SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.30 número2'I am writing this with my own hand...': Writing in New Testament timesFrom Fast to Feast: A ritual-liturgical exploration of reconciliation in South African cultural contexts índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados

Articulo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google

Compartir


Verbum et Ecclesia

versión On-line ISSN 2074-7705
versión impresa ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.30 no.2 Pretoria  2009

http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ve.v30i2.362 

ORIGINAL RESEARCH

 

Manichaeism: Its sources and influences on western Christianity

 

 

Johannes van OortI, II

IFaculty of Theology: Church History, University of Pretoria, South Africa
IIFaculty of Theology, Chair for Ecclesiastical History, Utrecht, Netherlands

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it will discuss the origins of Manichaeism, a gnostic-Christian world religion that was founded by the prophet Mani (216-276). My discussion of the origins of Manichaeism may serve as an excellent example to illustrate what 'Gnosis' or 'Gnosticism' actually was. Second, the paper will outline how Manichaeism, being an alternative form of Christianity and even an alternative Christian Church, seemed to have exercised a considerable influence on Catholic Christianity.

Keywords: gnostic-Christian; Futtuq; asceticism; Codex Manichaicus Coloniensis; Mani


 

 

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

REFERENCES

Adam, A., 1958, 'Das Fortwirken des Manichäismus bei Augustin', Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 9, 1-25.         [ Links ]

Allberry, C.R.C., 1938, A Manichaean Psalm-Book (Manichaean Manuscripts in the Chester Beatty Collection, Volume II), Stuttgart, Kohlhammer.         [ Links ]

Augustinus, Contra Iulianum opus imperfectum: J.P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae Cursus completus, Series Latina, volumen 45, Paris: Montrouge 1841.         [ Links ]

Burkitt, F.C., 1925, The Religion of the Manichees, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.         [ Links ]

Colpe, C., 1961, Die Religionsgeschichtliche Schule. Darstellung und Kritik ihres Bildes vom gnostischen Erlösermythus, VandenHoeck und Ruprecht, Göttingen.         [ Links ]

De Stoop, E., 1909, Essai sur la diffusion du manichéisme dans l'empire romain (Université de Gand, Recueils de travaux publiés par la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres 38), Gand: E. van Goethem.         [ Links ]

Dodge, B., 1970, The Fihrist of al-Nadim. A Tenth-Century Survey of Muslim Culture, vol. II (Records of Civilization; Sources and Studies 83), Columbia University Press, New York.         [ Links ]

Frankfurter, D., 1997, 'Apocalypses Real and Alleged in the Mani Codex', Numen 44, 60-73.         [ Links ]

Gruenwald, I., 1983, 'Manichaeism and Judaism in Light of the Cologne Mani Codex', Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 50, 29-45.         [ Links ]

Henrichs, A. & Koenen, L., 1970, 'Ein griechischer Mani- Codex (P. Colon. inv. nr. 4780)', Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 5, 97-216.         [ Links ]

Kawerau, P., 1967, Geschichte der Alten Kirche, N.G. Elwert Verlag, Marburg.         [ Links ]

Klimkeit, H-J., 1993, Gnosis on the Silk Road. Gnostic Texts from Central Asia, Harper, San Francisco.         [ Links ]

Koenen, L. & Römer, C., 1988, Der Kölner Mani-Kodex: Über das Werden seines Leibes: Kritische Edition aufgrund der von A. Henrichs und L. Koenen besorgten Erstedition, Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen.         [ Links ]

Kotzé, A., 2004, Augustine's Confessions. Communicative Purpose and Audience (Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae LXXI), E.J. Brill, Leiden-Boston.         [ Links ]

Lieu, S.N.C., 1992, Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire and Medieval China (Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 63), Tübingen: J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck).         [ Links ]

Lieu, S.N.C., 1994, Manichaeism in Mesopotamia and the Roman East (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World 118), E. J. Brill, Leiden-New York-Köln.         [ Links ]

Lieu, S.N.C., 1998, Manichaeism in Central Asia and China (Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 45), E. J. Brill, Leiden-Boston-Köln.         [ Links ]

Luttikhuizen, G.P., 1985, The Revelation of Elchasai. Investigations into the Evidence for a Mesopotamian Jewish Apocalypse of the Second Century and its Reception by Judaeo-Christian Propagandists, (Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum 8), J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen.         [ Links ]

Ort, L.J.R. 1967, Mani. A religio-historical description of his personality, E.J. Brill, Leiden.         [ Links ]

