SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.12 número1Work-home interaction of employees in the mining industryUsing information technology governance, risk management and compliance (GRC) as a creator of business values - A case study índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences

versión On-line ISSN 2222-3436
versión impresa ISSN 1015-8812

S. Afr. j. econ. manag. sci. vol.12 no.1 Pretoria abr. 2009




Celebrity endorsements versus created spokespersons in advertising: A survey among students



DLR van der Waldt; M van Loggerenberg; L Wehmeyer

Department of Marketing and Communication Management, University of Pretoria




In this study the use of endorsements in advertising was investigated. Endorsements can either be in the form of a celebrity acting as a spokesperson for an organisation or the organisation can create a spokesperson to act as an endorser. The problem that faces marketers is that little scientific proof exists if students perceive celebrity endorsements and creative spokespersons differently with regard to their expertise and trustworthiness. The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of respondents with regard to expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness of created spokesperson and celebrity endorsements in advertisements. This knowledge will provide marketing professionals with the strategic advantage of how and when to make use of an endorser.
Ohanian's (1990) measurement scale of perceived expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness was adopted in a self-administrative questionnaire for this article. Respondents (n = 185) were exposed to six visual images of endorsers namely: three celebrities and three created spokespersons.
It was found that attractiveness should not be used as a factor when comparing created endorsers with celebrity endorsers. The respondents perceived both endorsement applications as highly credible and professionals need to consider each application's advantages and disadvantages when deciding which application will be more effective for their advertising strategy. In the long term the organisation might find it more cost effective to create its own spokesperson due to the risk of possible characteristics changes or negative associations of celebrity endorsers. Revoking advertisements after celebrity endorsers have received negative publicity or changed character can lead to great financial losses. Created endorsers, on the other hand, provide the organisation with greater control and the ability to change to adapt to the organisation's market and advertising needs.

Key words: Advertising, marketing, celebrity endorsement, created spokesperson, strategy, credibility, attractiveness, trustworthy

JEL M31, 37



“Full text available only in PDF format”




ACCESS HOLLYWOOD (2008) "Michael Phelps: Introducing the world's new #1 celebrity",         [ Links ] [Online] Available from: ( [Accessed: 2008-09-03]).

ANON (2005) Beyoncé Knowles [Online] Available from: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2005-08-20]).

ANON (2006) "Beyoncé Knowles" [Online] Available from: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2006-08-30]).

ANON. (2006) "Michelle Mclean" [Online] Available from: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2006-08-30]).

ANON (2006) "Ronald McDonald" [Online] Available from: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2006-08-30]).

ANON (2006) "Ryk Neethling" [Online] Available from: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2006-08-30]).

ANON (2006) "Bankole Omotoso" [Online] Available from: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2006-08-30]).

ANON (2006) Simba the Lion.         [ Links ] [Online] Available from: ( [Accessed: 2006-08-30])

ANON (2008) "An idea can change a brand's life" [Online] Available from: Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2008-08-27].

BEARDEN, WO; NETEMEYER, RG & MOBLEY, MF (1993) Handbook of Marketing Scales: Multi-Item Measurement for Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Research, Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.         [ Links ]

BLACKWELL, RD; MINIARD, PW & ENGEL, JF (2006) Consumer Behavior (10th ed.) Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth.         [ Links ]

BYRNE, A; WHITEHEAD, M & BREEN, S (2003) "The naked truth of celebrity endorsement", British Food Journal, 105(4/5): 288-296.         [ Links ]

CHOUDHURY, D & IYER, V (2008) "Celebrity advertising: Does it make things easy?" MBArk.         [ Links ] [Online] Available from: ( [Accessed: 2008-09-03]).

DANESHVARY, R & SCHWER, RK (2000) "The association endorsement and consumers' intentions to purchase", Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(3): 203-213.         [ Links ]

DU PLESSIS, F; BOTHMA, N; JORDAAN, Y & VAN HEERDEN, N (2006) Integrated Marketing Communication, South Africa. New Africa Books (2nd ed.         [ Links ])

EBSCOHOST (2008) [Online] Available: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed:2008-08-20]).

EMERALD (2008) [Online] Available: (Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2008-08-20]).

