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De Jure

versão On-line ISSN 2225-7160
versão impressa ISSN 1466-3597

De Jure (Pretoria) vol.44 no.1 Pretoria  2011

 

ARTIKELS

 

Molao wa tšhireletso ya leago ka mo go ditshaba tšeo di hlabologago tša borwa bja Afrika

 

Code on social security in the Southern African development community

 

 

Letlhokwa George Mpedi

Bluris LLM LLD Profesa le Mothušamolaodi: Centre for International and Comparative Labour and Social Security Law (CICLASS), Fakhalithi ya Molao, Yunibesithi ya Johannesburg

 

 


SUMMARY

The Code on Social Security in the Southern African Development Community (Code) was approved by the Integrated Committee of Ministers in June 2007 in Windhoek Namibia. This contribution critically examines how the Code attempts to develop sound social security systems in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. It pays special attention to the approach adopted by the Code in its quest to address pertinent issues such as the right to social security, social protection framework, and social risks as well as vulnerable groups and categories of persons protected. It concludes by observing that the ratification record of SADC member states of the officially current conventions in the field of social security is unsatisfactory. Accordingly, member states must be encouraged to ratify these important instruments. Secondly, preventative and (re)integrative measurers are a part and parcel of a social security system. Thus, the call by the Code for the introduction of these measures is to be welcomed. Furthermore, social security coordination is an integral part of regional integration and the free movement of labour and persons. To this end, the provisions in the Code aimed at these matters are timely. Finally, the Code is not legally binding. Nonetheless, its adoption is commendable for it is a right step towards the improvement of social security systems in the SADC region which are largely undeveloped and, in some instances, underdeveloped.


 

 

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1 Lebelela Post-ICM Media Briefing Statement 2007-06-16 Windhoek, Namibia - e hweditswe mo go http://www.sadc.int.
2 Temana ya 3 ya Molao wa tšhireletso ya Leago ka mo go Ditšhaba tšeo di Hlabologago ka mo Afrika ya ka Borwa.
3 Olivier le Mpedi "Co-ordination and integration of social security in the SADC region: Developing the social dimension of economic co-operation and integration" 2003 Journal for Juridical Science 10 mo go 12.         [ Links ]
4 Idem mo go 13.
5 Ibid.
6 Temana ya 4(1) ya Molao.
7 Bjalo ka Income Security Recommendation (1944), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) le International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966).
8 Lebelela, mohlala, s 27(1) (c) ya Molaotheo wa Repabliki ya Afrika Borwa, 1996.
9 Lebelela Eichenhofer Social Security Reform and the Law ka mo go Pieters (ed) Confidence and Changes: Managing Social Protection in the New Millennium (2001) 237;         [ Links ] Schulte Legal Protection of Social Benefits and Expectancies - Social Rights under International and National Lawka mo go Kremalis (ed) Simplification and Systematisation of Social Protection Rules (1996) 137; Craven The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on its Development (1995); Van Langendonck The Right to Social Security and Allied Rights ka mo go Ruland et al (eds) Verfassung, Theorie und Praxis des Sozialstaats (1998) 477; le Perrin "The recognition of the right to social protection as a human right" 1985 Labour & Society 239.         [ Links ]
10 Temana ya 1(5) ya Molao.
11 Temana ya 1(4) ya Molao.
12 Ibid.
13 Ibid.
14 Temana ya 4(2) ya Molao.
15 Temana ya 4(3) ya Molao.
16 Javillier J-C "The impact of international social security standards" Letlakala leo le abilwego mo go Conference on the ISSA Initiative, Vancouver, Canada 2002-09-10 to 12.         [ Links ]
17 Temana ya 4(4) ya Molao.
18 Ibid.
19 Temana ya 2(2)(b) ya Molao.
20 Temana ya 20(1) ya Molao.
21 Temana ya 20(2) ya Molao.
22 Temana ya 20(3) ya Molao.
23 Temana ya 20(4) ya Molao.
24 Temana ya 5(1) ya Molao.
25 Temana ya 5(2) ya Molao.
26 Ibid.
27 Ibid.
28 Temana ya 5(3) ya Molao.
29 Temana ya 6(1)) ya Molao.
30 Lebelela Mpedi Redesigning the South African Unemployment Protection System: A Socio-Legal Inquiry (2006) 61-147.         [ Links ]
31 Temana ya 6(2) ya Molao.
32 Temana ya 6(3)) ya Molao.
33 Temana ya 6(4) ya Molao.
34 Temana ya 6(5) ya Molao.
35 Temana ya 6(6) ya Molao.
36 Mpedi "Indirect social security" ka mo go Olivier et al (eds) Social Security: A Legal Analysis(2003) 537.
37 Ibid 557 n 106.
38 Lebelela, mohlala, Olivier le Dekker "Informal social security" ka mo go Olivier et al (2003) 562; Kaseke "Informal social security in Eastern and Southern Africa" Letlakala le abilwe go SADC Social Security Conference, Johannesburg, Afrika Borwa, 17-19 Diphalane 2001; Freiberg-Strauss Social Security for the Poor - Options and Experiences (1999) 3; le Gsänger "Linking informal and formal social security systems" Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung- e hweditse mo go http://www.dse.de/ef/social/gsaenger.htm. Lebelela, go tswela pele ka go bala ka ga kgopolo ya tšhireletso ya leago yeo e sego ya semmušo, Van Ginneken (ed) Social Security for the Excluded Majority: Case Studies of Developing Countries (1999); Devereux S 'Making Less Last Longer': Informal Safety Nets in Malawi (Institute of Development Studies Discussion Paper 373 (1999)); Dercon "Safety nets, savings and informal social security systems in crisis-prone economies" Letlakala le abilwe mo go Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics in Europe, Paris, 21 - 23 Ngwatôbosego 1999; Subarro Namibia s Social Safety Net: Issues and Options for Reform (Policy Research Working Paper (1996)); McDonald et al Income Distribution, Informal Safety Nets, and Social Expenditures in Uganda (International Monetary Fund Working Paper (1996)); Clu le Gupta "Social safety nets in economic reform" ka mo go Clu le Gupta (eds) Social Safety Nets: Issues and Recent Experiences (International Monetary Fund (1998)) 7 mo go 27; Ahmad "Protecting the vulnerable: Social security and public policy" ka mo go Lipton le Van der Gaag (eds) Including the Poor(World Bank (1993)) 359 mo go 364-366; Platteau "Traditional systems of social security and hunger insurance: Past achievements and modern challenges" ka mo go Ahmad et al (eds) Social Security in Developing Countries (1991) 112; Von Braun "Social security in sub-Saharan Africa: Reflections on policy challenges" ka mo go Ahmad et al(1991) 395 mo go 406-410; Ahmad "Social security and the poor: Choices for developing countries" (1991) 6 World Bank Research Observer105 mo go 111-112; le Von Benda-Beckmann et al(eds) Between Kinship and the State: Social Security and Law in Developing Countries (1988).
39 Olivier et al "Formulating an integrated social security response -Perspectives on developing links between informal and formal social security in SADC region" Letlakala le abilwe mo go EGDI-WIDER Conference on Unlocking Human Potential Linking the Informal and Formal Sectors, Helsinki, 2004-09-17 to 18.
40 Temana ya 20(3) ya Molao.
41 Temana ya 7 ya Molao.
42 Temana ya 8 ya Molao.
43 Temana ya 9 ya Molao.
44 Temana ya 10 ya Molao.
45 Temana ya 11 ya Molao.
46 Temana ya 12 ya Molao.
47 Temana ya 7(8) ya Molao.
48 Temana ya 11(2) ya Molao.
49 Temana ya 11(3) ya Molao.
50 SADC ka Kakaretšo ke selete seo se homotsego kudu. Le ge go le bjalo, go no le karolo tša dintwa tšeo di itemogelago ke dinagamaloko tša go swana le Democratic Republic of the Congo le seemo sa ka Zimbabwe (seo se hlotsego ke lenaneo la kabolefsa ya naga leo le bego le tletse ka dingangisano leo le phethagaditswego ka 2000) se sa tekateka. Lebelela Olivier le Kalula "Regional social security" ka mo go Olivier et al(eds) Social Security: A Legal Analysis (2003) 655; Centre for International and Comparative Labour and Social Security Law le Institute of Development and Labour Law Developing and Integrated and Inclusive Framework for Social Protection in SADC (Centre for International and Comparative Labour and Social Security Law le Institute of Development and Labour Law (2003)); Taylor "Social protection challenges in southern Africa" (2001) 2 Cooperation South 49; Fultz le Pieris Social Security Schemes in Southern Africa: An Overview and Proposals for Future Development (ILO/SAMAT (1999)); le Von Benda-Beckmann le Kirsch "Informal security systems in Southern Africa and approaches to strengthen them through public policy measures" - yeo e hweditswego mo go http://www.gtz.de.
51 SADC e hloile ke dikotsi tša tlhago bjalo ka mafula le komelelo.
52 Temana ya 14(1) ya Molao.
53 Temana ya 14(2) ya Molao.
54 Temana ya 14(3) ya Molao.
55 Temana ya 13(1) ya Molao.
56 Temana ya 16(2) ya Molao.
57 Temana ya 16(3) ya Molao.
58 Temana ya 16(6) ya Molao.
59 Temana ya 16(8) ya Molao.
60 Temana ya 16(9) ya Molao.
61 Songuemas "Social security and indigenous institutions in African societies" (1967) 3 African Social Security Series 18 ka mo go 20; le Isizoh "African traditional religions: One stereotype less" (2003) 4 African Societies - e hweditswe mo go http://www.africansocieties.org/n4/eng/chidi.htm.
62 Folbre Women and Social Security in Latin America, the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa (International Labour Office (1993)) 6.
63 Lebelela, mohlala, Unemployment Insurance Act63 of 2001 (Afrika Borwa). Lebelela gape, go bala go tswelapele,
64 Isizoh (2003) 4 African Societies - e hweditswe mo go http:// www.africansocieties.org/n4/eng/chidi.htm.
65 Lebelela, mohlala, Ijere "Indigenous African social security as a basis for future planning - the case of Nigeria" ( 1967) 2 African Social Security Series 11 mo go 27. Lebelela gape Segre "Family stability, social classes and values in traditional and industrial societies" 1975 Journal of Marriage and the Family 431 mo go 431-432.
66 Temana ya 15(1) ya Molao.
67 Temana ya 15(2) ya Molao.
68 Ibid.
69 Temana ya 17(1) ya molao. Go swanetše go bolelwa gore go na le SADC Draft Protocol on the Freedom of Movement of Persons (1998). Lebelela, go bala go tswelapele, Oucho le Crush "Contra free movement: South Africa and the SADC migration Protocols" 2002 Africa Today 139; le Mengelkoch The Right to Work in SADC Countries: Towards Free Movement of Labour in Southern Africa (2000).         [ Links ]
70 Temana ya 17(2) ya Molao.
71 Temana ya 17(3) ya Molao.
72 Temana ya 17(4) ya Molao.
73 Temana ya 19(1) ya Molao.
74 Temana ya 19(2) ya Molao.
75 Temana ya 21(1) ya Molao.
76 Temana ya 21(2) ya Molao.
77 Temana ya 21(3) ya Molao.
78 Ibid.
79 Temana ya 21(4) ya Molao.
80 Temana ya 21(5) ya Molao.
81 Temana ya 21(7) ya Molao.
82 Temana ya 21(6) ya Molao.