SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.30 número2On loneliness and the value of slow reflectionInviting and initiating youth into a life of discipleship índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados



Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google


Verbum et Ecclesia

versão On-line ISSN 2074-7705
versão impressa ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.30 no.2 Pretoria  2009 



The story of the Red Sea as a theological framework of interpretation



Young M. SongI; Jan A. du RandII

IKosin University, Kosin, South Korea
IIDepartment of Biblical Studies, University of Johannesburg, South Africa





The exodus motif is widely agreed to be one of the central frameworks illustrating the salvational acts of God in both the Old and New Testaments. According to the Old Testament, the exodus motif was, to Israel, the paradigm of redemptive historical renewal. For this reason, the exodus motif provided the typological expression for all future hope of salvation and served as a theological paradigm to be used by Old and New Testament authors. In this article, the exodus theme in the Book of Revelation, chapters 12 to 13, is discussed in the following order: (1) Christ's crucifixion and resurrection as the archetypal exodus; (2) the chronological fulfillment of the exodus theme in the Bible; and (3) the exodus theme in Revelation 12 to 13. To investigate the exodus theme in Revelation 12 to 13, the intertextual interpretation, as based on the redemptive historical interpretation, will be highlighted.

Keywords: Red Sea; interpretation; theological framework; exodus motif; salvational acts of God



Full text available only in PDF format.




Aune, D.E., 1998, Revelation 6-16: Word biblical commentary, 52B, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K., 1999, The Book of Revelation, NIGTC, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Beale, G.K. & McDonough, S.M., 2007, 'Revelation', in G.K. Beale & D.A. Carson (edsj, Commentary on the New Testament use of the Old Testament, pp. 1081-1161, Baker Academic, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Beasley-Murray, G.R., 1997, 'Book of Revelation', in R.P. Martin & P.H. Davids (eds.), Dictionary of the later New Testament and its developments, pp. 1025-1038, IVP, Downers Grove.         [ Links ]

Beckwith, I.T., 1967, The Apocalypse of John: Studies in introduction with a critical and exegetical commentary, Baker, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Boring, M.E., 1986, 'The theology of Revelation: The Lord our God the Almighty reigns', Interpretation 40(3), 257-269.         [ Links ]

Broyles, C.C., 1992, 'Moses', in J.B. Green, S. McKnight & I.H. Marshall (eds.), Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, pp. 560-562, Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester.         [ Links ]

Chevalier, J.M., 1997, A postmodern Revelation: signs of astrology and the Apocalypse, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.         [ Links ]

Collins, J.J., 1995, 'The Exodus and biblical theology', Biblical Theology Bulletin 25(4), 152-160.         [ Links ]

Daube, D., 1979, The exodus pattern in the Bible, Greenwood Press, Westport.         [ Links ]

Dillard, R.B. & Longman, T., 1994, An introduction to the Old Testament, Zondervan, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Du Rand, J.A., 1993, 'A "basso ostinato" in the structuring of the Apocalypse of John?', Neotestamentica 27(2), 299-311.         [ Links ]

Du Rand, J.A., 1996, "'... Let him hear what the Spirit says ...": The functional role and theological meaning of the Spirit in the Book of Revelation', Ex Auditu 12, 43-58.         [ Links ]

Du Rand, J.A., 1997, Johannine perspectives. Part 1: Introduction to the Johannine writings, Orion, Johannesburg.         [ Links ]

Fretheim, T.E., 1991, 'The plagues as ecological signs of historical disaster', Journal of Biblical Literature 110(3), 385-396.         [ Links ]

Garrett, S.R., 1990, 'Exodus from bondage: Luke 9:31 and Acts 12:1-24', Catholic Biblical Quarterly 52(4), 656-680.         [ Links ]

Goldsworthy, G., 1991, According to plan, Korea Scripture Union, Seoul.         [ Links ]

Hanson, K.C., 1993, 'Blood and purity in Leviticus and Revelation', Listening 28(3), 215-230.         [ Links ]

Hoeksema, H., 1974, Behold, He come: An exposition of the Book of Revelation, Reformed Free Publishing Association, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Jenkins, F., 1972, The Old Testament in the Book of Revelation, Cogdill Foundation Publications, Marion.         [ Links ]

Jordan, J.B., 1996, 'Esther: historical & chronological comments (II)', Biblical Chronology 8(4), 1-4.         [ Links ]

Kariamadam, P., 1997, 'Transfiguration and Jesus' ascended glory', Bible Bhashyam 23(1), 1-13.         [ Links ]

Kim, S.Y., 1997, 'Kingdom of God', in R.P. Martin & P.H. Davids (eds.), Dictionary of the later New Testament and its developments, pp. 629-638, Inter-Varsity Press, Leicester.         [ Links ]

Kio, S.H., 1989, 'The Exodus symbol of liberation in the Apocalypse and its relevance for some aspects of translation', Bible Translator 40, 120-135.         [ Links ]

Kraft, H., 1974, Die Offenbarung des Johannes, Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen.         [ Links ]

Mazzaferri, F.D., 1989, The genre of the Book of Revelation from a source-critical perspective, De Gruyter, Berlin.         [ Links ]

Miligan, W., 1889, The Book of Revelation, Hodder & Stoughton, London.         [ Links ]

Minear, P.S., 1991, 'Far as the curse is found: The point of Revelation 12:15-16', Novum Testamentum 30(1), 71-77.         [ Links ]

Mounce, R.H., 1983, The Book of Revelation, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids.         [ Links ]

Reddish, M.G., 1995, 'Martyr Christology in the Apocalypse', in S.E. Porter & C.A. Evans (eds.), The Johannine writings: A Sheffield reader, pp. 212-222, Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield.         [ Links ]

Savran, G., 1994, 'Beastly speech: Intertextuality, Balaam's ass and the Garden of Eden', Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 64, 33-55.         [ Links ]

Sweet, J.P.M., 1990, Revelation, SCM, London.         [ Links ]

Walton, J.H. & Matthews, V.H., 1997, The IVP Bible background commentary: Genesis-Deuteronomy, IVP, Downers Grove.         [ Links ]

Wevers, J.W., 1990, Notes on the Greek text of Exodus, Scholars Press, Atlanta.         [ Links ]

Wevers, J.W., 1995, Notes on the Greek text of Deuteronomy, Scholars Press, Atlanta.         [ Links ]

White, R.F., 1989, Victory and house building in Revelation 20:1-21:8: A thematic study, UMI, Ann Arbor.         [ Links ]



Jan du Rand
Department of Biblical Studies
University of Johannesburg
PO Box 524
Auckland Park
Johannesburg, 2006
South Africa

Received: 08 Dec. 2008
Accepted: 12 Mar. 2009
Published: 16 Dec. 2009



Note: This article was delivered as a paper at the International SBL meeting in Auckland, New Zealand, 2008, as a result of Y.M. Song's DLitt et Phil thesis: 'A partial preterist understanding of Rev 12-13 in intertextual perspective', supervised by Prof Jan A. du Rand, Department of Biblical and Religious Studies, Faculty of Humanities, University of Johannesburg.

Creative Commons License Todo o conteúdo deste periódico, exceto onde está identificado, está licenciado sob uma Licença Creative Commons