SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.29 issue2The church as sacrament of the kingdom - A reformed commentaryFreedom of religion in South Africa: Then and now 1652 -2008 author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Verbum et Ecclesia

On-line version ISSN 2074-7705
Print version ISSN 1609-9982

Verbum Eccles. (Online) vol.29 n.2 Pretoria  2008




Binne of buite die blokkie? 'n Poging om iets oor tyd en ewigheid te sê


Inside or outside the box? An attempt to say something about time and eternity



J Buitendag

Universiteit van Pretoria




This article deals with the dialogue between theology and science with special reference to eschatology. It takes the relation of time and eternity as the leitmotiv for the exposition, based on the view that the latest insights from physics enrich the theological debate and vice versa. Neither discipline, however, is indispensable to the other. After a short epistemological discourse, a theological and scientific understanding of eschatology are juxtaposed and from this, certain conclusions are drawn. "Outside the box" includes the meaning that time and eternity complement each other and that the focus should rather be on God than on the creation in order to come to grips with time and eternity. Neither a "temporalisation" of eternity nor a "kairologising" of time would therefore be acceptable. Time is the horizon of our thoughts and experiences, though not only as an explicans, but as an explicandum too.



Full text available only in PDF format.




Achtner, W, Kunz, S & Walter, T 1998. Dimensions of Time. Grand Rapids, MI: William B Eerdmans Publishing Company.         [ Links ]

Athanasius 1993. On the Incarnation. (C S Lewis, Ed.) New York: St Vladimir's Seminary Press.         [ Links ]

Augustinus, A 2007. Belydenisse. Getuienis oor 'n lewe in God. (Vertaal deur P. Venter, J. Symington, & A. Van Wyk) Wellington: Lux Verbi.BM.         [ Links ]

-, 2007. De Stad van God. (Transl G Wijdeveld.) Amsterdam: Ambo Uitgevers.         [ Links ]

Barr, J 1969. Biblical Words for Time (2nd (Revised) ed.). London: SCM Press.         [ Links ]

Barth, K 1970. Die Kirchliche Dogmatik. Die Lehre von der Schöpfung (4th edition, Vol. III/1). Zurich: EVZ.         [ Links ]

-, 1975. The Epistles to the Romans (6th editon). (Transl. E C Hoskyns) Oxford: Oxford University Press.         [ Links ]

Brinkman, M E (ed.) 2003. Theology between Church, University and Society. STAR, 6. Assen: Van Gorcum.         [ Links ]

Callender, C & Edney, R 2001. Introducing Time. Cambridge: Icon Books.         [ Links ]

Cullmann, O 1962. Christ and Time: The Primitive Christian Conception of Time and History (3rd edition). (Transl. F Filson) London: SCM Press.         [ Links ]

Deutsch, D 1997. The Fabric of Reality. London: Penguin Books.         [ Links ]

Dingemans, G D 1974. Wetmatigheid en Wonder. Zoetermeer: Boekencentrum.         [ Links ]

-, Dingemans, G D 2005. De Stem van de Roepende. Kampen: Kok.         [ Links ]

Einstein, A 1976. Out of My Later Years. New York: Kensington Publishing Corp.         [ Links ]

Hawking, S 1993. Black Holes and Baby Universes. London: Bantam Books.         [ Links ]

-, 1994. A Brief History of Time. London: Bantam Books.         [ Links ]

Isham, C J & Polkinghorne, J 1999. The debate over the Block Universe. In R. J. Russel, Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature. Scientific Perspectives on Divine Action. Berkeley, CA: CTNS, 139-147.         [ Links ]

Jackelén, A 2005 a. A Relativistic Eschatology? Ian Ramsey Centre for Science and Religion. Oxford: Unpublished, 1-21.         [ Links ]

-, 2005b. Time & Eternity. The Question of Time in Church, Science, and Theology. Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.         [ Links ]

Justinius, M 1997. The First Apology of Justin in Roberts, A & Donaldson, J (eds.). Ante-Nicene Fathers, I. Oak Harbor, WA, USA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.         [ Links ]

Kroonenberg, S 2007. De Menslijke Maat. De aarde oor tienduizend jaar. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Atlas.         [ Links ]

Küng, H 2007. The Beginning of All Things. Science and Religion. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans.         [ Links ]

Larson, D H 1995. Times of the Trinity. A Proposal for a Theistic Cosmology. New York: Peter Lang.         [ Links ]

Link, C 1991. Schöpfung (Vol. 7/2). Gütersloh: Gerd Mohn.         [ Links ]

Loïsy, A 1976. The Gospel and the Church. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press.         [ Links ]

McGrath, A E 2006. The Order of Things. Explorations in Scientific Theology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.         [ Links ]

Moltmann, J 1977. Methoden der Eschatologie, in Moltmann, J, Zukunft der Schöpfung. München: Kaiser Verlag, 51-58.         [ Links ]

-, 1985. Gott in der Schöpfung. Ökologische Schöpfungslehre. München: Chr. Kaiser Verlag.         [ Links ]

-, 1996. The Coming of God. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.         [ Links ]

-, 2003. Science & Wisdom. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.         [ Links ]

-, 2004. In the End - the Beginning. London: SCM Press.         [ Links ]

Müller, A M K 1972. Die präparierte Zeit. Der Mensch in der Krise seiner eigenen Zielsetzung. Stuttgart: Radius Bücher.         [ Links ]

-, 1978. Wende der Wahrnehmung. München: Kaiser Verlag.         [ Links ]

Murphy, N 1998. Theology, Cosmology and Ethics, in Peters, T (ed), Science & Theology. A New Consonance. Boulder, Cl: Westview Press, 103-117.         [ Links ]

Oele, P C 2004. En daar was licht. Inleiding in de wereld van geloof en wetenschap. Kampen: De Groot Goudriaan.         [ Links ]

Pannenberg, W 1990. Metaphysics & the Idea of God. (Transl. P Clayton) Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.         [ Links ]

-, 1991. Systematic Theology. (Vol. I). (Transl. G W Bromiley). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co.         [ Links ]

-, 1993. Systematic Theology (Vol. III). (Transl. G W Bromley). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.         [ Links ]

Peters, T 1999. The Trinity in and beyond Time in Russel, R J, Quantum Cosmology and the Laws of Nature. Berkeley: CTNS, 263-289.         [ Links ]

Polkinghorne, J 2004. Science and the Trinity. A Christian Encounter with Reality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.         [ Links ]

Polkinghorne, J 1998. Science & Theology. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.         [ Links ]

Polkinghorne, J, & Welker M (eds.). 2000. The End of the World and the Ends of God. Harrisburgh, PA: Trinity Press International.         [ Links ]

Rahner, K 1985. Grundkurs des Glaubens (2nd edition). Freiburg: Herder Verlag.         [ Links ]

Rowland, C 2002. The Open Heaven. A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity. Oregon, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers.         [ Links ]

Sauter, G 1999. What Dare We Hope? Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International.         [ Links ]

Schweitzer, A 1913. Geschichte der Leben-Jesu-Forschung (2nd edition). Tübingen: JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck).         [ Links ]

Tertullianus 1997. The Prescription against Heretics. Ante-Nicene Fathers , III, in A Roberts, & J Donaldson, (eds.) Oak Harbor, WA, USA: Logos Research System, Inc.         [ Links ]

Tillich, P 1999. The Eternal Now, in The Essential Tillich. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 120-128.         [ Links ]

Tipler, F J 1994. The Physics of Immortality. New York: Doubleday.         [ Links ]

Torrance, T F 1998. Space, Time and Resurrection (2nd edition). Edinburgh: T&T Clark.         [ Links ]

-, 2001. The Ground and Grammar of Theology. Edinburgh: T&T Clark.         [ Links ]

Van Aarde, A G 2001. Millennialisme, eskatologie en apokaliptiek, HTS 57 (3 & 4), 1158-1178.         [ Links ]

Van Huyssteen, J W 2006. Alone in the World? Human Uniqueness in Science and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Company.         [ Links ]

Volf, M 1996. Theology, Meaning & Power, in Phillips T R, & Okholm D L (eds), The Nature of Confession. Evangelicals & Postliberals in Conversation. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press, 45-66.         [ Links ]

Wethmar, C J 1977. Dogma en Verstaanshorison. Amsterdam: Rodopi N.V.         [ Links ]

-, 1996. Wat het Athene met Jerusalem te doen? Enkele histories-sistematiese gesigspunte in verband met die vraag of die teologie aan die universiteit tuishoort in Skrif en Kerk, 17(2), 473-490.         [ Links ]

-, 2003. Theological Education in an ecumenical context: principles and procedures of the Pretoria model, in Brinkman M E (ed.) 2003:61-64.         [ Links ]

Wilkenson, D 2004. The End of it All: Cosmology and Christian Eschatology in Dialogue, in Ledger, C & Pickard, S, Creation and Complexity. Interdisciplinary Issues in Science and Religion. Adelaide: ATF Press, 199230.         [ Links ]

Worthing, M 2004. Time and Eternity as Scientific and Theological Problem in Ledger, C & Pickard, S, Creation and Complexity. Interdisciplinary Issues in Science and Religion. Adelaide: ATF Press, 183-198.         [ Links ]

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License