SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.33 número1Biblical Spirituality and J.H. EatonA theological perspective on human dignity, equality and freedom índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


Verbum et Ecclesia

versión On-line ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.33 no.1 Pretoria  2012

http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ve.v33i1.691 

ORIGINAL REASERCH

 

The impact of the economic system on social and labour relations in the early church as revealed in the letter of James

 

 

Dirk G. van der Merwe

Department of Christian Spirituality, Church History and Missiology, University of South Africa, South Africa

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

The Letter of James addresses the dichotomy between the socioeconomic classes of the rich (πλούσιος) and the poor (πτωχὸς). This research reveals the social and labour relations resulting from this dichotomy and the wealth of socioeconomic data contained in this letter. The rich are alerted to the consequences of their unrighteousness towards the poor, and the poor receive exhortations of encouragement. The metaphoric use of 'richness' is also examined. This research focuses on the socioeconomic activities and attitudes that this dichotomy prompted during the second part of the first century, and it indicates how the economic system impacted on and influenced the lives of the early Christians in the 1st century Mediterranean world. James bounces these questions around to cast the rich, as well as the Christian assembly, in a bad light for condoning the mistreatment of the poor. His three rhetorical questions are quite to the point and are meant to be answered affirmatively.


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

References

Adamson, J.B., 1976, The epistle of James, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Balz, H.R. & Schneider, G., 1993, Exegetical dictionary of the New Testament (Translation of Exegetisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament), Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Bammel, E., 1982, 'πτωχὸς', in G. Kittel & G. Friedrich (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 6, pp. 885-915, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart.         [ Links ]

Beyer, H.W., 1979, 'Βλασφημία', in G. Kittel & G. Friedrich (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 1, pp. 621-625, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Coenen, L., 1975, 'ἐκλέγομαι', in C. Brown (ed.), Dictionary of New Testament Theology, vol. 1, pp. 536-542, Paternoster Press, Exeter.         [ Links ]

Danker, F.W., 2000, A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament and other early Christian literature, 6th edn., University of Chicago Press, Chicago.         [ Links ]

Davids, P.H., 1982, The epistle of James: A commentary on the Greek Text, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Dibelius, M., 1976, James: A commentary on the epistle of James, Pickering & Inglis, London.         [ Links ]

Falkenroth, U. & Brown, C., 1976, 'μακροθυμέω', in C. Brown (ed.), Dictionary of New Testament Theology, vol. 2, pp. 768-776, Paternoster Press, Exeter.         [ Links ]

Friberg, T., Friberg, B. & Miller, N.F., 2000, Analytical lexicon of the Greek New Testament (Baker's Greek New Testament library), vol. 4, Baker Books, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Geyser, A.S., 1975, 'The letter of James and the social condition of his addressees', Neotestamentica 9, 25-33.         [ Links ]

Hauck, F., 1978 [1967], 'ὑπομένω', in G. Kittel (ed.), TDNT, vol. IV, pp. 581-588 Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.

Horst, F. 1978, 'μακροθυμέω', in G. Kittel & G. Friedrich (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 6, pp. 374-387, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Johnson, L.T., 1982, 'The Uue of Leviticus 19 in the letter of James', Journal of Biblical Literature 101, 391-401.         [ Links ]

Keck, L.E., 1965, 'The poor', Zeitschrift für neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 56, 100-129.         [ Links ]

Kistemaker, S.J., 1984, 'New Testament commentary: Exposition of the epistle to the Hebrews', Baker Book House, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Lea, T.D., 1999, Hebrews, James, Holman New Testament Commentary, vol. 10, Broadman & Holman Publishers, Nashville.         [ Links ]

Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R., 1996, Greek-English lexicon, Oxford University Press, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Loh, I-J. & Hatton, H., 1997, A handbook on the letter from James, UBS Handbook Series, United Bible Societies, New York.         [ Links ]

Lohse, E., 1976, 'προσωποληπτέω', in G. Kittel & G. Friedrich (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 6, pp. 779-780, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Louw, J.P. & Nida, E.A., 1996, Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament: Based on semantic domains, electronic edn. of the 2nd edn., United Bible Societies, New York.         [ Links ]

MacArthur, J., 1998, James, MacArthur New Testament Commentary, Moody Press, Logos, Chicago.         [ Links ]

Martin, R.P. 2002, James, World Biblical Commentary, vol. 48, Word Incorporated, Dallas.         [ Links ]

Maynard-Reid, P.U., 1987, Poverty and wealth in James, Maryknoll, New York.         [ Links ]

McKnight, S., 2011, The letter of James, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Mills, M.S., 1997, James, 3E Ministries, Dallas.         [ Links ]

Moo, D.J., 2000, The letter of James, The Pillar New Testament Commentary, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Noack, B., 1964, 'Jakobus wider die Riechen', Studia Theologica 18, 10-25.         [ Links ]

Philo, 1995a, 'Allegoric interpretation III', in The works of Philo: Complete and unabridged, transl. C.D. Yonge, pp. 50-80, Hendrickson, Peabody.         [ Links ]

Philo, 1995b, 'De Virtutibus', in The works of Philo: Complete and unabridged, transl. C.D. Yonge, pp. 640-664, Hendrickson, Peabody.         [ Links ]

Richardson, K.A., 2001, James, The New American Commentary, vol. 36, electronic edn., Broadman & Holman Publishers, Nashville.         [ Links ]

Ropes, J.H., 1961, A critical and exegetical commentary on the epistle of St. James, C. Scribner's Sons, New York.         [ Links ]

Rostovtzeff, M., 1971, The social and economic history of the Roman empire, rev. P.M. Frazer, vol. 1,. Clarendon, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Schökel, L.A., 1973, 'James 5:2 [sic] and 4:6', Biblica 54, 73-76.         [ Links ]

Schrenck, G., 1976, 'καταδικάζω', in G. Kittel & G. Friedrich (eds.), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 3, pp. 621-622, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Sidebottom, E.M., 1967, James, Jude, and 2 Peter, Attic, Greenwood.         [ Links ]

Stegemann, E. & Stegemann, W., 1999, The Jesus movement: A social history of its first century, T&T Clark, Edinburgh.         [ Links ]

Stulac, G.M., 1990, Who are 'the rich' in James? Presbyterion 16, 89-102.         [ Links ]

Swanson, J., 1997, Dictionary of Biblical Languages With Semantic Domains: Greek (New Testament) electronic edn., Logos Research Systems, Inc., Oak Harbor.         [ Links ]

Van der Merwe, D.G., 2010, 'Rich man, poor man in Jerusalem according to the letter of James,' Acta Patristica Et Byzantina 21(1), 18-46.         [ Links ]

Van der Merwe, D.G., 2009, 'Rich man, poor man in Jerusalem according to the letter of James', Acta Patristica et Byzantina 20, 89-108.         [ Links ]

Ward, R.B., 1969, 'Partiality in the assembly: James 2:2-4', Harvard Theological Review 62, 87-97.         [ Links ]

Winston, W., 1996, The works of Josephus: Complete and unabridged, Hendriksen, Peabody.         [ Links ]

Zodiates, S., 2000, The complete word study dictionary: New Testament, electronic edn., AMG Publishers, Chattanooga.         [ Links ]

 

 

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License