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Verbum et Ecclesia

versão On-line ISSN 2074-7705
versão impressa ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.36 no.1 Pretoria  2015

http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ve.v36i1.1491 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

 

Mongwalelo wa sefela sa Serote: 'A re thabeng re rete' (Difela tsa kereke, 2010)

 

 

Deborah Mampuru; Jerry Mojalefa

Department of African Languages, University of Pretoria, South Africa

Correspondence

 

 


ISIFINYEZO

Bangwadi ba Bathobaso ba difela tša kereke ba hueditšwe ke bangwadi ba baruti (ba Matoitshi ba Kereke ya Lutere ya Berlin) ge ba tlo ngwala difela. Ka go realo ke ba mathomo ba go ngwala poleloopelwa ya Sepedi. Ka lebaka la gore baruti ba Matoitshi ba be ba sa tsebe melao ya go laola metara wa Sepedi, ba thomile go hlama difela tsa bona ka mokgwa wo difela tsa Setoitshi di hlamilwego ka wona. Bangwadi ba difela ba Bapedi le bona ba ba sala morago bjalo. Ka go realo go ka thwe mothopomogolo wa khuetso ya sebjalebjale dingwalong tsa Sepedi ke mediro ya kereke ya mathomothomo. Le ge go le bjalo bohlokwa bjo bja kgolo ya theto ka tsela ya difela dingwalong tsa Sepedi ga se bja salwa morago le go gatelelwa ke basekaseki. Maikemisetso a taodiswana ye ke go lekola, ka botlalo, mongwalelo wa difela ka go nepiša sefela sa Serote sa 147 sa go bitswa 'A re thabeng re rete' (Difela tsa kereke 2010:130). Go yo tsitsinkela ka fao mongwalelo o tswetsago pele kgegeo. Ka mantsu a mangwe, go yo sekasekwa dipharologantsho tsa mongwalelo tse di tswetsago pele kgegeo. Go tlo lemogwa gore kgegeo yeo e bonagatswa ka modiro wa Selalelo se Sekgethwa sa Morena seo se hlalošwago ka tsela ya khuduego/maikutlo go tšwetša pele morero wa mongwadi/moopedi wa sefela se ka ge bjale Selalelo e le selo seo Bakriste ba se hlomphago (se lebane le tshwarelo ya dibe tsa bona), go ya ka fao se hlaloswago ka gona ka tsela yeo ya kgegeo.


ABSTRACT

Black composers of church hymns were influenced by German pastors of the Berlin Lutheran Church to do so. In other words, these pastors were the first composers to write the Sepedi language in the form of music; because they did not know the rules that control the Sepedi meter, the writers started to compose their hymns in the way that the German hymns were patterned. Therefore, one might argue that the main source of modern influence in Sepedi literature lies in the workings of the very first hymns of the said church. Nevertheless, the importance of the development of poetry in the form of hymns in the Sepedi literature has not been followed up and emphasised by reviewers. The aim of this article is to survey thoroughly the style of writing hymns, by discussing Rev Serote's hymn number 147, entitled 'A re thabeng re rete' (Difela tsa kereke 2010:130). The scrutiny will examine the way in which style depicts irony in the very hymn. In other words, the investigation considers especially the characteristics of style that indicate and develop irony in the work. It will be shown that the irony becomes clear during the service of Baptism which is expressed by way of emotions to develop the author's aim, as this sacrament is something that Christians respect (it goes hand in hand with the forgiveness of their sins).


 

 

Matseno

Bangwadi ba Bathobaso ba difela tsa kereke, go swana le Serote, Ramaila, Makopo, le ba bangwe, ba hueditswe ke bangwadi ba baruti (ba Matoitshi ba Kereke ya Lutere ya Berlin) ge ba tlo ngwala difela. Ka go realo baruti bao ke bona ba go thoma go ngwala polelo ya go opela ya go thewa godimo ga go reta. Ka lebaka la gore ba be ba sa tsebe (gagolo baruti ba Matoitshi bao ba go tla le thuto yeo mono Bopedi) melao ya go laola metara wa Sepedi, ba thomile go hlama difela tsa bona ka mokgwa woo difela tša Setoitšhi di hlamilwego ka wona (Groenewald 1993:33).

Groenewald (1993) o tšwela pele go bolela gore go kgatha tema ga bangwadi ba baruti dingwalong tsa Sepedi go hlotše khuetso kgolong ya theto ya Sepedi. O re mothopomogolo wa khuetso ya sebjalebjale dingwalong tseo ke mediro ya kereke ya mathomothomo.Moragonyana mothopo woo o akareditse le thuto ya barutwana ya ka sekolong: go bala direto tse di ngwadilwego ka maleme a mangwe,ka kudukudu Seisimane (ga esita le Seafrikaanse). Ka mokgwa woo mothopo woo wa sebjalebjale o goletše pele. Le ge go le bjalo bohlokwa bjo bja kgolo ya theto ka tsela ya difela dingwalong tša Sepedi ga se ya salwa morago le go gatelelwa ke basekaseki.

Taodišwana ye e yo lekola ka botlalo mongwalelo wa difela ka go nepiša sefela sa Serote sa 147 sa go bitswa 'A re thabeng re rete' (Difela tša kereke 2010:130). Go yo tsitsinkelwa ka fao mongwalelo o tswetsago pele kgegeo. Ka mantsu a mangwe, go yo sekasekwa dipharologantsho tsa mongwalelo tse di tswetsago pele kgegeo. Go tlo lemogwa gore kgegeo yeo e bonagatswa ka modiro wa kolobetso yeo e hlaloswago ka tsela ya khuduego/maikutlo go tswetsa pele morero wa mongwadi/moopedi wa sefela se ka ge bjale kolobetso e le selo seo Bakriste ba se hlomphago (se lebane le tshwarelo ya dibe tsa bona), go ya ka fao se hlaloswago ka gona ka tsela yeo ya kgegeo.

 

Serote le kgegeo

Kgegeo ke thekniki ye bohlokwa dingwalong. Ge a kgonthisa kgopolo ye, Muecke (1982) o fo re:

The importance of irony in literature is beyond question. One need not accept the view; put forward at least twice on different grounds, that all art, or all literature, is essentially ironic - or the view that all good literature must be ironic. (p. 3)

Go na le bangwadi bao dingwalong tsa bona kgegeo e lego thekniki ya katlego. Bangwadi bao mo difeleng tsa Sepedi ke ba go swana le boSerote. Serote o nepisa ditaba ka kgegeo; o tseba kgegeo. Go ya ka Richards (1961:250) kgegeo '... consists in the bringing in of the opposite, the complementary impulse'. Ka tsela yeo go ka thwe, go ya ka Cloete (1992:190), kgegeo e akaretsa dilo tse ntsi go feta temogo ya dipharologantsho le dipapiso tsa dikganetsano, yona taba yeo e bolelwago ke Richards ka godimo. Ge a tiisa kgopolo yeo ya Cloete, Van Corp (1980:84) o no re:

Dit vaak toegepaste procédé bestaat erin, dat de impliciete betekenis van een bepaalde teken (een lofrede, het uiterijk voorkomen van een toneelpersonage, enz.) verschillend is van, of total tegengesteld aan, die explicite of oppervlakte betekenis.

Taba yeo e bolelwago ke Van Corp mabapi le kgegeo, ke ya go re tlhaloso ye e tebilego, se a se bitsago 'impliciete betekenis', e fapana le yeo e sego ya teba, se a se bitsago 'explicite betekenis'. Ke ka tsela yeo Muecke (1982) a bolelago gore kgegeo e theilwe godimo ga 'mosomo wa go swaolla', se a se bitsago 'corrective function'. O isa pele ka go re:

It is like a gyroscope that keeps life on an even keel or straight course, restoring the balance when life is being taken too seriously or, as some tragedies show, not seriously enough, stabilising the unstable but also destabilising the excessively stable. (p. 4)

Ke ka mokgwa woo go thwego Serote o kgonthisa tekatekano ya bophelo ka gobane o phosolla tsa go se loke goba tse di lokilego ka tsela ya go tsweletsa mathata a bophelo ka mokgwa wa go gegea batho/Bakriste, le gore, go ya pele, mathata ao a gegea lehu (ke go re ga le na karolo bophelong bjo bo sa tlago go ya ka fao Bakriste ba naganago/dumelagoka gona).

Ka yona tsela yeo go napile go lemogwa maatla a tiriso ya kgegeo polelong ya sefela sa go rulaganywa ke Serote. Ka wona mokgwa woo, go swanetse gwa lemogwa gore kgegeo yeo e dirisitswego ke Serote, ke ya, go ya ka Van Corp (1980:84-85), go lebana le mehuta ye mene ya kgegeo, e lego kgegeo ya Sokratesse, ya polelo, ya tiragatso, le ya padi. Ge Van Corp a hlalosa kgegeo ya go dirisa polelo ka botlalo, o re ke kgegeo yeo e lebanego le motho yo o ka rego ga a na kgonthe ye e tletsego; o ukama fela go ya ka tumelo ya gagwe, ka ge ditaba tsa mohuta woo di seso tsa tso mo diragalela: o sa emetse ka tetelo ya go hutsa gore di tlo direga ka go mo atla mafelelong ge fela a dira go loka. Ka fao go kolobetswa ke mohlala wo mobotse wa se se hlaloswago ke Van Corp ka godimo. Kgegeo ye bjalo ke ya go bonagatsa morero wa sefela se sa Serote, e lego lehu ga le na karolo bophelong bjo bo sa tlago.

Boipobolo (ka batswadi legatong la bana) ke tiragalo ya Mokriste ya go tsea maikarabelo a go godisetsa ngwana Bokristeng. Go ka thwe ke thapelo ya go swarelwa ga dibe ye e lebanego le tshokologo ya dipelo tsa batho/ Bakriste ka nepo ya go amogela Kriste bjalo ka Mopholosi le Molebaleladibe. Tiragalo yeo e direga pele ga Altare ya Morena bjalo ka seswantsho sa kopano le Modimo yo boraro: Modimo Tate, Modimo Morwa le Modimo Moya wo Mokgethwa.

Ke ka fao go ka thwego ka kgegeo ye bjalo, Serote o kgonthisa tekatekano mo bophelong; ke go re go phosolla mediro ya go se loke/ye mebe go kgonthisa tse di lokilego ka go tsweletsa mathata a bophelo (dibe) ka mokgwa wa thapelo ya boipobolo gomme mathata ao a gegea lehu ka gore ga le na maatla bophelong bja ka morago ga lehu.

