SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.33 número1Living oracles from God to us: The implication of λόγια ζῶντα in Acts 7:38The historical development of Presbyterian ordination polity as background to the gay and lesbian ordination debate in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google


Verbum et Ecclesia

versão On-line ISSN 2074-7705
versão impressa ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.33 no.1 Pretoria  2012 



Belangrike meta-teoretiese riglyne betreffende die emosioneel verwonde persoon


Important meta-theoretical guidelines regarding the emotionally wounded person.



Wentzel C. Coetzer; Lutricia Snell

Department of Practical Theology, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa





This article examines the relationship between emotional woundedness and faith estrangement. Trust issues towards God often emerge in the heart of the believer when left vulnerable and in shock due to unforeseen trauma. The dilemma is that this condition leaves the wounded person more vulnerable. With a view to bringing healing and deeper faith, different trauma intervention models are evaluated and the role of forgiveness, retribution and faith are examined. In conclusion, some guidelines regarding a holistic approach in the pastoral counselling of the traumatised faith-estranged person are presented.



“Full text available only in PDF format”




Al-Mabuk, R.H., Enright, R.D. & Cardis, P.A., 1995, 'Forgiveness education with parentally love-deprived late adolescents', Journal of Moral Education 24(4), 427-444.        [ Links ]

American Psychiatric Association, 2007, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (DSM-IV-TR), 4th edn., American Psychiatric Association, Arlington.         [ Links ]

Arterburn, S., 2005, Healing is a choice. Ten decisions that will transform your life and ten lies that can prevent you from making them, Thomas Nelson, Inc., Nashville.         [ Links ]

Black, D., Newman, M., Harris-Hendriks, J. & Mezcy, G. (eds.), 1997, Psychological trauma: A developmental approach, Gaskell Publishers, London.         [ Links ]

Borris, E.R., 2003, The healing power of forgiveness:, The Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy, Occasional paper, no. 10, Washington, viewed 26 July 2009, from        [ Links ]

Carroll, E.M. & Foy, D.W., 1992, 'Assessment and treatment of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder in a medical center setting', in D.W. Foy (ed.), Treating PTSD: Cognitive- behavioral strategies, pp. 39-68, Guilford Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Chambless, D.L., Baker, M.J., Baucom, D.H., Beutler, L.E., Calhoun, K.S. & Christoph, P., 1998, 'Update on empirically validated therapies II', The Clinical Psychologist 51(1), 3-16.         [ Links ]

Coetzer, W., 2006, Trauma berading, Ongepubliseerde bundel, Potchefstroom.         [ Links ]

Courtois, C.A., Ford, J.D., Herman, J.L. & Van der Kolk, B., 2009, Treating complex traumatic stress disorders: An evidence-based guide, Guilford Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Decker, L., 1993, 'Beliefs, posttraumatic stress disorder, and mysticism', Journal of Humanistic Psychology 33, 15-32.        [ Links ]

Denton , R.T. & Martin, M.W., 1998, 'Defining forgiveness: An empirical exploration of process and role', The American Journal of Family Therapy 26(7), 281-292.        [ Links ]

Di Blasio, F.A. & Proctor, J.H., 1993, 'Therapists and the Clinical Use of Forgiveness', The American Journal of Family Therapy 21, 175-184.        [ Links ]

Donahue, M.J., 1985, 'Intrinsic religiousness: Review and meta-analysis', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48, 400-419.        [ Links ]

Enright, R.D. & The Human Development Study Group, 1991, 'The moral development of forgiveness', in W. Kurtines & J. Gewirtz (eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development, pp. 123-150, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey.         [ Links ]

Enright, R.D., Freedman, S. & Rique, J., 1998, 'The psychology of interpersonal forgiveness', in R.D. Enright & J. North (eds.),Exploring forgiveness, pp. 46-62, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.         [ Links ]

Enright, R.D. & Reed, G., 2007, Process model, viewed 03 November 2009, from        [ Links ]

Exline, J.J., Yali, A.M. & Lobel, M., 1999, 'When God disappoints: Difficulty forgiving God and its role in negative emotion', Journal of Health Psychology 4, 365-379., PMid:22021604        [ Links ]

Falsetti, S.A., Resick, P.A. & Davis, J.L., 2003, 'Changes in religious beliefs following trauma', Journal of Traumatic Stress 16(4), 391-398., PMid:12895022        [ Links ]

Ferch, S.R., 1998, 'Intentional forgiving as a counseling intervention', Journal of Counseling and Development 76(3), 261-270.        [ Links ]

Ferreira, J.L., 2010, 'Practical wisdom as executive virtue for positive psychology: A pastoral-theological evaluation', PhD thesis, Dept. of Practical Theology, North-West University, Potchefstroom.         [ Links ]

Foa, E.B. & Rothbaum, B.O., 1998, Treating the trauma of rape: Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD, Guilford Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Foa, E.B., Keane, T.M. & Friedman, M.J., 2000, Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Guilford Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Foa, E.B., Chrestman, K.R. & Gilboa-Schechtman, E., 2008, Prolonged Exposure Therapy for Adolescents with PTSD Emotional Processing of Traumatic Experiences: A Therapist Guide, Oxford University Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Foster, R.A. & Keating, J.P, 1992, 'Measuring androcentrism in the western God concept', Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion31, 366-375.        [ Links ]

Ganje-Fling, M.A. & McCarthy, P., 1996, 'Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Client Spiritual Development: Counseling Implications', Journal of Counseling and Development 74(3), 253-258.        [ Links ]

Hargrave, T.D., 1994, Families and forgiveness - healing wounds in the intergenerational family, Brunner/Mazel Publishers, Levittown.         [ Links ]

Hatter, M., 2007, 'EMDR: A Portrait of the mind-body connection', paper presented at the AACC International Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, 14 September.         [ Links ]

Herman, J.L., 1997, Trauma and recovery, Basic Books, New York.         [ Links ]

Herman, J.L., 2001, Trauma and recovery from domestic abuse to political terror, Pandora, London.         [ Links ]

Heystek, P.H., 2000, ''n Prakties-teologiese ondersoek van die "mekaar"-opdragte in die Corpus Pualinum met die oog op die kerklike geloofsgemeenskap', ThD tesis, Dept. Teologie, Noord-Wes Potchefstroom, Suid-Afrika.         [ Links ]

Hillman, J.L., 2002, Crisis Intervention and trauma. New approaches to evidence-based practice, Plenum Publishers, New York.        [ Links ]

Hugo, C.J., 2004, 'Pastoral therapy/counseling for post-traumatic stress: A neuropsychological perspective, Part 1', Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika 19(1), 54-76.         [ Links ]

Hugo, C.J., 2006, 'Pastoral therapy for post-traumatic stress: A neuropsychological perspective on beliefs, spirituality and meaning',Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika 21(3), 86-104.         [ Links ]

Hugo, C.J., 2008, 'From trauma support to pastoral care for survivors of trauma: A model of pastoral care', Praktiese Teologie in Suid-Afrika 23(3), 107-126.         [ Links ]

Johnston, S.K., 2007, 'The affects of forgiveness on the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual trauma', MA thesis, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, viewed 13 September 2009, from        [ Links ]

Kaplan, B.J. & Kaplan, V.A., 2007, Kaplan & Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry. Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry, 10th edn., Williams and Wilkins, Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA.         [ Links ]

Klevberg, K., 2005, 'The spiritual costs of being in combat. The military chaplain's role in PTSD-work', Pacem 1, 1-12.         [ Links ]

Koenig, H.G., 2008, Medicine, Religion, and Health: Where Science and Spirituality Meet, Templeton Press, West Conshohocken.         [ Links ]

Kotze, H.P., 2008, 'Die belangrikheid van die stappe van rou en vergifnis in die herstelproses van die emosioneel verwonde persoon - 'n pastorale studie', PhD tesis, Dept. Teologie, Noord-Wes Universiteit, Potchefstroom, Suid-Afrika.         [ Links ]

Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Jaeger, U., Kächele, H., Kreische, R., Leweke, F. et al., 2009, 'Shortterm psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized, controlled trial', American Journal of Psychiatry166, 875-881., PMid:19570931        [ Links ]

Louw, D.J., 2000, A pastoral hermeneutics of care and encounter, Lux Verbi, Wellington.         [ Links ]

Lynch, J.J., 1985, The Broken Heart. The Medical Consequences Of Loneliness, Basic Books Inc. Publishers, New York.         [ Links ]

Matsakis, A., 1996, I can't get over it. A handbook for trauma survivors, 2nd edn., New Harbinger, Oakland.         [ Links ]

Matthews, J.A. & Chu, J.A, 1997, 'Psychodynamic therapy for patients with early childhood trauma', in P.S. Appelbaum, L.A. Uyehara & M.R. Elin (eds.), Trauma and Memory: Clinical and Legal Controversies, pp. 316-343, Oxford University Press, New York.         [ Links ]

McCullough, M. & Worthington, E., 1994, 'Models of interpersonal forgiveness and their applications to counseling: review and critique', Counseling Values 39, 2-14.        [ Links ]

Meichenbaum, D., 1977, Cognitive-behavior modification: an integrative approach, Plenum Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Moltmann, J., 1993, Theology of hope, Fortress Press, Minneapolis.         [ Links ]

Monson, C.M. & Friedman, M.J., 2006, 'Back to the future of understanding trauma: Implications for cognitive behavioral therapies for trauma', in V.M., Follette & J.I. Ruzek (eds.), Cognitive behavioral therapies for trauma, pp. 1-13, Guilford Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Murray, R.J., 2002, 'The therapeutic use of forgiveness in healing intergenerational pain', Counseling and Values 46, 188-198.        [ Links ]

Newberg, A. & Waldman, M.R., 2010, How God changes your brain. Breakthrough findings from a leading neuroscientist, Ballantine Books, New York.         [ Links ]

Neser, J.J., 2001, 'Restorative justice as reaction to crime: Development and Conceptualisation', Crime Research in South Africa2(1), 9.         [ Links ]

Orcutt, H.K., Pickett, S.M. & Pope, E.B., 2005, 'Experiential avoidance and forgiveness as mediators in the relation between traumatic interpersonal events and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms', Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 24, 1003-1029.        [ Links ]

Pargament, K.I., 1997, The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice, Guilford, New York.         [ Links ]

Pieterse, H.J.C., 1993, Praktiese teologie as kommunikatiewe handelingsteorie, HSRC, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Plaatjies, M.F., 2008, 'The application of restorative justice in the South African Correctional system', DLitt et Phil thesis, Dept. of Criminology, University of South Africa, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

Puffer, K.A., 2007, 'Essential biblical assumptions about human nature: A modest proposal', Journal of Psychology and Christianity26, 45-56.         [ Links ]

Robinson, L.R., 2006, Trauma rehabilitation, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.         [ Links ]

SA Federation for Mental Health, 2006, What is mental health?, viewed 13 September 2009, from        [ Links ]

Scott, M.J. & Stradling, S.G., 2006, Counseling for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, 3rd edn., Sage, London.         [ Links ]

Sells, J.N. & Hargrave, T.D., 1998, 'Forgiveness: A review of the theoretical and empirical literature', Journal of Family Therapy 20, 21-36.        [ Links ]

Shapiro, F., 1989, 'Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories', Journal of Traumatic Stress 2, 199-223.        [ Links ]

Sigmund, J.A., 2003, 'Spirituality and Trauma: The role of clergy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder', Journal of Religion and Health 42(3), 221-229.        [ Links ]

Skelton, A. & Batley, M., 2008, 'Restorative justice: a contemporary South African review', Acta Criminologica 21(3), 37-51.         [ Links ]

Snyder, C.R. & Heinze, L.S., 2005, 'Forgiveness as a mediator of the relationship between PTSD and hostility in survivors of childhood abuse', Cognition and Emotion 19(3), 413-431.        [ Links ]

Spies, G.M, 2009, 'Restorative justice: a way to support the healing process of a child exposed to incest', Acta Criminologica 22(1), 15-24.         [ Links ]

Stoop, D. & Masteller, J., 1991, Forgiving our parents forgiving ourselves, Servant Publications, Ann Arbor.         [ Links ]

Sweeney, D.S., 2011, 'Neurobiological effects of trauma and related treatment considerations', paper presented at the AACC International Conference, Nashville, Tennesee, 22 September.         [ Links ]

Tan, S., 2011, Counseling and Psychotherapy, Baker Academic, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Thompson, L.Y., Snyder, C.R, Hoffman, L., Michael, S.T., Rasmussen, H.N., Billings, L.S. et al., 2005, 'Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations', Journal of Personality 73(2), 313-359.,PMid:15745433        [ Links ]

Van der Westhuizen, B.M., 2005, 'Die uitwerking van oorbevolking binne Suid-Afrikaanse gevangenisse op die rehabilitasie van oortreders', DLitt et Phil tesis, Universiteit van Suid-Afrika, Suid-Afrika.         [ Links ]

Venter, C., 1996, Uitkringende Liefdesbetoon. Kommunikatiewe handelinge in diens van die onderlinge liefdesgemeenskap in die kerk, HSRC, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

West, W., 2001. 'Issues relating to the use of forgiveness in counselling and psychotherapy', British Journal of Guidance & Counselling 29(4), 415-423.        [ Links ]

Wethington, H.R., Hahn, R.A., Fuqua-Whitley, D.S., Sipe, T.A., Crosby, A.E., Johnson, R.L. et al, 2008, 'The effectiveness of interventions to reduce psychological harm from traumatic events among children and adolescents: A systematic review', American Journal of Preventive Medicine 35(3), 287-313., PMid:18692745        [ Links ]

Williams, M.B. & Sommer, J.F., Jr. (eds.), 2002, Simple and complex PTSD. Strategies for comprehensive treatment in clinical practice, Haworth Press, Binghamton.         [ Links ]

Wilson, J.P., Friedman, M.J. & Lindly, J.D., 2001, Treating psychological trauma and PTSD, Guilford Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Worthington, E., 2003, Forgiving and Reconciling. Bridges to wholeness and hope, Inter-Varsity Press, Downers Grove.         [ Links ]

World Health Organisation, 2007, What is mental health?, viewed 13 September 2009, from        [ Links ]

Wright, H.N., 2003, The new guide to crisis and trauma counselling, Regal Books, Ventura.         [ Links ]



Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons