SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.33 issue1The relationship between Christology and ethics in Colossians - praxis for the postmodern believer and churchThe one who is to come: 'Messianic texts' in the Old Testament and other Jewish writings author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Verbum et Ecclesia

On-line version ISSN 2074-7705
Print version ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.33 n.1 Pretoria  2012 



Trito-Isaiah, penitential prayer and apocalypticism



Pieter M. Venter

Department Old Testament Studies, University of Pretoria, South Africa





An analysis of the research on the compositional development of Isaiah 56-66 indicates that the redefinition of Judean identity played a major role in the formation of these chapters. Scholars very often refer to the penitential prayer in Isaiah 63:7-64:11 to indicate this redefinition of identity. A study of the background of these chapters shows that Hanson's theory of a developing apocalypticism is usually upheld, whilst his identification of a Zadokite opposition is either rejected or replaced by an acknowledgement that it is not possible to identify these opponents. The suggestion of this article is that the term 'qualified inclusivism' can be used as the mark of those responsible for this section of the book of Isaiah.



“Full text available only in PDF format”




Baltzer, K., 2010, 'The book of Isaiah', Harvard Theological Review, 261-270.        [ Links ]

Bautsch, R.J., 2006, 'Lament regained in Trito-Isaiah's Penitential Prayer', in M.J. Boda, D.K. Falk & R.A. Werline, Seeking the favor of God. Volume 1, The origins of Penitential Prayer in Second Temple Judaism, pp. 83-99, Society of Biblical literature, Atlanta.         [ Links ]

Bedford, P.R., 2001, 'Temple restoration in early Achaemenid Judah', Journal for the Study of Judaism, suppl. ser. 65.         [ Links ]

Berges, U., 2010, 'The book Isaiah as Isaiah's book: the latest developments in the research of the prophets', Old Testament Essays 23(3), 549-573.         [ Links ]

Beuken, W.A.M., 1989, 'Isaiah chapters lxv-lxvi: Trito-Isaiah and the closure of the book of Isaiah', in J.A. Emerton (ed.), Congress Volume, pp. 204-221, Leuven, Brill, Leiden.         [ Links ]

Blenkinsopp, J., 2003, Isaiah 56-66, AB 19B, Doubleday, New York.         [ Links ]

Boccacini, G., 2002, Roots of Rabbinic Judaism. An intellectual history, from Ezekiel to Daniel, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Boccacini, G., 2007, 'Finding a place for the Parables of Enoch within Second Temple literature', in G. Boccaccini (ed.), Enoch and the Messiah Son of Man, Revisiting the Book of Parables, pp. 263-289, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Childs, B.S., 2001, Isaiah, Old Testament Library Series, Westminster John Knox, Louisville, Kentucky.         [ Links ]

Cook, S.L., 1995, Prophecy & Apocalypticism: the post-exilic social setting, Fortress, Minneapolis.         [ Links ]

Dim, E.U., 2005, The eschatological implications of Isa. 65 and 66 as the conclusion of the book of Isaiah, P. Lang, Bern.         [ Links ]

Doak, B.R., 2010, 'Legalists, visionaries, and new names: sectarianism and the search for apocalyptic origins in Isaiah 56-66', Biblical Theology Bulletin 40(1), 9-26.         [ Links ]

Emmerson, G.I., 1992, Isaiah 56-66, Old Testament Guides, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.         [ Links ]

Fisk, B.N., 2001, 'Do you not remember? Scripture, story, and exegesis in the rewritten bible of Pseudo-Philo', Journal for the study of the pseudepigrapha, suppl. ser. 37.         [ Links ]

Gärtner, J., 2006, '"Why do you let us stray from your paths" (Isa 63:17): The concept of guilt in the communal lament Isa 63:7-64:11', in M.J. Boda, D.K. Falk & R.A. Werline, Seeking the favor of God. Volume 1, The origins of Penitential Prayer in Second Temple Judaism, pp. 145-163, Society of Biblical literature, Atlanta.         [ Links ]

Hanson, P.D, 1979 The Dawn of Apocalyptic, revised edn., Fortress Press, Philadelphia.         [ Links ]

Hanson, P.D., 1995, Isaiah 40-66, Interpretation. A Biblical commentary for teaching and preaching, John Knox, Louisville        [ Links ]

Koenen, K., 1990, Ethik und Eschatologie im Tritojesajabuch, Wissenschaftliche Monographien zum Alten und Neuen Testament 62, Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen-Vluyn.         [ Links ]

Koole, J.L., 1995, Jesaja III, Vertaald en veklaard, Commentaar op het Oude Testament, Kok, Kampen.         [ Links ]

Newman, J.H., 1999, Praying by the book. The scripturalization of prayer in Second temple Judaism, Scholars Press, Atlanta, Georgia.         [ Links ]

Oswalt, J.N., 1997, 'Righteousness in Isaiah: a study of the function of chapters 55-66 in the present structure of the book', in C.C. Broyles & C.A. Evans, Writing and reading the scroll of Isaiah, Studies in interpretive tradition, pp. 177-191, Brill, Leiden.         [ Links ]

Oswalt, J.N., 1998, The book of Isaiah, Chapters 40-66, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Plöger, O., 1959, Theokratie und Eschatologie, Neukirchener Verlag, Neukirchen.         [ Links ]

Schramm, B., 1995, The Opponents of Third Isaiah, Reconstructing the Cultic History of the Restoration, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.         [ Links ]

Smith, M., 1996, Studies in the cult of Yahweh, Brill, New York.         [ Links ]

Smith, P.A., 1995, 'Rhetoric and redaction in Trito-Isaiah. The structure, growth and authorship of Isaiah 56-66', VT, suppl. ser. 62.         [ Links ]

Sommer, B.D., 1998, A prophet reads scripture, allusions in Isaiah 40-66, Stanford University Press, Standford, CA.         [ Links ]

Stromberg, J., 2011, Isaiah after Exile. The author of Third Isaiah as reader and redactor of the book, University Press, Oxford.         [ Links ]

Sweeney, M.A., 1997, 'Prophetic exegesis in Isaiah 65-66', in C.C. Broyles & C.A. Evans, Writing and reading the scroll of Isaiah, Studies in interpretive tradition, pp. 455-474, Vetus Testametum Supplementum 70.         [ Links ]

Westermann, C., 1969, Isaiah 40-66, a commentary, Old Testament Library, Westminster press, Philadelphia.         [ Links ]

Williamson, H.G.M., 1990, 'Isaiah 63, 7-64, 11: Exilic lament or post-exilic protest?', ZAW 102(1), 8-58.         [ Links ]

Williamson, H.G.M., 2000, 'Isaiah 62:4 and the problem of inner-Bibical allusions',Journal of Biblical Literature 119(4), 734-739.        [ Links ]



Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License