Ge mmadi a lebanya kakaretso ya diteng tsa sefela le ditiragalo tse di ngwadilwego, o lemoga (1) dipharologantsho tsa mongwalelo le (2) dithekniki le dipharologantsho go akaretswa le (3) registara ya mongwalelo le (4) registara ya mongwalelo wa tiriso. Dipharologantsho tse di tlo hlaloswa ka botlalo ka nepo ya go nolofatsa mosomo wa tshekatsheko ya mongwalelo; gomme ge dipharologantsho tseo di bapiswa le mongwalelo, di tlo bonwa bjalo ka karolo ya dithekniki tsa go tswetsa pele khuduego ya mongwalelo.

Phala (1999:78) o re go ka thwe thekniki ke mokgwa woo o akaretsago wa go ngwala sengwalo. Ke mokgwa wa go amanya pharologantšho ya mongwalelo le dipharologantsho tše dingwe go tšwetsa pele molaetsa wa mongwadi. Ke ka lebaka leo pharologantsho ya mongwalelo e lemogegago fela ge monyakišiši, le ge e le yena mmadi, a setsego a lemogile morero/moko wa ditaba.

 

Pharologantšho ya mongwalelo

Ge a hlalosa pharologantsho ya mongwalelo, Kerkhoff (1962:164) o tsweletsa dikgopolokgolo tse nne tse di latelago ka tlase. Ge a hlalosa sebopego sa yona o fo re:

Das einzeine Stilistikum ist die kleinste für den Sti besdeutssame Einheit. Es ist nicht der Monade vergleichbar; den ein isolierles Stilistikum spiegelt nie das Wesen des Ganzen. Nicht alle Einzelelemente sind für den Stil in glechem Masze aufsschluszfähig.

Kerkhoff (1962:163) o hlatholla gore phapantsho ke karolwana ye nnyane kudu ya polelo ya go tšwetsa pele mongwalelo. O tšwela pele go bapisa pharologantsho yeo ya mongwalelo le 'Monade'. O re bobedi ga di swane ka lebaka la gore go na le 'Monade' ye kgolo le ye nnyane; di a swana empa dipharologantsho tsa mongwalelo di a fapana. Ka fao mongwalelo o bopsa ka dipharologantsho, e sego fela pharologantsho e tee. Godimo ga moo dipharologantsho tseo tsa mongwalelo ga di lebane ka mosomo le mohola. O sa gatelela gape ka go hlatholla mohola le mosomo woo wa pharologantsho ya mongwalelo ka go re: 'Klein Stilistikum besitzt absoluten Wert es kann verschiedene Aufgaben übernehmen. Je nach dem Zusammenhang wird e sanders getönt und wechselt seine Funkton sogar innerhalb eines Werkes' (Kerkhoff 1962:163).

O hlalosa gore pharologantsho ya mongwalelo ga e na mosomo wo o tiilego ka lebaka la gore e ka diriswa ditebanong tse di fapafapanego. O gatelela polelo yeo ka go re mosito wo o itšego o ka lebanywa le ge e le lethabo. Ke ka tsela yeo go thwego pharologantsho ya mongwalelo ga e na mohola wo o itšego woo o tiilego. Ka mokgwa woo morero wa sefela o laolago mosomo wa pharologantšho ya mongwalelo; ke go re kamano gare ga dipharologantsho ka moka tsa mongwalelo e bonagatša morero wa sefela. Go realo go ra gore dipharologantsho tšeo di logaganywa ke morero wa sefela go tsweletsa khuduego ya mongwadi/moopedi (Mojalefa 1995:130).

Kerkhoff (1962:31) o bolela go ya pele gore dipharologantsho di tsweletsa mongwalelo ka go dirisana. Le ge maatla a bontsi bja tsona a lemogega, ga di amane; tse dingwe di kgona go bonagatsa tebanyo ya mongwadi/moopedi ka botsona. Tabataba mo ke gore gantsi ge go hlathollwa modiro wa dipharologantsho, go kgonwa go lemogwa mohola wa tsona, ge fela go hlokomelwa kamano gare ga pharologantsho le dipharologantsho tse dingwe. Kerkhoff (1962) o sa tiisa gore mongwalelo o bopsa ka dipharologantsho ka moka ga tsona. Se bohlokwa ke gore mongwalelo o bonagale ka kamano yeo ya gare ga dipharologantsho, gomme gape kamano yeo go lemogwe gore ga se fela koketšo ya dipharologantsho, ka lebaka la gore mongwalelo ga o bonale ka koketso ka gore ga o swane le dipalo.

 

Dithekniki le dipharologantšho

Bjale ge go tsinkelwa mongwalelo wa sefela se go yo hlokomelwa ditemana ka moka tsa sefela ka go tsenelela. Kgetho ya sefela se e hlohleleditswe ke ge e le ye e tlogo lebana le morero wa sefela, gape e lebane le kokwane ya thulano, ka gona e utolla khuduego ye e swanetsego ya mongwadi/moopedi wa sefela se.

Bjale go yo sekaseka mongwalelo wa sefela seo sa thulaganyo ya Serote sa 147, 'A re thabeng re rete' (Difela tsa kereke 2010:130):

1 A re thabeng re rete

Sehlapo sa matete, Se se hlatswang dipel

o Tša batho ba tumelo.

2 Se tliša tebalelo

Go bana ba timelo.

Se dira ba tahlego

Go bewa ba thatego.

3 Me tlhatso ye ka tswalo

Ya bana ba mpshafatšo,

Me e ba thibelela

Disenyi tše go fela.

4 Ba ka se ke ba lahlwa;

Wa godimong o kgahlwa

Ke go ba amogela

Le go ba gokarela.

5 Me o tlo ba tšhelela

Mahumo a go phela

A thabisang dipelo

Ba ka se hloke selo.

6 Ka tlhatso ye ba newa

Borena ka go bewa

Baruti ba bophelo

Bjo bo se nang bofelo.

7 Ka yona ba tlo tsena

Mo go dutseng Morena

Ge ba ka mo dumela

Ka mehla e go fela.

Sefela se se yo hlaloswa go ya ka lenaneo le le latelago la ka tlase (Table 1).,

 

 

Sekai

Serote, mo methalading ya mathomo ye mebedi ya sefela ka godimo, o bolela ka kolobetso ka go re: Sehlapo sa matete, Baruti ba bophelo.

Polelo ya methaladi ye mebedi ye ya ka godimo ya sefela, Serote o e phethagatsa ka thekniki ye e itsego ya sekai (seswantsho). Go ka thwe mantsu a mararo a sefela ao a lebanego le thekniki ye ke kolobetso, baruti le bophelo.

Sekai ke lentsu (goba sekafoko) le le kayago goba le supago selo se se itsego. Lentsu leo ga le na kamano le selo seo se swantshwago. Abrams (1988) o hlalosa sekai ka go re:

the term symbol, is applied only to a word or phrase that signifies an object or event which in turn signifies something, or has a range of reference, beyond itself. (p. 184)

Sekai ga se bolele taba thwi. Molaetša wa sona o iphihlile. Ke ka lebaka leo Makgopa (1996:7) a rego mongwadi ga a bolele phatlalatša gore selo sa go re se kaya, goba go tšweletša leina la selo se se kaiwago. Ka fao ge go akaretšwa dikgopolo tše, go ka thwe sekai ke lentsu leo tirišo ya lona e sa lemogwego gabonolo; le dirišwa go emela se sengwe (Kriste/barongwa ba legodimo), nepo e le go utolla tlhaloso ye e tseneletsego, ye e bego e sa letelwa. Godimo ga moo sona seswantšho seo sa sekai se tsweletsa atmosfere (khuduego goba maikutlo) ya go lebana le motho.

Bjale go tla lekodišišwa ka moo sekai se dirišitšwego ka gona mo setsopolweng sa ka godimo.

Serote o somisa kolobetso go emela Kriste. Ke go re kolobetso ke tswalolefsa. Ka yona, ge motho a dumela fela, o tlo amogelwa mmusong wa Kriste ka gobane e tlo ba e le ngwana wa Kriste.

Serote o tšwela pele go dirisa mantsu a mangwe, baruti go swantsha barongwa ba Modimo/Kriste (ke go re ga e sa le baruti ke barongwa ba Modimo) le bophelo go kaya 'go sa felego', e lego bophelo bja go se be le lehu.

Ka go realo, ka go opela ka tsela yeo, Serote o swantsha kolobetso, baruti le bophelo gore e se hlwe e eba meetse, batho le mathata a batho, dilo tsa go tsebega tsa lefase le, eupsa e be dilo tsa lefase la ka morago ga lehu.

Ka go godisa ditaba ka tsela yeo ya seswantsho, Serote o hlagisa maikutlo a tlhompho le tebalelo go modiradibe. Ke go re ka go kolobetswa, modiradibe o boelanywa le Kriste.

Tebelelo

Serudu (1989:44) o bolela gore tebelelo: 'Ke tsela yeo taba e laodiswago ka gona. Maemo a mongwadi a go tsweletsa baanegwa, ditiro, tikologo le ditiragalo tseo di bopago modiro.'

Serudu (1989) o hlaloša go ya pele gore tebelelo ke ge mongwadi, moanegi goba moanegwa a tswelela e le motsebatsohle. Ka tsela yeo go ka thwe go gatelelwa gore tebelelo e lebane le ge ditaba di hlaloswa ka leihlo la mongwadi, molaodiši le ge e le moanegwa/baanegwa.

Bjale ge go lekolwa polelo ya Serote go lemogwa gore ditaba (tša kolobetšo) di hlalošwa ka molomo wa mmoledi (yena mongwadi/moopedi) yoo e lego motsebatsohle yo a tsebago ditaba ka moka tsa bohlokwa bja kolobetso, e lego tebalelo ya dibe.

Godimo ga moo Serote o diriša lekgokasediri la se la mmoledisi mo mathomong a mothaladi wo mongwe le wo mongwe wa temana ya mathomo ya sefela:

  • Se se hlatswang dipelo...

  • Se tliša tebalelo...

  • Se dira ba tahlego.

Ka tsela yeo ya go opela ka mokgwa woo wa tirišo ya lekgokasediri la mmoledisi, sebakeng sa sediri, e lego kolobetso/goba sehlapo sa matete, Serote o tiisa le go gatelela tebelelo, thekniki ye e šetšego e hlalositswe ka godimo. Moopedi, ka go dira bjalo o dirisa thekniki yeo ya tebelelo go amantsha mmoledi, e lego motsebatsohle le morero/moko wa sefela, e lego lehu ga le na bokamoso ka nepo ya go ntšha khuduego ya segwera magareng ga bobedi bjoo (mmoledi le morero), yeo e bonalago ka go gegea lehu: le ge lehu le na le maatla a go hloriša bophelo bja nama le madi, ga le na maatla a go bolaya moya.

Thulaganyo ya polelo

Ka thulaganyo go nepišwa kgatelelo ye kgolo ye e bago gona godimo ga peakanyo ya ditiragalo ka maikemišetšo a go tšwetša pele tebanyo/morero ya mongwadi/moopedi.

Ge go lekolwa thulaganyo ya ditiragalo tša sefela se, go lemogwa gore ga se ya mehleng - ke polelo ya kopelo/sefela/ sereto. Taba yeo e bolela gore moopedi o dirišitše polelo ya thulaganyo ya metara, ge a rulaganya sefela seo. Ka go realo polelo yeo e lebane le mosito le lebelo la polelo ya gagwe.

Mosito

Woolfe le Hampton (1984:199) ba hlaloša gore mosito o lebane le patrone ya modumo seretong/sefeleng, gomme patrone yeo e laola mosito ebile gape e na le khuetso ye e itsego ye kgolo mo go mosito. Ge ba tiisa taba yeo go ya pele ba fo re: 'All the sound patterning in a poem affects the slowdown, depending on the use of hard or soft sounds, long or short words, repetition, rhyme, etc.'

Ba (Woolfe & Hampton 1984) isa pele ditaba tseo ka go hlatholla modiro wa mosito ka go re: 'Rhythm is the space of which the words flow, where you pause, where the emphasis falls.'

Ka go realo basekaseki ba ba gatelela dintlha tseo di lebanego le mosito, e lego:

  • Sekgoba seo mantsu a elelago ka gare ga sona.

  • Khutšo.

Dikokwane tseo tsa mosito di gatelela kgopolo yeo e itsego. Taba yeo e tiisa gore go na le kelelo ya molodi wa sengwalo/sefela se se itsego, gomme kelelo yeo e laolwa ke segalo goba lefokwana, le ge e le lentsu leo le itsego; ke go re le ka telefatswa goba la kopafatswa mo mothalading/ mothalothetong goba polelong ge go retwa/opelwa goba go balwa le ga ešita le go bolelwa (Mojalefa 1995:137).

Go ka fo tiisetswa gore mošito wo bofefo goba wo boima, le ge e le wo o boeletswago goba wa go no tšweletšwa ka mantšu a a itšego, a matelele goba a makopana, a segalo sa godimo goba sa fase, ke wona a lebanego le khuduego ya mongwadi/moopedi. Ke ka fao Richards (1961:229) a bolelago gore: '. a rhythm of the mental activity through which we apprehend not only the sound of the words but their sense and feeling.'

Taba ye ya Richards e bohlokwa ka gobane bohlokwa bja yona bo lebane le dikgopolo tše pedi tše di latelago, e lego lebelo le khutšo.

Lebelo

Ge a hlalosa mošito ka ge o sepedisana tšela le lebelo, De

Groot (1946:19) o fo re:

Hier uit kan men eigenlijk afleiden wat dan wel het meest wezenlyke van rhythme in psychologische en aesthetische zin is een afstand van een bepaalde lengte tussen twee kernen van intensiteit, die afstand is ongeveer drie-kwart seconde.

Seo De Groot a se hlathollago ke gore mošito o ka swantšhwa le maphoto a lewatle. O hlalosa gore bokgole gare ga dihloa tša maphoto ao bo ka ba tharonneng ya motsotswana. Ge go bolelwa ka mošito woo o nepišago mantsu a mafoko mo polelong ya Sepedi, gona o ka bontšhwa ka mokgwa wa seema se (Rakoma 1995:162):

1                                       2

La hlo:ka mo:ng           (dinoko tše tlhano)

Le tše:na setlogo:lo      (dinoko tše supa)

Bokgole bjo bo lego gare ga sehloa sa 1 le sa 2 ka godimo, bo tlo lebana le motsotswana wa go kaaka tharonneng. Lebelo lona leo le no nepisa palo ya dinoko tše di bolelwago; ke go re, e lego ya gare ga dihloa tše pedi tšeo tša mošito. Ke ka lebaka leo, go ya ka Mojalefa (1993:149), lebelo e le ponagalo goba pharologantšho ya go hlaloša bokopana bja methalotheto, le ge e le lefoko.

Bjale go yo lekolwa ka fao lebelo le ka phethagatswago mantsung. Taba yeo e bolela gore lebelo le laolwa ke botelele bja lentsu, go swana le ge go ka no tšewa mohlala wa mohuta woo mantsung (madiring) a go thewa godimo ga lekgokasediri a sefela sa ka godimo sa Serote a a latelago:

  • hlatswang (dinoko tše tharo)
  • dipelo (dinoko tše tharo)
  • tlisa (dinoko tše pedi)
  • tebalelo (dinoko tše nne)
  • dira (dinoko tše pedi)
  • tahlego (dinoko tše tharo).

Mohlala, tebelelo e na le dinoko tše nne, mola dira e na le dinoko tše pedi. Ke ka tšela yeo go bapetšwago lebelo la mantsu ao a go se lekane ka dinoko ka gona. Fela mantsu ao a ka bitswa mantsu ao a lekanago ka dihloa tša mošito, ka lebaka la gore, go ya ka lebelo, a lekana ka nako go ya ka kgopolo ya De Groot ya ka godimo. Ka gobane dira e na le dinoko tše pedi, lebelo la yona le a nanya ge le bapetswa le la tebalelo, ya go ba le dinoko tše nne, yeo yona e nago le lebelo la go phakisa. Ka tšela yeo, dinoko di laola lebelo; ke go re ge dinoko e le tše ntsi, lebelo le a phakisa, mola ge dinoko di se nene, lebelo le nanya.

Khutšo

Ge go hlaloswa khutso, go nepiswa go kgaoga ga polelo; e ka ba ga lentsu goba sekafoko, le ge e le lefoko, goba go bolela/ ngwala ka go khutša, le ge e le go bolelwa/ngwalwa ka go tšama o eme goba o khutša ka mokgwa woo go ka thwego ke wa go bala/bolela, ka nepo ya go gatelela seo se itšego (Mojalefa 1995:137). Ka go realo go ka thwe khutso e laolwa ke melao ya polelo goba yona popapolelo.

Ka ge go se mehlala ye mebotše sefeleng sa go rulaganywa ke Serote, go ka no rulaganywa polelo ya temana ya bohlano gore e nyalelane le tlhaloso ye ka tšela ye:

Ba fiwa mahumo

le

Mahumo, ba a a fiwa

Ka lebaka la gore lefoko la bobedi le na le khutso ye e tsweletswago ka tšela ya leswaodikga la fegelwana; ke go re 'Mahumo' le 'ba a a fiwa' le a nanya ge le bapetswa le la mathomo, 'Ba fiwa mahumo', ka gobane lona ga le na khutso ya (,) ge le balwa goba le bolelwa ka mokgwa wa tlwaelo. Ka fao lefoko/mothaladi la mathomo le a phakisa ka lebaka la gore tatelano ya sediri, tiro le sedirwa, ke ya tlwaelo, mola la bobedi le nanya ka lebaka la gore tatelano yeo ga se ya tlwaelo. Go fetola tatelano yeo ya tlwaelo go hlola khutso yeo lefokong leo la bobedi. Ke go re ge sedirwa se ema ka go la mpati, go na le se sengwe se bohlokwa seo se gatelelwago, e lego sona sedirwa seo, e lego mahumo; ke go re:

Me o tlo ba tshelela

Mahumo a go phela

A thabisang dipelo

Ba ka se hloke selo.

Mošitollo

Bjale go yo sekasekwa ge mošitollo o nepisa botelele bja mothaladi wa sefela, gape le ge o lebane le lebelo ge le laola dihloa tša mošito.

Botelele bja mothaladi wa sefela

Bjale ge, botelele bja methaladi ya sefela bo yo nepiswa ka go tsopola temana ya bohlano ya sefela se sa thulaganyo ya Serote:

  • Me o tlo ba tšhelela (dinoko tše šupa)

  • Mahumo a go phela (dinoko tše šupa)

  • A thabisang dipelo; (dinoko tše šupa)

  • Ba ka se hloke selo. (dinoko tše šupa).

Taba yeo e napile e bolela gore methaladi yeo e a lekana ka botelele ka gobane mothaladi wo mongwe le wo mongwe o na le dinoko tša go lekana tše di supago. Taba yona yeo gape e bolela gore ka tshwanelo methaladi yeo e swanetše go lekana ka lebelo, eupsa ga go bjalo ka gobane dikhutso tša methaladi yeo ga di lekane le ka maatla. Yona taba yeo e tlo bolelwa ka botlalo ge go ahlaahlwa ge lebelo le laola dihloa tša mošito ka mo tlase.

Ge lebelo le laola dihloa tša mošito

Karolwana ye yona e yo hlalosa lebelo, khutšo le dikhutšwana tša temana ya bohlano ya sefela se:

1. Me/ / o tlo ba tšhelela.

2. Mahumo a go phela/.

3. A thabišang dipelo//.

4. Ba ka se hloke selo///.

Leswao la (/) le emela khutso ye nnyane, la (//) le emela khutso ya magareng mola la (///) lona le emela khutso ye kgolo. Ka go realo go na le phapano ya lebelo mo gare ga methaladi yeo ya temana ya sefela. Ka lebaka la khutso ya magareng; ke go re ye kgolwanyana, mo mothaladi wa mathomo:

1. Me/ / o tlo ba tšhelela.

Lebelo la mothaladi wa mathomo ke la go ikgetha. Ka go realo khutšwana yeo ya yona e hlola gore lebelo le iketle mothalading wo.

Poeletšo

Preminger (1965:998) o hlaloša thekniki ya poeletso ka go bolela gore ke: 'The repeating of words, syllables, sounds, phrases, a line/lines, stanza and events in all poetry.'

Ge a iša pele Wales (1989:403) o bolela gore poeletso e diriswa go gatelela go tsweletša morero le maatlakgogedi. Ka go realo go ka thwe poeletso e na le mesomo ye mebedi, e lego (1) go tšwetša pele moko wa ditaba le (2) go bonagatša maatlakgogedi/phišegelo gore mmadi a rate go balela sengwalo pele le pele.

Serote o no boeletša thaetlele, e lego 'A re thabeng re rete' ya sefela se mo mothalading wa mathomo wa temana ya mathomo. Ka go realo poeletso yeo e dirisetswa go gatelela go tsweletša (1) morero wa sefela, e lego lehu ga le na karolo bophelong bja ka morago ga lehu le gore (2) moopedi a fisegele go opelela sefela pele le pele ka ge poeletso yeo e tsosolosa maikutlo a tebalelo ya dibe tša gagwe.

Sešura le kelelothalo

Ge go balwa sefela sa Serote, ditemana ka moka, go lemogwa gore se theilwe godimo ga sesura le kelelothalo. Ge a hlalosa dikgopolo tše pedi tše, Groenewald (1993:13 le 38) o re sesura ke mollwane wo bohlokwahlokwa wo o tlatšago molawana wa kwano, mola ka lehlakoreng le lengwe a re kelelothalo yona e hlaloswa bjalo ka tlhokomologo ya mollwane wa mothalotheto le ge e ka ba karolometara. Ka fao go ka no thwe kelelothalo e batametša sereto go kanegelo. Ka go realo kelelothalo e senya metara ka gobane e le karolo ya thulaganyo ya polelo ya kanegelo, e sego ya polelo ya moreti (metara). Bjale dikgopolo tše pedi tše di tlo tswalanywa le temana ya mafelelo ya bosupa go thekga ditlhaloso tše:

7 Ka yona ba tlo tšena/

Mo go dutšeng Morena/

Ge ba ka mo dumela/

Ka mehla e go fela.//

Sešura

Go lemogwa khutso mothalading wo mongwe le wo mongwe wa temana ye ya sefela. Dikhutso tšeo ga di lekane ka maatla.

Dikhutso tša mo mafelelong a methaladi ya mathomo go fihla ka wa boraro, di bopilwe ka dikhutso tše nnyane tša tlhago tša go swaiwa ka leswao la (/) mola mothaladi wa mafelelo wona o na le khutso ye kgolo ya go swaiwa ka (//).

Dikhutso tšeo di bitswa sesura ka gobane di lebane le metara. Sesura seo se na le mosomo wo bohlokwa, e lego go gatelala methaladi yeo ka moka; gomme ka go gatelela bjalo methaladi yeo e bapetswa le kgopolo ya tlhatso (ya dibe) le legodimong (go tšenwa ka tumelo). Papetso yeo e tsweletša tlhatso (ka kolobetso) gore e be karabo ye e lebanego le gore lehu ga le na karolo bophelong bja ka morago ga lehu. Ka tšela yeo go ka thwe sesura se hlagisa kgegeoteramatiki ye e kgonthisago morero wa sefela se ka go gegea lehu.

Kelelothalo

Kelelothalo e senya metara gore e se be polelo ya moopedi/ moreti eupsa ya moanegi. Serote o e tsweleditše ka tšela ye:

7 Ka yona ba tlo tšena

Mo go dutšeng Morena

Ge ba ka mo dumela

Ka mehla e go fela.

Go lemogwa gore temana ye ya sefela e beakantswe ka methaladi ya go ba le kelelothalo. Ke go re moopedi ga se a swanela go khutša ge a opela temana yeo. Ka tšela yeo thulaganyo ye ya kelelothalo ya temaneng ye ya sefela, e gapeletša moopedi go opela temana ye ka lebelwana go feta tšeo (ditemana) tše dingwe. Lebelwana leo le lebane le go phakisa ga ba ba tšenago mmusong wa legodimo/Modimo. Ka mokgwa woo kelelothalo mo e lebane le khuduego ya boikgafo (go sa dikadikwe) mmusong wa Modimo. Ke ka fao go ka thwego mohola wo mogolo wa kelelothalo ke go tswetša pele mošito wo o godisago maikutlo a a rilego seretong/sefeleng.

 

Thumo

Ge go tsitsinkelwa mongwalelo (wa sefela sa thulaganyo ya Serote) bjalo ka kokwane ya go hlopha dingwalo, go lemogilwe gore difela tša kereke bjalo ka ge di na le thulaganyo ya direto tša sebjalebjale, di ka kgethologanywa go direto tša bogologolo go ya ka khuduego ya go thewa godimo ga khuetso ya tumelo ye e rilego. Ke go re bangwadi ba sebjalebjale ba hueditswe ke bangwadi ba Matoitšhi ba Kereke ya Lutere ge ba tlo ngwala difela tšeo. Ka go realo baruti bao ba kereke ke bona ba go thoma go ngwala polelo ya go opela ya go thewa godimo ga kopelotheto. Ka lebaka la gore baruti ba Matoitshi bao ba go tla le thuto yeo mono Bopedi ba sa tšebe melao ya go laola metara wa Sepedi, ba thomile go hlama difela tša bona ka mokgwa wo difela tša Setoitshi di hlamilwego ka wona.

 

Summary

Black composers of church hymns were influenced by German pastors of the Berlin Lutheran Church to do so. In other words, these pastors were the first composers to write the Sepedi language in the form of music; because they did

not know the rules that control the Sepedi meter, the writers started to compose their hymns in the way that the German hymns were patterned. Therefore, one might argue that the main source of modern influence in Sepedi literature lies in the workings of the very first hymns of the said church. Nevertheless, the importance of the development of poetry in the form of hymns in the Sepedi literature has not been followed up and emphasised by reviewers.

The aim of this article is to survey thoroughly the style of writing hymns, by discussing Rev Serote's hymn number 147, entitled 'A re thabeng re rete' (Difela tša kereke 2010:130). The scrutiny will examine the way in which style depicts irony in the very hymn. In other words, the investigation considers especially the characteristics of style that indicate and develop irony in the work. It will be shown that the irony becomes clear during the service of Baptism which is expressed by way of emotions to develop the author's aim, as this sacrament is something that Christians respect (it goes hand in hand with the forgiveness of their sins).

There are authors who employ irony successfully. Those authors or composers, in the Sepedi hymns particularly, use techniques similar to those of Serote. By means of irony he makes sure that there is equilibrium in life because he rectifies what is wrong or affirms what is right as regards life's problems by way of encouraging people/Christians, and by saying that those problems mock death. The irony that was used by Serote, according to Van Corp (1980:84-85), stems from the language he deploys, because it aims at the person who behaves as if she or he is not sure of the real truth; she acts according to her belief, as such things have not yet befallen her: she is waiting with the hope that they are going to end up happening to her felicitously, only when he/she does good. Therefore, to undergo Baptism offers a clear example of the theme of this hymn composed by Serote, which is: The life that comes after death will continue nonstop, because death will no longer be part of the new life.

Confession is the first act of a Christian before he or she is baptised. It could be taken as a prayer for the forgiveness of one's sins that goes hand in hand with repentance, or thinking with contrition or regret about a deed which one wishes one has not done, together with a resolve not to continue wrongdoing. That confession is performed in front of the Lord's altar, as a si gn of fellowship with the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

For this reason one can argue that, by using this type of irony, Serote ensures balance in life; to recapitulate, this means to correct wrong deeds, to ascertain all that is good, by exposing life's sins in the form of a prayer of confession; after which, those sins nullify death, by saying it has no power in the eternal life which follows it.

When a reader correlates the summary of the contents of the hymn with the written occurrences, one realises the (1) characteristics of style and the techniques and the characteristics, put together with (2) the stylistic register and (3) this register implemented. These characteristics were explained thoroughly, with the aim of simplifying the task of the critique of style. Thereafter, when those characteristics are compared with the style, they will be taken as part of the techniques that develop the emotions created.

When one critiques the style (of Serote's hymn) as a means of analysing literature, one realises that the church hymns, similar as they are, have the structure of modern poems; they can be differentiated from those of days of yore according to emotions that are based on the influence of a certain belief. In consequence, the modern authors are influenced by the earlier German authors of the Lutheran Church in composing their hymns. Hence, those church pastors are the pioneers who began to compose the language for singing, based on Sepedi poetic language.

 

Boipolelo

Go phadišanela dikgahlego

Bangwadi ba ipolela gore ka bobona ga ba na ditswalle tša matlotlo tšeo di ka bego di ba hueditše ka fao e sego ka molao ge ba ngwala taodišwana ye.

Bokgathatema bja bangwadi

D.M. (Yunibesity ya Pretoria) e be e le moetapele wa potšeke mola M.J. (Yunibesithi ya Pretoria) a rulagantše nyakišišo.

 

Methopo

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Cloete, T.T., 1992, Literêre Terme & Teorieë, Literêre-HAUM, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

De Groot, A.W., 1946, Algemene Versleer, N.V. Servire, Den Haag.         [ Links ]

Difela tša kereke, 2010, ELCSA Book Depot, Polokwane.         [ Links ]

Groenewald, P.S., 1993, Thutadingwalo ya Sesotho sa Leboa 1, Via Afrika, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Kerkhoff, E.L., 1962, Kleine deutsche Stilistik, Francke Verlag, Bern and München.         [ Links ]

Makgopa, M.A., 1996, DiDirwa ke Batho, Eulitz, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Mojalefa, M.J., 1993, 'Tshekatsheko ya Sebilwane', MA Thesese, Department of African Languages, Yunibesithi ya Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Mojalefa, M.J., 1995, 'Pego ye e beakantšwego ya Makxothlo (Lekgothoane)', Thesese ya Bongaka, Department of African Languages, Yunibesithi ya Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Muecke, D.C., 1982, Irony and the Ironic, Mthuen & Co (Ltd), London.         [ Links ]

Phala, R.S., 1999, 'Thellenyane Batlabolela: Tiragatšo ya boitshwaro', Thesese ya MA, Department of African Languages, Yunibesithi ya Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Preminger, A., 1965, Princeton handbook of poetic terms, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.         [ Links ]

Rakoma, J.R.D., 1995, Marema-ka-dika, VanSchaik, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Richards, I.A., 1961, Principles of Literary Criticism, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.         [ Links ]

Serudu, M.S., 1989, Thagaletswalo 3, De Jager-HAUM, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Van Corp, H., 1980, Lexicon van Literaire Termen, Wolhers, Leuven.         [ Links ]

Wales, K., 1989, A dictionary of stylistics, Longman, London.         [ Links ]

Woolfe, S. & Hampton, L., 1984, About litirature, MacMillan & Co, Melbourne.         [ Links ]

 

Correspondence:
Jerry Mojalefa
Department of African Languages, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002
South Africa
jerry.mojalefa@up.ac.za

Received: 25 June 2015
Accepted: 10 Aug. 2015
Published: 03 Nov. 2015

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