ERDOGAN, BZ (1999) "Celebrity endorsement: A literature review", Journal of Marketing Management, 41(3): 291-314.         [ Links ]

HSU, C & MCDONALD, D (2002) "An examination on multiple celebrity endorsers in advertising", Journal of Product & Brand Management, 11(1): 19-29.         [ Links ]

KNOX, S (2004) "Positioning and branding your organisation", Journal of Product and Brand Management, 13(2): 105-115.         [ Links ]

LAMB, CW; HAIR, JF; MCDANIEL, C; BOSHOFF, C & TERBLANCHE, NS (2000) Marketing, Cape Town: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

MARTIN, B; WENTZEL, D & TOMCZAK, T (2008) "Research says celebrity endorsements fail to meet expectations", European Research Information Centre.         [ Links ] [Online] Available from: infocentre/article/_en.cfm?id+/researchheadlines/news/article/ [Accessed: 2008-08-27].

MCCRACKEN, G (1989) "Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement process", Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3): 310-322.         [ Links ]

MCEWEN, WJ (2003) "When the stars don't shine", GALLUP Management Journal,         [ Links ] [Online] Available from: [Accessed: 2005-03-11].

MEHULKUMAR, P (2005) "An examination of universal personality endorser and interaction between perceived celebrity image (pci) and perceived brand image (pbi) across national boundaries",         [ Links ] [Online] Available from: [Accessed: 2006-08-22].

OHANIAN, R (1990) "Construction and validation of a scale to measure celebrity endorser's perceived expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness", Journal of Advertising, 19(3): 39: 52.         [ Links ]

OHANIAN, R (1991) "The impact of celebrity spokespersons' perceived image on customers' intention to purchase", Journal of Advertising Research, 31(1): 46-54.         [ Links ]

PETTY, RD & LINDSEY-MULLIKIN, J (2006) "The regulation of practices that promote brand interest: a "3Cs" guide for consumer brand managers", Journal of Product and Brand Management, 15 (1):23-36.         [ Links ]

REDIFF.COM (2003) "Is celebrity advertising effective?" [Online] Available from:Links ]" target="_blank"> [Accessed: 2008-08-27].

SABINET (2008) [Online] Available: (Links ]" target="_blank">http://0-search. [Accessed: 2008-08-20]).

SCHLECHT, C (2003) Celebrities' impact on branding.         [ Links ] [Online] Available from: ( research/working/Celebrity_Branding.pdf+celebrities%27+impact +on+branding&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1. [Accessed: 2006-08-20]).

SCIENCE DIRECT (2008) [Online] Available: (Links ]" target="_blank"> _type=subject& subjColl=14&zone=brws&_acct=C000005298&_ version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=59388&md 5=6dcfe4cc6b2182dfdade5ff066154ef0. [Accessed: 2008-08-20]).

SENO, D & LUKAS, BA (2007) "The equity effect of product endorsement by celebrities: A conceptual framework from a co-branding perspective", Euro/ean Journal of Marketing, 41 (1/2): 121134.         [ Links ]

SILVERA, DH & AUSTAD, B (2004) "Factors predicting the effectiveness of celebrity endorsements advertisements", Euro/ean Journal of Marketing, 38(11/12): 1509-1526.         [ Links ]

TILL, BD & BUSLER, M (1998) "Matching products with endorser: Attractiveness versus expertise", Journal of Consumer Marketing, 15(6): 576-586.         [ Links ]

TILL, BD & SHIMP, TA (1998) "Endorsers in advertising: The case of negative celebrity information", Journal of Advertising, 27(1): 67-82.         [ Links ]

TOM, G CLARK, R; ELMER, L GRECH, E; MASETTI, J & SANDHAR, H (1992) "The use of created versus celebrity spokespersons in advertisements", The Journal of Consumers Marketing, 9(4): 45-51.         [ Links ]

TRIPP, C; JENSEN, TD & CARLSON, L (1994) "The effects of multiple product endorsements by celebrities on consumers' attitudes and intentions", Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4): 535-546.         [ Links ]

VAN DER WALDT, DLR; SCHLERITZKO, NEA & VAN ZYL, K (2007) "Paid versus unpaid celebrity endorsement in advertising: an exploration", African Journal of Business Management, 1(7): 185-191 October.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons