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Yesterday and Today

On-line version ISSN 2309-9003
Print version ISSN 2223-0386

Y&T  n.20 Vanderbijlpark  2018




32nd Annual Conference of the South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT)




Welcome to Cape Town! On behalf of the Society I extend a warm welcome to all delegates to the 32ndAnnual Conference of the South African Society for History Teaching. After several years in the north the conference returns to the people of the south. The recent good rains belies the real challenge Cape Town has been facing with regard to water security. Stringent restrictions have been put in place reminding its citizens of the very real need to treat water as a scarce resource.

Whilst water might be a scarcity during this conference the programme shows that exciting presentations and workshops are offered in abundance. Delegates are invited to immerse themselves into the affordances of these spaces.

May the conference prove to be a productive experience, one which will allow you to, with greater confidence, bridge the divide between theory and practice.

- Barry Firth


A Short History of SASHT

The South African Society for History Teaching {SASHT) was founded in 1986. The year of the implementation of the State of Emergency also saw teachers of history organise themselves with the intention to promote the school subject History as a discipline with its own specialised structure and content.

The name of the Society appears to have been used in two ways. Initially, from the date of its founding until at least 1988, when the first conference at US took place, it was referred to as the Society for the Training of History Teachers. During the annual meeting of the SASHT executive at US, the name change was accepted. By the time the 1992 conference took place, the new name of the Society was widely used. This change was apparently made to ensure that the Society's focus was also inclusive of tertiary history educators from the History Didactics /Teaching Methodology and History Departments.

For many years the SASHT did not use a specific logo to identity itself. After Yesterday and Today officially became part of the SASHT activities, this journal's identity was spontaneously used for the SASHT as well ( Now in its 32ndyear, the SASHT continues to serve as a space valued by teachers of history from all quarters of our country.


Members of SASHT Executive

  • Mr Barry Firth (President)

  • Dr Pieter Warnich (Vice President)

  • DrKateAngier

  • Ms Marj Brown

  • Ms Michelle Friedman

  • Mr Jake Manenzhe

  • Dr Marshall Maposa

  • MsLeahNasson

  • Ms Rika Odendaal

  • Ms Gill Sutton



The organization of a conference is always a stressful adventure because of all the very small things and all the very important issues that have to be planned and managed. Firstly, I would like to thank the Dean of the Faculty of Education, Prof T Mda, for agreeing to host the conference at CPUT Mowbray. Without the support of the Faculty this conference would not have been possible.

A special thanks to the team at the District 6 Museum and Homecoming Centre for hosting our conference dinner. Their efforts to create a critical space allow us to immerse ourselves, and if only for an evening, to let down ourguard and hair.

Thank you, too, to the students and teachers of Alexander Sinton High School who gave up part of their school holidays to contribute to the Conference. Their presence reminds us why this conference is necessary:

Our gratitude extends also to the volunteers who have availed of their time to assist in this conference.

To the Organising Committee I express sincere gratitude for agreeing to serve as a critical soundboard and ensuring that our conference was tailored to values and priorities consistent with the social- and economic realities of our country. To Rika Odendaal, Gill Sutton, Jane Versfeld, Rob Sieborger, Ant Lister, Francois Cleophas and Gordon Brookbanks: Thank you for giving up so many afternoons to structure this conference.

A word of thanks to all the presenters. We applaud your decision to come to our conference to share ideas and knowledge-those very ideas which in time to come will shape our discipline. It is these presentations which bring togetherthis assembly.

Finally, thank you to DrCina Mositoof CPUT, and to the Keynote speakers, Dr Mumsy Malinga and Zapiro, whose biographies appear on the next page.


Keynote Speakers

Dr Mumsy Malinga

I am a history teacher and Faculty Head of Humanities at Redhill School where I also head the Diversity (Ubuntu) Committee. I have taught history in the private school sector for 18 years and my passion for the subject does not end in the classroom. I also consult as an education workshop facilitator for SAHA (South African History Archives) and the Apartheid Museum. I am currently in my second year PhD where I am investigating the role of Johannesburg schools in socialising and gendering the youth from 1948 to 1994.1 have also done extensive work for uMalusi, ranging from curriculum evaluation to longitudinal study comparing the entry and exit outcomes of CAPS and I have written a textbook. I am also an internal moderator for the IEB history examinations paper 1 and paper2. My hobbies include reading, especially historical novels and attending lectures and book launches.

Jonathan Shapiro

Born in Cape Town in 1958 and also known as Zapiro. He could not imagine a career in cartooning, so studied architecture at the University of Cape Town, he then could not imagine a career in architecture, so tried switching to Graphic Design and promptly got conscripted.

While in the army Zapiro refused to bear arms and became active in 1983 in the newly-formed United Democratic Front (UDF). His arrest under the Illegal Gatherings Act caused some consternation in the South African Defence Force (SADF) and his being monitored by military intelligence while also participating in the End Conscription Campaign, and designing its logo. His work as a cartoonist began in earnest with a wide range of political and progressive organisations. When the newspaper South began in 1987, he became its editorial cartoonist. He was detained by security police in 1988 shortly before leaving on a Fulbright Scholarship to study media arts at the School of Visual Arts in New York. New York was an eye-opening experience where he studied under comics masters Art Spiegelman, Will Eisner and Harvey Kurtzman.

He has been editorial cartoonist for the Mail & Guardian since 1994, the Sunday Times since 1998 and The Times since May 2009. Previously he was editorial cartoonist for Sowetan 1994 - 2005, for Cape Argus 1996 -1997» Cape Times, The Star, The Mercury, Pretoria News 2005-2008.





















































































keynote presentation to: The South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT)


6 October 2018, CPUT, Mobray

The History teacher in 21st century South Africa

Mumsy Malinga

Redhill School.

The overall message gained from the different presentations is that History is an important subject and it must be taught in a responsible and meaningful way.

History is not yet a compulsory subject in the FET phase. Yes, the Ministerial Task Team has published its report advising that History should indeed be a compulsory subject.

Is this going to materialise? I have my doubts. . .

Only next year's general election will determine, not just where our education is going but the state of our country as a whole.

So if the status quo remains, for the vast majority of your students, you will be the last person to teach them ANY history- much less GOOD HISTORY.

What is your role as a History teacher in 21st century South Africa where you only have two or three years to influence young minds? What story are you going to tell them? What indelible mark are you going to leave them, the legacy that they can be proud of and embrace as their heritage?

Before I elaborate on this challenge I would like to show you a video clip of a speech by Prof Lumumba.

An Insert:

(Prof Lumumba's video clip - The tragedy of Africa - 9 minutes. Access at

Good History teachers know history. They are lifelong learners. They are passionate about history, about teaching History and about young people.

Such teachers demonstrate a genuine interest and concern for their students and they have the ability to convey a love for history in a classroom setting.

Good History teachers listen to and hear their students; they respect their voices and allow them to freely express their intellectual thoughts and personal opinions.


So, what does being a good History teacher mean in a challenging 21st century South Africa?

It means listening to and respecting diverse viewpoints and attitudes. It means teaching students historical significance while celebrating diversity, modelling democracy and teaching social justice.

We can no longer rely on our leaders to instil good values on our children. Professor. Lumumba painted a gloomy picture of Africa, but it is up to us to take up the challenge of changing that picture, even if it is in small spaces that we occupy our classrooms.

We have to make sure that the stories of Africa we tell encourage our students to stay in Africa and build it up to take its rightful place in the global setting.

The role of a History teacher is to be an activist.

Gone are the days when we let politicians, uninformed pessimists or even parents dictate what happens in the classroom and determine the future our country.

We live in volatile times still reeling from the effects of the Fees Must Fall Movement, Decolonization Movement, Black Hair Movement, etc. - all these movements that seek to drive transformation but also threaten to divide our nation and undo the aspirations that accompanied the advent of democracy.

