SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.35 número1Barriers to quality patient care in rural district hospitalsPsychiatric nurse practitioners' experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google



versão On-line ISSN 2223-6279
versão impressa ISSN 0379-8577

Curationis vol.35 no.1 Pretoria Jan. 2012




Experiences of family members caring for tuberculosis patients at home at Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province



Joyce T. Sukumani; Rachel T. Lebese; Lunic B. Khoza; Patrone R. Risenga

Department of Advanced Nursing, University of Venda, South Africa





Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially serious infectious disease which enters the body by inhalation and usually affects the lungs. TB is ranked amongst the leading infectious diseases worldwide, and in South Africa (SA) it has become an epidemic, because of its high prevalence. There are multiple factors that were found to attribute to the existence and spread of this disease. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe experiences of family members caring for TB patients at home, in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province. The study was qualitative, explorative, descriptive, phenomenological and contextual in nature. The population group selected for the study all comprised of family members caring for tuberculosis patients at home in Tshifulanani village. A purposive sampling method was applied in the study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews guided by three questions. Tech's eight steps of data analysis were followed. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical issues were observed. The results of the study revealed that family members experienced difficulties when they care for TB patients at home. These difficulties included providing food, attending to hygiene needs, the lack of equipment, financial constraints as well as physical and psychological exhaustion. Recommendations were made concerning the provision food, attending to hygiene needs, assisting in the administration of medication, nursing practice and policy making.



“Full text available only in PDF format”




Ajzen, I., 1991, The theory of planned behaviour, viewed 09 November 2009, from http://www.valuebasedmanagement,net/methods-ajzen-theory-planned-behavior.html        [ Links ]

ANC Reconstruction and Development Programme, 1994, viewed 25 January 2010, from        [ Links ]

Bennstam, A.L., Strandmark, M. & Diwan, K., 2004, 'Perception of tuberculosis in the DRC (Democratic Republic of Congo: Wali ya Nkumu in the MAI Ndombe district), Qualitative Health Research', Sage Publications, Newbury Park 14(3), 299-312.         [ Links ]

Brink, H.I., 1996, Fundamentals of Research Methodology for Health care professionals, Juta and Company Ltd, Kelwyn.         [ Links ]

Burns, N. & Grove, S.K., 2001, Essentials of Nursing Research Practice, W.B Saunders, USA.         [ Links ]

Chanda, D. & Gosnell, D., 2006, 'The impact of tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian Nursing Workforce', American Nurses Association 11(1), 61-69.         [ Links ]

Chimwaza, A., 2005, 'Caregivers experiences with care for HIV/AIDS patients in Malawi' dissertation, viewed 29 November 2009, from        [ Links ]

Creswell, J.W., 2003, Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 2nd edn., Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.         [ Links ]

De Vos, A.S., Strydom, H., Fouche, C.B. & Delport, C.S.L., 2006., Research at grassroots for Social Sciences and Human Science and Human Service professions, 3rd edn., Van Schaik Publisher, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Du Toit, D.A. & Van Staden, S.J., 2007, Nursing Sociology, 3rd edn., Butterworth Publishers, Pietermaritzburg.         [ Links ]

Evans, R. & Thomas, F., 2009, 'Emotional interactions and ethics of care caring relations in families affected by HIV and AIDS, Emotions, Space and Society 2(2), 111-119.         [ Links ]

Hane, F., Thiam, S., Fall, A.S., Vidal, L., Diop, A.H., Ndier, M., & Lienhardt, C., 2007, Identifying barriers to effective tuberculosis control. An anthropological approach in Senegal. BMC Health Services Research, viewed 12 January 2011, from (2919530)        [ Links ]

James, S.E. & Groves, M.D., 1978, 'Care of the hateful patient', NEMJ 298(16), 883-887., PMid:634331 The Holy Bible, King James Version. II Kings Chapter 7:3.         [ Links ]

Liefooghe, R., Michiels, N., Habib, S., Moran, M.B. & Demuynck, A., 1997, Perception and social consequences of tuberculosis - a focus group study of tuberculosis patients in Sialkot, Pakistan, Social Science and Medicine 41(12), 812.         [ Links ]

Lewis, S., Heitkemper, M. & Dirksen, S., 2005 'Medical surgical nursing: assessment and management of clinical problems, 7th edn., Mosby, ST. Louis.         [ Links ]

Lincoln, Y.S. & Guba, E.G., 1985, Naturalist enquiry, Sage Publications, Los Angles.         [ Links ]

Macq, J., Solis, A., Martinez, G., Martiny, P. & Dujardin, B.,2005, 'An exploration of the social stigma of tuberculosis in five municipals of Nicaragua to reflect on local interventions, Elsevier: Health Policy 74(2), 205-217., PMid:16153480        [ Links ]

Morankar, S. & Suryawanshi, N., 2000, Sociocultural Aspects of Tuberculosis among Women in Western rural Maharashtra, Medicus Mundi Schweiz, India.         [ Links ]

Needham, D.M., Bowman, S.D., Foster, S.D., Tomlinson, G. & Godfrey-Faussett, P., 2002, 'Patient care seeking barriers and tuberculosis programme reform, a qualitative study', Tropical Medicine and International Health 67(1), 93-106.         [ Links ]

Ngang, P.N., Ntanganira, J., Kalk, A., Wolters, S., & Ecks, S., 2007, Perceptions and beliefs about cough and tuberculosis and implications for TB control in rural Rwanda. International Tuberculin Lung disease 11(10), 1108-1113.         [ Links ]

Polit, D.F. & Hungler, B.P., 1991, Nursing Research Method appraisal and utilization, 4th edn., J.B Lippincot, Philadelphia.         [ Links ]

Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T. & Hungler, B.P., 2006, Essentials of Nursing Research, Methods, Appraisal and Utilization, 6th edn., Lippincott, Philadelphia.         [ Links ]

Roberfroid, A., 2000, Stop TB Partnership - Ministerial Conference: Amsterdam 22-24 March.         [ Links ]

Rowe, K.A., Makhubele, B., Hargreaves, J.R., Porter, J.D., Hausler, H.P. & Pronyk, P.M., 2005, 'Adherence to TB preventative therapy for HIV positive patients in rural South Africa implications for antiretroviral delivery in resource poor setting', International journal of Tuberculosis & Lung Disease 9(3), 263-299. PMid:15786888        [ Links ]

Sagbakken, M., Frich, J.C. & Bjune, G., 2008, 'Barriers and enablers in the management of tuberculosis treatment in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study', BMC Public Health 6(11), 2-14.         [ Links ]

Shetty, N., Shemko, M. & Abbas, A., 2004, 'Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis among immigrants of Somalian ethnic origin in London: a cross sectional study, Communicable Disease & Public Health 7(1), 77-82. PMid:15137287        [ Links ]

Smeltzer, S.C. & Bare, B.G., 2003, Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing, 9th edn., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.         [ Links ]

South African Depression and Anxiety Support Group, 2008, Spectravision Medical Aid Update, 3rd edn.         [ Links ]

Steen, T.W. & Mazonde, G.N., 1998. NGAKA yasetswana, ngaka yasekgoa or both Health seeking behaviour in Botswana with pulmonary tuberculosis, Social Science 7 Medicine 48(2), 163-172.         [ Links ]

Stop TB Country Profile and WHO (World Health Organisation), 2006, Global plan to STOP TB. 2006-2015, viewed 23 February 2011, from        [ Links ]

Travis, S.S., Bethea, L.S. & Winn, P., 2000, 'Medication Administration hassles reported by family caregivers of dependant elderly persons', A college of Health Professions University of North Carolina. The Gerontological Society of America 55(7), 417-420.         [ Links ]

Thomas, C., 2002, 'Best dissertation section: A literature review of the problems of delayed presentation for treatment and non-completion of treatment for tuberculosis in less developed countries and ways of addressing these problems using particular implementation of the DOTS strategy', Journal of Management in Medicine 16(4), 371-400.         [ Links ]

Westway, M. & Wolmarans, L., 1994, 'Cognitive and affective reactions of black urban South Africans towards tuberculosis', Tuberculosis and lung Disease 72(7), 447-453.         [ Links ]



Rachel Lebese
Private bag X5050
Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa

Received: 02 Sep. 2011
Accepted: 28 Feb. 2012
Published: 18 May 2012

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons