benefit children? Theoretical perspectives. Applied development science, 11(4):196-202.         [ Links ]

POLSTER, E. 2005. A population of selves. Gouldsboro: Gestalt Journal.         [ Links ]

PRINSLOO, J. 2006. Where have all the fathers gone? Media (ted) representations of fatherhood. (In Richter, L. & Morrell, R. BABA: men and fatherhood in South Africa. Cape Town: HSRC. p. 132-146.         [ Links ])

RICHTER, L. & SMITH, W. 2006. Children's views of fathers. (In Richter, L. & Morrell, R. BABA: men and fatherhood in South Africa. Cape Town: HSRC. p. 155-172.         [ Links ])

SAPS see SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICE        [ Links ]

SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE SERVICE. 2005. Year report: crime statistics. Pretoria: State Press.         [ Links ]

STRYKER, S. & BURKE, P.J. 2000. The past, present and future of an identity theory. \\Burkep\d\Papers\Millennium\IdentityTheory5f.doc Date of access: 6 Sept. 2006.         [ Links ]

THOMAS, R.M. 2005. Comparing theories of child development. 6th ed. California: Wadsworth.         [ Links ]

VOTSMEIER, A. 1996. Kurt Goldstein and holism. Lecture held at the GTILA-Summer-Residential-Program, Barcelona        [ Links ]

WADE, J.C. 1998. Male reference group identity dependence. file://E:/Male%20Reference%20Group%20Identity%20Dependence%20A%20Theory%20 Date of access: 6 Sept. 2006.         [ Links ]

YONTEF, G.M. 1993. Awareness, dialogue and process. Highland: Gestalt Journal.         [ Links ]

YONTEF, G.M. 2007. The power of the immediate moment in Gestalt therapy. Contemporary psychotherapy, 37:17-23.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License