This is not a political campaign; it is a plea and a challenge. Gone are the days when we as History teachers were dictated to by the constraints of the textbooks published by those whose only interest is the bottom line. We know what our roles are and should be - we know about cause and effect, we have the skills that no other profession can claim to possess.

So why are we not activists? Why are we happy to teach democracy and nationalism but entrust our future to politicians whose only interest is personal gain instead of nation building.

What is stopping us from being activists in our classrooms and exercising our democratic right to not only voice an opinion but also call out what is wrong in society.

It is disturbing to see how many History teachers and historians shy away from controversial issues because they don't want to upset or offend people.

We need to own our worth, own our truth and own our stories.

We shouldn't be dictated to by the curriculum, the textbooks or even subject advisers. We live in the 21st century where information is easily accessible but unfortunately common sense, historical perspective, historical significance and ethical dimensions no longer hold value.

What have we done as History teachers to encourage activism in our students?

We spend more time focusing on content that is not relatable to real life. As one historian put it:

Unfortunately, the more the teachers cover, the less the students remember... Our goal must be to help students uncover the past rather than cover it.

We often hear about decolonising the curriculum- and it scares many of us because we think it means doing away with the content that we love and are familiar with.

What does decolonising the curriculum mean? - For me, it means teaching the Cold War and not leaving South Africa out, teaching the two World Wars and acknowledging the role played by South Africa. It means appreciating diversity that is found in the South African context.

Decolonising the curriculum means allowing multi-perspectivity in history teaching. It means teaching students that ordinary people do make history.

History teaching is very much about the present as it is about the past. As activist historians, our role should not be to overwhelm students with content contained in the textbooks. We need to teach them life skills, survival skills.

So, the role of a history teacher in 21st South Africa is to be an activist!

We have to make a contribution.

In the words of Professor Lumumba: "Let us stop producing education that is free of knowledge".



Presidential Speech "Building a caring Society"

Mr Barry Firth at the SASHT Conference

CPUT Mowbray, Cape Town

SASHT 32nd Annual Conference

CAPE TOWN, Cape Peninsula University of Technology (Mowbray),

5-6 October 2018



Welcome to the SASHT conference, here at CPUT (Mowbray). The conference, hosted for the first time by CPUT coincides with the first cohort of students, for many years, who are graduating with History as one of their majors. Many of these final year History students are serving as volunteers at the conference. I express the sincere hope that this initial involvement of theirs will lead on to greater meaningful participation in future years to come.

Prof Elize van Eeden delivered the inaugural presidential address at the 2015 SASHT conference in Limpopo. Here she spoke of the need to, at times, identify the "proverbial pebble" in the shoe: that issue which so many sense and need foregrounded so that the Society and the teaching of History could be advanced. In this the 4th presidential address, I would like to develop a question and, simultaneously, offer an answer for consideration by our members.

Questions do not emerge haphazardly to simply serve as time-wasting digressions. They serve to highlight those areas, or moments, of doubt or obscurity which, if answered truthfully, could lead on to conscious attempts to resolve the unresolved or determine the undetermined.

This year, 2018, has been a tumultuous year for many, and for a host ofreasons. For one, it is the centenary of the birth of former president Nelson Mandela. It is also the centenary of the signing of the armistice ending hostilities during World War 1. Closer to home, 2018 saw the prolonged drought close its grip on Cape Town with real consequences for its beleaguered citizens.

The year 2018 also saw the launch of the report by the Ministerial Task Team on making History compulsory after Grade 9. It was this event which highlighted a particular "pebble" in my shoe. I was informed of the event, not officially, but through the grapevine. It troubled me that the Society, the South African Society for History Teaching, was not initially invited to attend the launch of a report so central to its stated mission. The Society had always, in my mind, enjoyed a constructive relationship with the Department of Basic Education (DBE). In my mind I understood how the respective efforts of each translated into better practice associated with the teaching of History. How then did it come to be that the SASHT was overlooked, or could be overlooked at such an important moment in the history of teaching history? After some queries to DBE an invitation was extended to the Society. Fellow executive member, Jake Manenzhe (Limpopo DBE) and I attended the launch of the report, but the question remained.

This occasion, and the perceived snub, led me to consider the space afforded the Society in efforts to shape the teaching of history. Was the Society exaggerating its significance or was it simply a case of administrative bungling on the part of the DBE? There are indeed many ways in which to approach this conundrum, so in Socratic tradition I will now try to tease out the essence of our stated dilemma.


Why could the DBE ignore (if they did) the SASHT?

The membership of the Society is relatively quite small. Membership has hovered around 100 paid-up members for several years. Most members are academics associated with institutions of Higher Education and those members, who are school-based educators, are often from ex model-C schools. This trend was only recently challenged after the successful 2015 conference in Limpopo when several teachers from poor, rural schools joined the Society as full members. However, there are thousands of teachers in South Africa responsible for the teaching of History. It could be said that if our membership was extensive our Society could not be ignored.


Does this mean the SASHT needs to actively recruit members?

To suggest that the significance of the Society lay in numbers is to equate significance with quantity. Traditionally the significance of the Society has been its ability to serve as a common space for the sharing of ideas as it relates to amongst others, classroom practice, textbook writing and curriculum design on a national and international scale. Its significance lay in its purpose and the quality of its members. What our Society needs are active members who write prolifically about their practice, contribute to or initiate discussions, promote events in their areas and invite other teachers of history to attend conferences and regional functions. It is when our current SASHT members become animated and excited about the teaching of History that others will join.


Why would anyone join the SASHT?

Currently members receive two hardcopies of the accredited journal, Yesterday&Today. The journal is published in June and December each year.

The Executive Committee acknowledges that much needs to be done to ensure that current members remain members and that our current members are our greatest marketers. To grow the Society will require an effort to ensure that the Society is a caring Society.


How can the Society be rebranded?

A concerted effort will be made to do a membership audit with requisite haste. This has been accepted as a priority function of the core executive. The society must know who its members are. Regular contact between members will be effected in the form of a weekly newsletter in which ideas pertaining to our discipline are shared and discussions promoted.

The development of the website as a site of preference is the other priority project. A generous donation by Prof van Eeden has allowed Ms Rika Odendaal (webmaster) to restructure the website sufficiently that content can now be populated for access by teachers. The webmaster welcomes suitable content and encourages classroom-based teachers to share their ideas on how to deliver effectively on the curriculum.



The question is not whether or not the Society should feel snubbed by not having been invited initially to the launch of the Ministerial Task Team. Instead, the question as yet undefined, relates to our ability to acknowledge all who share our passion. The teaching of history, and its associated knowledges, can never be captured.

By knowing who our members are, and valuing their needs and contributions, our Society can indeed, quite quickly, be transformed into a space characterised by a sense of value: I am reminded of lyrics to the theme-song of a once popular sit-com "Cheers": "You wanna go where everybody knows your name".

I, therefore, wish the executive committee well in its efforts to rebrand the Society and encourage all members to take up the cudgels in making the Society resonate in the intimate spaces we inhabit. For only then will we have succeeded in building a caring Society.



Gill Sutton

Convener of the regional representatives

This has been a year of transition for the South African Society for History Teaching (SASHT). The leadership mantel was handed over to the new committee at the start of 2018. I was asked to convene the regional representatives in mid-February, which I agreed to with some trepidation. The list of regional representatives I received indicated no regional representatives for Gauteng, the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal (Marshall Maposa had step down) or Free State. I'm was not sure if this is as a result of people "falling through the proverbial admin cracks" or if since 2017 there has been an oversight. While reading Henriette Lubbe's report from last year I realised that the names and contact details for the representatives, as suspected, had gone a stray - the new representatives in the Free State and Gauteng for 2017/18 are Mr Knysa Motumi and Dr Valencia Mabalane, respectively. There is yet to be a nominated and elected replacement representative for KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape.

Most activities in the provinces have focused on meeting and attending the Education Department's required meetings. As Henriette Lubbe noted last year "severe work pressure" continues to impact educators. Feedback from representatives, in no particular order, is as follows:


Wilfred Chauke (Limpopo)

The SASHT Limpopo educators continue to work with Jake Manenzhe from the Department of Basic Education, and Henriette Lubbe at UNISA, to strengthen their practice and knowledge. All the educators involved have expressed the benefit of working with colleagues and academics. The programme has encouraged, enriched and strengthen teaching practice.


Pieter Warnich (North West Province)

Pieter reported that - "nothing exciting has happened this year".

However, the History Department at the North-West University did intensive planning to run a Short Learning Programme on creative teaching and learning approaches during March 2019. In particular on how culture and indigenous knowledge systems can be implemented in school History classes through puppetry. This approved course will be offered to the intermediate and senior Phase History teachers. He promised that he will definitely have something to report, including photos, in 2019.


Boitumelo Moreeng (Northern Cape)

Nothing of note to report.


Keneilwe Mosala (Mpumalanga)

Nothing of note to report


Gill Sutton (Western Cape)

The one thing of interest - other than the Ministerial Task Team (MTT) discussion, was a presentation by Prof Amanda Esterhuysen (Wits) on her archeological work on Makapan's Cave. The desire to hear the archaeology and history of the cave came from Jake Manenzhe's SASHT conference outing to Makapan's Cave in 2015 - thank you so much, Jake. Barry Firth also promoted the conference at this event. The feedback was very positive and educators requested further events of this nature. Prof Amanda Esterhuysen is very willing to work with educators, wherever they are in the country.

As we move into a new year, with exciting opportunities for the growth of history nationwide, I believe the regional representatives have the opportunity to make a valuable contribution.

Occasionally the SASHT Executive requests that the SASHT constitution is displayed in an Yesterday&Today edition to inform and/or update their members. Members are invited to request a review of any section of the SASHT constitution at an SASHT General Meeting. Prior consent of a section review must be received in written form by the Secretariat of the SASHT or the Chairperson/vice Chairperson of the SASHT (see communication details in the SASHT AGM-minute)


SASHT Constitution

The South African Society for History Teaching


(An Association of History Educators, Organisations, Publishers and People interested in History Teaching as well as the educational dissemination of historical research and knowledge)



1.1 There shall be constituted a body known as the SOUTH AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR HISTORY TEACHING (SASHT). The provisions herein contained shall be known as the Constitution of the Society, which provisions may be altered by a majority of those members present at a general meeting of members, considering that:

1.1.1 the precise terms of any proposed alteration shall be set out in a notice prior to convening the meeting and/or Circulated to members via electronic medium at least a month before the meeting;

1.1.22 the purpose and objects of the Society shall not be altered without the consent of 66% of the members (via electronic medium and formally communicated/confirmed at the AGM that follows the approved/disapproved alteration.



The objectives of the Society (since date of founding in 1986) shall be to assist its members in every possible way and in particular:

2.1 To improve the contact between educators of History training at tertiary level and teachers in the broad educational field.

2.2 To renew a training in the didactics of History education.

2.3 To utilise the expertise of educators teaching History to assist with the training of future History teachers.

2.4 To continuously debate the content of basic and advanced educational programmes in the training of History educators with the intention to continue to improve quality.

2.5 To make history educators and student teachers aware of the relationship between History as an academic discipline and the didactics and teaching of History at school level in order to keep abreast with educational development and academic debates.

2.6. To encourage educators of History to strive towards achieving and sustaining high academic standards in the teaching methodology and in the general knowledge of History as a discipline.

2.7 To make educators of History and student teachers in History aware of the relevance or "value" of History for communities and the nation at large.

2.8 To explore, if the SASHT grows in membership, the idea of identifying and organising committees that can explore and develop certain fields in History to benefit all the educators of History in South Africa.



3.1 Membership shall consist of three types:

3.1.1 Individual membership (History educators or other academically-focused members from institutions) who are fully paid up members of the Society (Annual fees will be determined by the Executive each year and communicated timeously to members and potential members). The individual members representing an educational, institution will be eligible to vote or serve on the SASHT Executive and any committees/portfolios, and will receive electronic correspondence as well as a copy (twice annually) of the peer reviewed and DHET-indexed reviewed SASHT- connected Journal, Yesterday&Today.

3.1.2 Group membership (schools, academic institutions, private organisations & publishers): Will pay an annual membership fee determined by the Executive Committee on a yearly basis which will include a membership provision of more than one individual. These members will be eligible to vote but not all be eligible to serve on the committees. Electronic correspondence will be received as well as a copy (twice annually) of the SASHT-connected Yesterday&Today Journal obtained.

3.1.3 Individual membership outside the borders of South Africa: Will pay the annual fee as determined by the Executive Committee in Rand or in another currency as indicated on the SASHT membership form.

The individual members outside the borders of South Africa will be eligible to vote but not serve on the Executive Committee (these members could serve on other committees as occasionally identified, as well as on the Yesterday&Today editorial board) and will receive electronic correspondence as well as a copy (twice annually) of the SASHT-connected Journal, Yesterday&Today.

3.2 The following persons are eligible as members of the Society:

3.2.1 any History educator/organisation/publisher who subscribes to the objectives of the Society; and

3.2.2 is approved by the Executive Committee as a member.

3.3 Any member may resign by notice to the chairperson, the vice chairperson or the secretariat/treasurer.

3.4 Membership will be held confidential, and it is up to individual members to disclose his or her membership to the general public.



4.1 The interests of the Society shall be managed by at least a ten-member Executive Committee consisting of a chairperson, a vice chairperson (when required), a secretariat and a treasurer (this position can also be combined into a secretary-treasurer position) and six to seven additional members as portfolio members and/or regional representatives. These members in the leading position of the SASHT shall hold the respective positions for a maximum of three years, after which they may be re-elected at an annual general meeting (usually to be held in September-October). Two additional members (the guest hosting a conference during the following year and a History educator abroad) may be nominated.

The temporary Executive member hosting the next conference may be nominated fully on the Executive as well, but if not he/she only has a temporary executive position to smooth the conference organization process with efficient communication.

4.2 An election of new Executive Committee members for the SASHT Executive during every third Annual General SASHT meeting should be conducted by one of the SASHT members or an executive member who has been nominated to undertake the task (and not the current chairperson or vice chairperson).

4.3 A process of nomination and election becomes necessary if Executive Committee members have served a three-year term. Both new nominees and retiring committee members are eligible for re-nominating in a re-election. Electing the new SASHT Executive of 10 members through Internet will be conducted at least two weeks prior to an annual SASHT conference. The secretariat manages the term of office of the SASHT Executive, sends out notifications to retiring/re-election status members and invites new nominations, to be done formally and on a standard SASHT nomination form.

4.4 Only fully paid-up members of the SASHT (and preferably only one member per institution in the Society having served in the Society for at least one year) are eligible for election as Executive Committee members. A nominator of a nominee and the seconder (inclusive of the nominee) must all be paid-up members of the SASHT.

The newly elected SASHT Executive from the nominations received will be formally revealed during an annual AGM meeting of the SASHT.

From the ten nominees, fully elected by secret vote and accepted, the positions of chairperson and vice chairperson should be voted for by the newly elected SASHT Executive Committee. This voting process will normally be done after the AGM meeting in the year of election.

4.5 The SASHT Executive Committee may co-opt a member to the Committee in the event of a vacancy occurring for the remaining period of the term of office of the person who vacated the position OR the opening of a vacancy due to any other reason and with the consent of the rest of the SASHT Executive.

4.6 The Executive Committee of the Society may appoint sub-committees as it deems fit.

4.7 Each sub-committee or portfolio of the Executive Committee shall be chaired by a committee member and may consist of so many members as the committee may decide from time to time.

4.8 A sub-committee may co-opt any SASHT member to such sub-committee or portfolio.



5.1 Executive Committee Meetings

5.1.1 Committee meetings shall be convened by the secretariat/secretary-treasurer on the instructions of the chairperson or vice-chairperson or when four committee members jointly and in writing apply for such a meeting to be convened. Three committee members shall form a quorum. Most of the correspondence will be done via e-mail.

5.1.2 SASHT Executive Committee meetings will take place BEFORE an annual SASHT conference and AFTER the conference.

5.1.3 Committee decisions shall take place by voting. In the event of the voting being equal, the chairperson shall have a casting vote.

5.1.4 Should a committee member absent himself from two successive committee meetings without valid reason and/or not replying twice on e-mail requests in decision making, he/she shall forfeit his/her committee membership.

5.2 General Meetings

5.2.1 The Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Society shall take place during the annual SASHT Conference.

5.2.2 A special general meeting may be convened by the Executive Committee upon the receipt of a signed, written request of at least ten registered members of the Society which request must be accompanied by a full motivation for requesting such a meeting.

5.3 The Executive Committee may call a general meeting as it deems fit.

5.4 The following procedures shall apply to all general meetings:

5.4.1 A minimum of ten members will form a quorum. In the absence of such a quorum, the members present may adjourn the meeting for a period of seven days where the members present at the adjourned date will automatically constitute a quorum.

5.4.2 Decisions shall be taken by a majority vote.

5.5 Finances

5.5.1 All the income of the Society shall be deposited in an account at a bank and/or other approved financial institution. One to two members, consisting of either

the chairperson and/or the vice-chairperson and/or the secretary-treasurer if so arranged, shall be empowered to withdraw and deposit funds for the use of/on behalf of the Society.

5.5.2 Any amount that must be withdrawn, and exceeds the amount of R3 000 should beforehand be properly communicated among the two to three empowered Executive members (namely the chairperson, the vice chairperson and, if a position of treasurer exists, the treasurer). All these aforesaid empowered executive members should be able to exercise their signing right (to withdraw and deposit funds) on behalf of the SASHT in the absence of a/ the treasurer, but with the consent and approval of the core SASHT Executive.

5.5.3 Proper accounts shall be kept of all finances of the Society as set out in the regulations published in terms of the Fundraising Act, 1978.

5.5.4 A financial report shall be produced by the Executive or Secretary-treasurer (the latter if appointed as such) at the annual general meeting or upon request from the SASHT Executive Committee. Otherwise a full general account at least should be provided in the Chairperson's report.

5.5.5 Financial contributions will be collected from all persons and/or organisations, worldwide, which support the objectives of the Society.

5.5.6 Guest SASHT conference organiser(s)/Society member involved, shall be accountable for transferring the remaining income obtained from organising an annual conference into the SASHT bank account, as part of the effort to strengthen the SASHT's financial capacity. Any contributions, towards the covering of conference expenses by the Society are on a strictly voluntary basis.



Each individual subscribed member (and one member of a subscribed institution) has one vote at any meeting.



Any amendment to this Constitution shall only be effected by a two-thirds majority decision at a general meeting or via proper E-mail communication prior to a general meeting; or a special general meeting, and further provided that seven days' prior notice was given of the proposed amendment.

Notice is to be given in the same manner as a notice for a general meeting.



8.1 The Society may dissolve, or merge, with any other association with a similar purpose and objectives in each case only:

8.1.1 On a resolution passed by the majority of members present at a duly constituted general or special general meeting of members; or

8.1.2 On an application to a court of law by any member on the ground that the Society has become dormant or is unable to fulfil its purpose and objectives,

8.1.3 On a merger, the assets of the Society shall accrue to the Society/Association with which the merger is affected.

8.1.4 On dissolution, the assets of the Society shall be realised by a liquidator appointed by the general meeting or the court, as the case may be, and the proceeds shall be distributed equally amongst such Societies/Associations with similar objectives as may be nominated by the last Executive Committee of the Society.



9.1 Every Executive member/ordinary member of the Society shall be entitled at all reasonable times to inspect all books of account and other documents of the Society which the custodian thereof shall accordingly be obliged to produce.

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