Petersen, W., 2005/2008: 'Tatian', Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, vol. VIII, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck (reprint Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2008), 47.         [ Links ]

Reeves, J.C., 1991, 'The "Elchasaite" Sanhedrin of the Cologne Mani Codex in Light of Second Temple Jewish Sectarian Sources', Journal of Jewish Studies 42, 68-91.         [ Links ]

Reeves, J.C., 1996, Heralds of That Good Realm. Syro-Mesopotamian Gnosis and Jewish Traditions (Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies XLI), E.J. Brill, Leiden-New York-Köln.         [ Links ]

Richter, S.G., 1998, The Manichaean Coptic Papyri in the Chester Beatty Library: Psalm Book, Part II, Fasc. 2: Die Herakleides-Psalmen (Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum, Series Coptica, I, Liber Psalmorum, Pars II, Fasc. 2), Brepols Publishers, Turnhout.         [ Links ]

Römer, C., 1994, Manis frühe Missionsreisen nach der Kölner Manibiographie. Textkritischer Kommentar und Erläuterungen zu p. 121 - p. 192 des Kölner Mani-Kodex, Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen.         [ Links ]

Rose, E., 1979, Die manichäische Christologie, Harassowitz, Wiesbaden.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J. & Quispel, G., 2005, De Keulse Mani-Codex. Vertaald, ingeleid en toegelicht (Pimander 11), In de Pelikaan, Amsterdam.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 1989, 'Augustine on sexual concupiscence and original sin', in: E. Livingstone (ed.), Studia Patristica XXII, Leuven, Peeters, 382-386.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 1991, Jerusalem and Babylon. A Study into Augustine's City of God and the Sources of his Doctrine of the Two Cities (Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae 14), E.J. Brill, Leiden-New York-Kebenhavn-Köln.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 1996a: 'Manichaeism in Augustine's De ciuitate Dei', in: E. Cavalcanti (ed.), Il 'De ciuitate Dei': L'opera, le interpretazioni, l'influsso, Roma-Freiburg-Wien, Herder, 193-214.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 1996b: 'The Study of the Cologne Mani Codex, 1969-1994', Manichaean Studies Newsletter 13, 22-30.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 1997, 'Manichaeism and anti-Manichaeism in Augustine's Confessiones', in L. Cirillo & A. Van Tongerloo (eds.), Atti del Terzo Congresso Internazionale di Studi 'Manicheismo e Oriente Cristiano Antico', Arcavacata di Rende -Amantea, 31 agosto - 5 settembre 1993 (Manichaean Studies III), Turnhout: Brepols, 235-248.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 2002/2008, 'Manichäismus', Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, vol. V, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck (reprint Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck 2008), 732-741.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 2004, 'The Paraclete Mani as the Apostle of Jesus Christ and the Origins of a New Christian Church', in A. Hilhorst (ed.), The Apostolic Age in Patristic Thought (Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae LXX), Leiden-Boston: E.J. Brill Academic Publishers, 139-157.         [ Links ]

Van Oort, J., 2008, 'Elkesaites', Religion, Past and Present, Volume IV, Leiden-Boston, E.J. Brill Academic Publishers, 416.         [ Links ]

Van Tongerloo, A. & Van Oort, J., 1995, The Manichaean NOYX IMAGEMAQUI 1991 (Manichaean Studies, Vol. 2), Louvain, International Association of Manichaean Studies.         [ Links ]

Verheule, A.F., 1973, Wilhelm Bousset. Leben und Werk, Amsterdam, Ton Bolland.         [ Links ]

Villey, A., 1994, Psaumes des errants. Écrits manichéennes du Fayyum (Sources gnostiques et manichéennes 4), Paris, Cerf.         [ Links ]

Waldschmidt, E. & Lentz, W., 1926: Die Stellung Jesu im Manichäismus, Berlin: Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften.         [ Links ]

Wurst, G., 1996, The Manichaean Coptic Papyri in the Chester Beatty Library: Psalm Book, Part II, Fasc. 1: Die Bema-Psalmen (Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum, Series Coptica, I, Liber Psalmorum, Pars II, Fasc. 1), Turnhout: Brepols Publishers.         [ Links ]

 

 

Correspondence:
Johannes van Oort
Postal address:
Faculty of Theology
University of Pretoria
Pretoria, 0002
South Africa
E-mail: oort0109@planet.nl

Received: 10 July 2009
Accepted: 25 Nov. 2009
Published: 16 Dec. 2009
How to cite this article:

Creative Commons License Todo el contenido de esta revista, excepto dónde está identificado, está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons