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African Human Rights Law Journal

On-line version ISSN 1996-2096
Print version ISSN 1609-073X

Afr. hum. rights law j. vol.11 n.2 Pretoria  2011

 

Enhancing the protection of the rights of victims of international crimes: A model for East Africa

 

 

Benson Chinedu OlugbuoI; George Mukundi WachiraII

IResearch Associate, Department of Public Law, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Fox International Fellow, Yale University, USA
IIAfrica Regional Co-ordinator, Transitional Justice Programme, Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, Cape Town, South Africa

 

 


SUMMARY

Victims of international crimes have had little, if any, role and voice in international criminal proceedings. In fact, victims in such proceedings have mostly been mere observers and witnesses. This global practice reflects the status of victims of international crimes as it was until the emergence of the International Criminal Court. The Court has brought about an era where victims of international crimes will not only have a true voice in criminal proceedings, but they will also participate in such proceedings as victims. Of importance is the fact that they are now entitled, by right, to compensation and reparation. The article traces international legal developments relative to the protection of the rights of victims of international crimes. It briefly examines comparable domestic and regional legal frameworks and practices on victim rights protection. The principal aim of the study is to discuss lessons that can be replicated in East Africa as a possible model for the protection of the rights of victims of international crimes.


 

 

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* LLB (Nigeria), LLM (Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa) (Pretoria); benolug-buo@gmail.com
** LLB (Nairobi), LLM (Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa) (Pretoria), LLD (Pretoria); mukundigeorge@gmail.com. We are grateful to the International Commission of Jurists, Kenya Section for funding the research that made this article possible. We also thank Carol Hartley, Iheanyi Samuel and two anonymous referees for their valuable comments on earlier drafts of the article. All errors are entirely our responsibility.
1 G Musila 'The right to an effective remedy under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights' (2006) 6 African Human Rights Law journal 442-464;         [ Links ] F Viljoen International human rights law in Africa (2007) 236-259.         [ Links ]
2 S Garkawe 'Victims and the International Criminal Court: Three major issues' (2003) 3 International Criminal Law Review 345 346.         [ Links ]
3 JM Kamatali 'From ICTR to ICC: Learning from the ICTR experience in bringing justice to Rwandans' (2005) 12 New England Journal of International and Comparative Law 89 99.         [ Links ]
4 Garkawe (n 2 above) 347.
5 Charter of the International Military Tribunal annexed to the London Agreement of 8 August 1945 http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/imtconst.asp (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
6 International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE) Charter http://www.jus.uio.no/english/services/library/treaties/04/4-06/military-tribunal-far-east.xml (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
7 Garkawe (n 2 above) 347.
8 The Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia, Security Council Resolution 827 of 25 May 1993.         [ Links ]
9 The Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Security Council Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994.         [ Links ]
10 See Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, established by an agreement between the United Nations and the government of Sierra Leone pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1315 (2000) of 14 August 2000.
11 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court UN Doc A/CONF.183/99 of 17 July 1998, entered into force 1 July 2002, http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/ADD16852-AEE9-4757-ABE7-9CDC7CF02886/283503/RomeStatutEng1.pdf (accessed 26 September 2011) (Rome Statute).         [ Links ]
12 W Schabas An introduction to the International Criminal Court (2007) 328;         [ Links ] M Jouet 'Reconciling the conflicting rights of victims and defendants at the International Criminal Court' (2007) 26 Saint Louis University Public Law Review 249.         [ Links ]
13 Art 43(6) Rome Statute.
14 Art 68(3) Rome Statute; M Cohen 'Victims participation rights within the International Criminal Court: A critical overview' (2009) 37 Denver journal of International Law and Policy 351.         [ Links ]
15 Art 75 Rome Statute.
16 The East Africa Community (EAC) is a regional inter-governmental organisation of the Republics of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, the Republic of Rwanda and the Republic of Burundi with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania. The treaty for the establishment of the EAC was signed on 30 November 1999 and entered into force on 7 July 2000. There is currently an East African Court. However, as provided in the treaty establishing the Court, it does not adjudicate on human rights issues at the moment. The treaty establishing the EAC makes a case for the adjudication of human rights issues in future through the adoption of a protocol to operationalise the extended jurisdiction. See art 27(2) of the EAC Treaty. See also EAC 'About the EAC' http://www.eac.int/about-eac.html (accessed 26 September 2011).         [ Links ]
17 K Apuuli 'The International Criminal Court (ICC) and the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) insurgency in Northern Uganda' (2004) 15 Criminal Law Forum 391;         [ Links ] P Akhayan 'The Lord's Resistance Army case: Uganda's submission of the first state referral to the International Criminal Court' (2005) 99 American Journal of International Law 403;         [ Links ] H Moy 'International Criminal Court arrest warrants and Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army: Renewing the debate over amnesty and complementarity' (2006) 19 Harvard Human Rights Journal 267 271;         [ Links ] El-Zeidy 'The Ugandan government triggers the first test of the complementarity principle: An assessment of the first state's party referral to the ICC' (2005) 5 International Criminal Law Review 83.         [ Links ]
18 Six Kenyans are currently before the ICC going through confirmation of charges hearings on crimes allegedly committed after the 2007 elections. See The Prosecutor v William Samoei Ruto, Henry Kiprono Kosgey and Joshua Arap Sang ICC-01/09-01/11 and The Prosecutor v Francis Kirimi Muthaura, Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta and Mohammed Hussein Ali ICC-01/09-02/11.
19 See art 15 of the Rome Statute. For a review of the proprio motu powers of the prosecutor, see A Danner 'Enhancing the legitimacy and accountability of the pros-ecutorial discretion at the International Criminal Court' (2003) 97 American Journal of International Law 510 515.         [ Links ]
20 K Nash 'A comparative analysis of justice in post-genocide Rwanda: Fostering a sense of peace and reconciliation' (2007) 1 Africana Journal 59 67 http://www.africana-journal.org/PDF/vol1/vol1_4_Kaley%20Nash.pdf (accessed 31 October 2011).         [ Links ]
21 See UN General Assembly Human Rights Council 'Annual Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and Reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary-General: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights analytical study on human rights and transitional justice' A/HRC/12/18/Add.1, 21 August 2009 http://www.unrol.org/files/96199_A-HRC-12-18-Add1 .pdf (accessed 26 September 2011).         [ Links ]
22 UN General Assembly, Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law: Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, 21 March 2006, A/RES/60/147, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4721cb942.html (accessed 26 September 2011) (Basic Principles and Guidelines) para 8.         [ Links ]
23 MC Bassiouni 'International recognition of victims' rights' (2006) 6 Human Rights Law Review 203.         [ Links ]
24 UN General Assembly A/RES/40/34 adopted 29 November 1985 at the 96th plenary meeting. (UN Principles).
25 Para 1 UN Principles.
26 Para 4(a) of Resolution A/RES/4034 adopting the UN Principles.
27 Para 4 UN Principles.
28 Para 8 UN Principles.
29 Para 12 UN Principles.
30 Para 14 UN Principles.
31 See Rule 85 of Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the International Criminal Court adopted by the Assembly of States Parties 1st session in New York, 3-10 September 2002, ICC-ASP/1/3 http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/F1E0AC1C-A3F3-4A3C-B9A7-B3E8B115E886/140164/Rules_of_procedure_and_Evidence_English.pdf (accessed 26 September 2011).         [ Links ]
32 Rule 85(b) of the RPE of the ICC.
33 Prosecutor v Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC-01/04-01/06-1119, decision on victims' participation, paras 90-92 (18 January 2008).
34 n 33 above, para 90.
35 Prosecutor vThomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC-01/04-01/06-1432, judgment on the appeals of the Prosecutor and the Defence against Trial Chamber I's Decision on Victims' Participation of 18 January 2008, judgment of 11 July 2008, para 2.
36 The ICC is currently active in Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Uganda, Sudan and Libya. ICC 'Situations and cases' http://www.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Situations+and+Cases/ (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
37 B Olugbuo 'Positive complementarity and the fight against impunity in Africa' in C Murungu & J Biegon (eds) Prosecuting international crimes in Africa (2011) 251.         [ Links ]
38 R Aldana-Pindel 'In vindication of justitiable victims' rights to truth and justice for state-sponsored crimes' (2002) 35 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 1399 1402.         [ Links ]
39 General Assembly Resolution 217 A(III) of 10 December 1948.
40 G Alfredsson & A Eide 'The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A common standard of achievement' (1999);         [ Links ] J Morsink The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, drafting and intent (1999).         [ Links ]
41 General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966.
42 Art 9(5) ICCPR.
43 General Assembly Resolution 39/46 of 10 December 1984, entered into force 26 June 1987 (CAT).
44 Art 14 (1) CAT.
45 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide General Assembly Resolution 260 A(III) of 9 December 1948 (Genocide Convention).
46 Convention of the Rights of the Child, General Assembly Resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989.
47 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women adopted in New York, 18 December 1979.
48 UNODC Handbook on justice for victims: On the use and application of the Declaration of the Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (1999) 2 (UN victims handbook).         [ Links ]
49 UN victims handbook (n 48 above) iv.
50 Art 11 UN Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation, UN A/Res/60/147, adopted 16 December 2005.
51 See the United Nations Treaty Collection Database for a comprehensive review of the status of ratification of international instruments by UN member states, http://trea-ties.un.org/pages/Treaties.aspx?id=4&subid=A&lang=en (accessed 26 September 2011).         [ Links ]
52 C Odinkalu 'Back to the future: The imperative of prioritising for the protection of human rights in Africa' (2003) 47 Journal of African Law 1 24.         [ Links ]
53 UN Security Council Resolution 827 of 1993.
54 ICTY 'About the ICTY' http://www.icty.org/sections/AbouttheICTY (accessed 1 October 2011);         [ Links ] D Tolbert 'The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: Unforeseen successes and foreseeable shortcomings' (2002) 26 Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 5 7;         [ Links ] L Barria & S Roper 'How effective are international criminal tribunals? An analysis of the ICTY and the ICTR' (2005) 9 International Journal of Human Rights 349 341.         [ Links ]
55 Art 15 ICTY Statute.
56 The ICTY Rules of Evidence and Procedure was adopted 11 February 1994 pursuant to art 15 of the Statute of the Tribunal and entered into force on 14 March 1994 (ICTY Rules).
57 Art 98(B) ICTY Rules.
58 Art 106(B) ICTY Rules.
59 G Boas 'Comparing the ICTY and the ICC: Some procedural and substantive issues' (2000) XLVII Netherlands International Law Review 267 284.         [ Links ]
60 T van Boven 'The position of the victim in the Statute of the ICC' in H von Hebel et al (eds) Reflections on the ICC, Essays in honour of Adriaan Bos (1999) 77-89.         [ Links ]
61 ICTY Statement by Judge Patrick Robinson, President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, to the Security Council on 18 June 2010, http://www.icty.org/x/file/Press/Statements%20and%20Speeches/President/100618_pdt_robinson_un_sc_en.pdf (accessed 26 September 2011).         [ Links ]
62 UN Resolution 955 of 1994 adopted by the Security Council at its 3453rd meeting on 8 November 1994.
63 P Clark The Gacaca courts, Post-genocide justice and reconciliation in Rwanda (2010) 14.         [ Links ]
64 R Dallaire Shake hands with the devil: The failure of humanity in Rwanda (2005) 221262.         [ Links ]
65 Art 21 ICTR Statute.
66 Rule 34 ICTR Rules of Evidence and Procedure.
67 International Federation of Human Rights 'Victims in the balance: Challenges ahead the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda' (2004) 6 (FIDH Report).         [ Links ]
68 C Walsh 'Witness protection, gender and the ICTR: A report of investigations in Rwanda June and July 1997' http://www.womensrightscoalition.org/site/advocacy-Dossiers/rwanda/witnessProtection/report_en.php (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
69 As above.
70 Walsh (n 68 above).
71 As above.
72 V Oosterveld 'Gender-sensitive justice and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Lessons learned for the International Criminal Court' (2005) 12 New England journal of International and Comparative Law 119 125.         [ Links ]
73 FIDH Report (n 67 above) 10.
74 FIDH Report (n 67 above) 6.
75 UN Security Council Resolution 1505 of 5 September 2003 (SC/7864).
76 Del Ponte had initially acted as the prosecutor for both ICTY and ICTR.
77 FIDH Report (n 67 above) 8.
78 As above.
79 Rule 106 of the ICTR Rules of Evidence and Procedure; S Vandeginste 'The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Justice and reconciliation' Issue 11 May 1998 http://www.odihpn.org/report.asp?id=1088 (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
80 FIDH Report (n 67 above) 10.
81 Agreement between the United Nations and the government of Sierra Leone on the establishment of a Special Court For Sierra Leone http://www.sc-sl.org/LinkClick.aspx?fMeticket=CLk1rMQtCHg%3d&tabid=176 (accessed 29 September 2011).
82 K Ambos & M Othman (eds) New approaches in international criminal justice: Kosovo, East Timor, Sierra Leone and Cambodia (2003) 2;         [ Links ] E Skinnider 'Experiences and lessons from "hybrid" tribunals: Sierra Leone, East Timor and Cambodia' http://www.icclr.law.ubc.ca/Site%20Map/ICC/ExperiencesfromInternationalSpecialCourts.pdf (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
83 Art 14 SCSL Statute.
84 Rule 69 SCSL Rules.
85 Rule 75 SCSL Rules.
86 Rule 96 SCSL Rules of Procedure and Evidence http://www.sc-sl.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=1YNrqhd4L5s%3D&tabid=70 (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
87 Human Rights Watch 'Bringing justice: The Special Court for Sierra Leone' 7 September 2004 http://www.hrw.org/en/node/11983/section/10 (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
88 N Jain 'Between the Scylla and Charybdis of prosecution and reconciliation: The Khmer Rouge trials and the promise of international justice' (2010) 20 Duke journal of International and Comparative Law 247 250;         [ Links ] N Jain 'The Khmer Rouge tribunal paves the way for additional investigations' (2009) 13 American Society for International Law Insight 1-7.         [ Links ]
89 Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia 'Introduction of the ECCC' http://www.eccc.gov.kh/en (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
90 Jain (n 88 above) 250.
91 Jain (n 88 above) 252.
92 ECCC (n 89 above).
93 Rules of Evidence and Procedure of the ECCC providing for General Principles of Victims Participation as Civil Parties http://www.eccc.gov.kh/sites/default/files/legal-documents/ECCC%20Internal%20Rules%20%28Rev.8%29%20English.pdf (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
94 Rule 23 ECCC Rules of Evidence and Procedure.
95 C Trumbull 'The victims of victims participation in international criminal proceedings' (2008) 29 Michigan Journal of International Law 777 779.         [ Links ]
96 Open Society Justice Initiative 'Cambodia's Khmer Rouge court excludes victims' voices' 20 September 2011 http://www.soros.org/initiatives/justice/news/cambodia-victims-20110916?utm_source=Open+Society+Institute&u tm_campaign=3697e7aff3-justice-20110929&utm_medium=email (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
97 Member states of the ICGLR are Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
98 The ten protocols include (1) the Protocol on Non-aggression and Mutual Defence in the Great Lakes Region 2006; (2) the Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance 2006; (3) the Protocol on Judicial Co-operation 2006; (4) the Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and All Forms of Discrimination 2006; (5) the Protocol Against the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources 2006; (6) the Protocol on the Specific Reconstruction and Development Zone 2006; (7) the Protocol on the Prevention and Suppression of Sexual Violence Against Women and Children 2006; (8) the Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons; (9) the Protocol on Property Rights of Returning Persons 2006; and (10) the Protocol on the Management of Information and Communication 2006. London School of Economics International Humanitarian Law Project: International Conference on the Great Lakes Region http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/law/projects/greatlakes/ihl-greatlakes-summary-new-docmt.htm (accessed 25 September 2011).         [ Links ]
99 C Beyani 'Introductory note on the Pact on Security, Stability and Development in the Great Lakes Region' (2007) 46 International Legal Materials 173.         [ Links ]
100 Eg the Convention against Racial Discrimination: the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 21 December 1965; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 18 December 1979; the Geneva Conventions: the four conventions on humanitarian law adopted on 12 August 1949 by the diplomatic conference for drawing up international conventions and their additional protocols adopted on 8 June 1977; the Genocide Convention: the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide adopted on 9 December 1948.
101 Art 9 Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and All Forms of Discrimination adopted 29 November 2006.
102 Art 21 Protocol for the Prevention and the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity and all forms of Discrimination.
103 Protocol for the Prevention and Suppression of Sexual Violence against Women and Children adopted 30 November 2006.
104 Art 6 Sexual Violence Protocol (n 103 above).
105 Legal Notice 8 of 2001; see also I Gaparayi 'Justice and social reconstruction in the aftermath of the genocide in Rwanda: An evaluation of the possible role of Gacaca tribunals' (2001) 1 African Human Rights Law Journal 78 79.         [ Links ]
106 A Algard 'Does the Gacaca system in Rwanda provide an effective remedy in compliance with international norms and standards?' (2005) LLM dissertation, University of Lund, http://lup.lub.lu.se/luur/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=1555566&fileOId=1563699 (accessed 28 September 2011).         [ Links ]
107 M Sosnov 'The adjudication of genocide: Gacaca and the road to reconciliation' (2008) 36 Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 125 243;         [ Links ] C Morrill 'Reconciliation and the Gacaca: The perceptions and peace-building potential of Rwandan youth detainees' (2004) 6 The Online journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution 1-66.         [ Links ]
108 C Kirkby 'Rwanda's Gacaca courts: A preliminary critique' (2006) 50 Journal of African Law 94 107.         [ Links ]
109 Amnesty International Report, Rwanda, unfair trials: Justice denied AFR 47/08/97 (8 April 1997).         [ Links ] D Haile 'Rwanda's experiment in people's courts (Gacaca) and the tragedy of unexamined humanitarianism: A normative/ethical perspective' (2008) Institute for Development, Policy and Management Discussion Paper 29.         [ Links ]
110 See P Bako 'Does traditional conflict resolution lead to justice? - The Mato Oput in Northern Uganda' (2009) 3 Pretoria Student Law Review 103;         [ Links ] C Mbazira 'Prosecuting international crimes committed by the Lord Resistance Army' in Murungu & Biegon (n 37 above) 211.
111 K Clarke Fictions of justice: The International Criminal Court and the challenge of legal pluralism in sub-Saharan Africa (2009) 127.         [ Links ]
112 C Rose 'Looking beyond amnesty and traditional justice and reconciliation mechanisms in Northern Uganda: A proposal for truth-telling and reparations' (2008) 28 Boston College Third World Law journal 345 354.         [ Links ]
113 B Afoko 'Reconciliation and justice: "Mato oput" and the Amnesty Act' (2002) http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/northern-uganda/reconciliation-justice.php (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
114 Uganda Coalition for the ICC 'Approaching national reconciliation in Uganda: Perspectives on applicable justice systems' (2006) Uganda Coalition for the International Criminal Court Working Paper 76 http://www.iccnow.org/documents/Approaching-NationalReconciliationInUganda_07aug13.pdf (accessed 26 September 2011).         [ Links ]
115 UN General Assembly Human Rights Council (n 21 above).
116 Para 320 of the Report of African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur http://www.darfurcentre.ch/images/00_DRDC_documents/Landmarks/Report_of_the_AU_ High_Level_Panel_on_Darfur_English_Nov_07.pdf (accessed 27 September 2011).         [ Links ]
117 The Uganda National Reconciliation Bill which proposes a National Reconciliation Commission with a truth-telling component is a civil society initiative.
118 The Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act 35 of 1995 (TRC Act).
119 See eg R Shaw 'Rethinking truth and reconciliation commissions: Lessons from Sierra Leone' United States Institute of Peace, 2005;         [ Links ] J Gibson 'The contributions of truth to reconciliation: Lessons from South Africa' (2004) 50 Journal of Conflict Resolution 409-432;         [ Links ] P Hayner 'Same species, different animal: How South Africa compares to truth commissions worldwide' in C Villa-Vicencio & W Verwoerd Looking back, reaching forward: Reflections on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa (2000) 34-65;         [ Links ] G Simpson 'A brief evaluation of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Some lessons for societies' Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation 1998.         [ Links ]
120 See the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa Report, 21 March 2003 http://www.info.gov.za/otherdocs/2003/trc/ (accessed 27 September 2011).         [ Links ]
121 Sec 2 TRC Act.
122 Sec 3(3)(a) TRC Act.
123 Sec 3(3)(b) TRC Act.
124 Sec 3(3)(c) TRC Act.
125 Sec 4(b) TRC Act.
126 Sec 3 TRC Act.
127 The government gave a final lump sum to various individuals of R6 000, a figure far less than the R23 000 that had been recommended by the TRC. M Mandani 'Amnesty or impunity? A preliminary critique of the report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa (TRC)' (2002) 32 Diacritics 33-59.         [ Links ]
128 Sec 4(f) TRC Act.
129 Sec 42 TRC Act.
130 Final TRC Report, Volume Five, Chapter Five, paras 25-32.
131 Art 6(1) of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission Act, 2000; see also art XXVI of the Lome Peace Agreement of 1999.
132 Sierra Leone Truth Commission Final Report Vol 1, Chapter 3, paras 28-29.
133 Sierra Leone Truth Commission Final Report (n 132 above) para 33.
134 As above.
135 Sierra Leone Truth Commission Final Report (n 132 above) Vol II Chapter 4 Reparations.
136 Sierra Leone Truth Commission Final Report (n 132 above) Vol II, Chapter 1, para 85.
137 Sierra Leone Truth Commission Final Report (n 132 above) para 84.
138 Sierra Leone Truth Commission Final Report (n 132 above) para 87.
139 P Campbell 'A comparative study of victim compensation in France and the United States: A modest proposal' (1980) 3 Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 321 323.         [ Links ]
140 As above.
141 Federal Victims and Witness Protection Act of 1982 (18 USC).
142 Victims of Crime Act of 1984.
143 Victims Rights and Restitution Act of 1990.
144 Victim Rights Clarification Act of 1997.
145 Law Enforcement Co-ordinating Committee/Victim-Witness http://www.justice.gov/usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title3/7musa.htm (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
146 Attorney-General Guidelines for Victim and Witness Assistance 2000 (42 USC sec 10603(c) (3)(A)). See USC S10601 Crimes Victims Fund http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/42/usc_sec_42_00010601---000-.html (accessed 29 September 2011).
147 The Statute makes provision for the establishment of a Victims and Witnesses Unit by the Registrar (art 43 (6)), the protection of victims and witnesses and their participation in the proceedings (art 68) and the establishment of a Victims Trust Fund by the Assembly of State Parties (art 79).
148 See art 68(1) of the Rome Statute.
149 As above.
150 Art 43(6) Rome Statute.
151 Art 46(6) Rome Statute.
152 Art 6 of the Rome Statute provides that 'genocide' involves specific acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group. W Schabas Genocide in international law (2000) 102-257.         [ Links ]
153 Art 7 of the Rome Statute provides that 'crimes against humanity' involves acts committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack. P Wald 'Genocide and crimes against humanity' (2007) 6 Washington University Global Studies Law Review 621.         [ Links ]
154 Art 8 of the Rome Statute provides that the Court shall have jurisdiction in respect of war crimes, in particular when committed as part of a plan or policy or as part of the large-scale commission of such crimes. K Dormann 'War crimes under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court with special focus on the negotiations on the elements of crimes' in A von Bogdandy & R Wolfrum (eds) Max Planck yearbook of United Nations law 341.         [ Links ]
155 Assembly of State Parties of the International Criminal Court Resolution RC/Res 6 adopted at the 13th plenary meeting on 11 June 2010 in Kampala, Uganda, http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/Resolutions/RC-Res.6-ENG.pdf (accessed 29 September 2011).
156 Art 1 Rome Statute; M Newton 'Comparative complementarity: Domestic jurisdiction consistent with the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Law' (2001) 167 Military Law Review 20 26.         [ Links ]
157 Art 17 Rome Statute; D Robinson 'The mysterious mysteriousness of complementarity' (2010) 21 Criminal Law Forum 67 70.         [ Links ]
158 Office of the Prosecutor 'Paper on some policy issues before the Office of the Prosecutor' September 2003 5 http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/1FA7C4C6-DE5F-42B7-8B25-60AA962ED8B6/143594/030905_Policy_Paper.pdf (accessed 20 April 2010).         [ Links ]
159 M du Plessis 'Complementarity: A working relationship between African states and the International Criminal Court' in M du Plessis (ed) African guide to international criminal justice (2008) 129.         [ Links ]
160 ICC Report of the Court on the strategy in relation to victims, ICC-ASP/8/45, 10 November 2009, Introduction, para 3; http://www.icc-cpi.int/iccdocs/asp_docs/ASP8/ICC-ASP-8-45-ENG.pdf. (accessed 5 April 2010).
161 S Zappala 'The rights of victims v the rights of the accused' (2010) 8 journal of International Criminal justice 137 138.         [ Links ]
162 Art 68(2) Rome Statute.
163 E Baumgarte 'Aspects of victim participation in the proceedings of the International Criminal Court' (2008) 90 International Review of the Red Cross 409 415.         [ Links ]
164 Arts 68 & 79 Rome Statute.
165 Art 75 Rome Statute.
166 ICC 'Victims and witnesses' http://www.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Structure+of+the+Court/Victims (accessed 29 September 2011); ICC 'Legal representatives of victims' http://www.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Structure+of+the+Court/Victims/Legal+Representation/ (accessed 29 September 2011).
167 Regulation 81 of ICC adopted by the judges of the Court on 26 May 2004 at the 5th Plenary Session, The Hague, 17-28 May 2004, http://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/B920AD62-DF49-4010-8907-E0D8CC61EBA4/277527/Regulations_of_ the_Court_170604EN.pdf (accessed 29 September 2011).
168 ICC 'Office of Public Counsel for Victims' http://www.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Structure+of+the+Court/Victims/Office+of+Public+Counsel+for+Victims/ (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
169 ICC 'Reparation for victims' http://www.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ICC/Structure+of+the+Court/Victims/Reparation/ (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
170 As above.
171 Art 79 Rome Statute.
172 ICC 'Reparations and general assistance' http://www.trustfundforvictims.org/two-roles-tfv (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
173 As above.
174 The TFV's current board is composed of the following five members: Bulgaa Altangerel (Mongolia, representing the Asian states); Betty Kaari Murungi (Kenya, representing African states); Eduardo Pizarro Leongómez (Colombia, representing the Americas and Caribbean state); Elisabeth Rehn (Finland, representing Western European and other states); and Her Excellency Vaira V e-Freiberga (Latvia, representing Eastern European states).
175 None of the EAC countries has specific laws on victim protection including on reparations. In addition, apart from Kenya, none of the other East African countries has specific laws on witness protection which is critical for victims and witnesses participating in international criminal proceedings..
176 International Commission of Jurists 'Could Kenya's witness protection programme work' (2010) 1 Jurist E-Bulletin 3 http://www.icj-kenya.org/dmdocuments/newslet-ters/JuristIssue1.pdf (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
177 There is currently a dossier submitted to the South African government by NGOs in relation to Zimbabwean officials accused of acts of torture in Zimbabwe but who regularly visit South Africa. The South African National Prosecutor has refused to prosecute the Zimbabwean officials on the South Africa International Criminal Court Implementation Act 2002.
178 L Igwe 'Freedom of conscience and religious persecution in Africa' statement presented at the 47th session of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Banjul, The Gambia on 13 May 2010, http://www.iheu.org/freedom-conscience-and-religious-persecution-africa (accessed 1 October 2011).         [ Links ]
179 S Maoulidi 'Zanzibar GBV advocacy: Important lessons for future legal reform strategies' in D Moshenberg (ed) 'Sexual and gender-based violence in Africa' Bulletin 83 2009, http://concernedafricascholars.org/docs/Bulletin83.pdf (accessed 1 October 2011).         [ Links ]
180 Amnesty International '"I can't afford justice": Violence against women in Uganda continues unchecked and unpunished', April 2010 http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AFR59/001/2010/en/f3688aa0-b771-464b-aa88-850bcbf5a152/afr590012010en. pdf (accessed 1 October 2011).         [ Links ]
181 As above.
182 M Kimani 'Taking on violence against women in Africa: International norms, local activism start to alter laws, attitudes' (2007) 21 Africa Renewal4 http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/vol21no2/212-violence-aganist-women.html (accessed 1 October 2011).         [ Links ]
183 The African countries include Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros Island, Congo Brazzaville, DRC, Djibouti, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia. See ICC 'African states' http://www.icc-cpi.int/Menus/ASP/States+Parties/African%20States (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ]
184 See Implementation of the South African Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Act 27 of 18 July 2002, http://www.info.gov.za/gazette/acts/2002/a27-02.pdf (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ]C Powell & F Jessberger 'Prosecuting Pinochets in South Africa' (2001) 14 South African journal of Criminal justice 344.         [ Links ]
185 See Loi n 8 2007-02 du 12 fevrier 2007 modifiant le Code penal, in journal Officiel de la Republique du Senegal, http://www.iccnow.org/documents/Loi_2007_02_du_12_Fev_2007_modifiant_le_ Code_penal_senegal_fr.pdf (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ] See M Niang 'The Senegalese legal framework for the prosecution of international crimes' (2009) 7 journal of International Criminal justice 1047.         [ Links ]
186 The International Criminal Court Act 2010, the Uganda Gazette 39 Vol CIII dated 25 June 2010, assented on 25 May 2010, http://www.beyondjuba.org/policy_docu-ments/ICC_Act.pdf (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ]
187 The International Crimes Act, 2008 http://www.coalitionfortheicc.org/documents/The_International_Crimes_Act_2008.pdf (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ] See also A Okuta 'National legislation for prosecution of international crimes in Kenya' (2009) 7 journal of International Criminal justice 1063.         [ Links ]
188 Decret 2009-894-PRES promulguant la loi No 052-2009-AN du 03 December 2009, http://www.iccnow.org/documents/Decret_n2009-894-PRES_promulguant_la_loi_n052-2009-AN.pdf (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ]
189 Art 64 Uganda ICC Act.
190 Art 105 Kenya ICC Act.
191 See The Witness Protection (Amendment) Act, 2010 http://www.kenyalaw.org/Downloads/ammendmentacts/THE%20WITNESS%20PROTECTION%20%28AMEND-MENT%29%20ACT%202010.pdf (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ] This act amended the Kenya Witness Protection Act 2006.
192 See 3A of the Witness Amendment Act 2010.
193 N Sibalukhulu 'Lack of political will undermines witness protection in Kenya' 30 March 2011, http://www.iss.co.za/iss_today.php?ID=1257 (accessed 24 September 2011).         [ Links ]
194 A Zammit Borda 'The role of victims in the first trial of the International Criminal Court' (2010) 9 Trinity College Dublin Journal of Postgraduate Studies 20.         [ Links ]
195 B Olugbuo 'Implementing the International Criminal Court Treaty in Africa The role of non-governmental organisations and government agencies in constitutional reform' in K Clarke & M Goodale (eds) Mirrors of justice: Law and power in the post-Cold War era (2009) 130.         [ Links ]
196 The AU had requested the UN Security Council to defer the indictment of President Al-Bashir for one year using art 16 of the Rome Statute. The AU further passed a resolution of non-co-operation with the ICC. C Jalloh et al 'Assessing the African Union concerns about article 16 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court' (2011) 4 African Journal of Legal Studies 5 8.         [ Links ]
197 Burundi, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
198 UN victims handbook (n 48 above) 11.
199 UN victims handbook iv.
200 UN victims handbook 11.
201 As above.
202 As above.
203 Crime Victims' Rights Act of 1984 (42 USC 10601) http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/42/usc_sup_01_42_10_112.html (accessed 29 September 2011).         [ Links ]
204 n 204 above, sec 10601.
205 International Bar Association 'Safeguarding judicial independence in mixed tribunals: Lessons from the ECCC and best practices for the future' September 2011, http://www.cambodiatribunal.org/sites/default/files/reports/Cambodia%20report%20 (Sept%202011).pdf (accessed 1 October 2011).         [ Links ]
206 T Mnuh 'Women in Africa's development: Overcoming obstacles, pushing for progress' (2008) 11 Africa Recovery Briefing Paper, http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/bpaper/maineng.htm (accessed 1 October 2011).         [ Links ]
207 L Moreno-Ocampo 'Keynote address: Integrating the work of the ICC into local justice initiatives' (2006) 21 American University International Law Review 497 503.         [ Links ]
208 Citizens For Global Solutions 'In uncharted waters: Seeking justice before the atrocities have ended: The International Criminal Court in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo' June 2004 11 http://archive1.globalsolutions.org/programs/law_justice/icc/resources/uncharted_waters.pdf (accessed 1 October 2011).         [ Links ]
209 B Olugbuo 'Implementation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court in Africa: An analysis of the South African legislation' (2004) 1 Eyes on ICC 191 203.         [ Links ]
210 A Triponel & S Pearson 'What do you think should happen? Public perception in transitional justice' (2010) 22 Pace International Law Review 103 105.         [ Links ]

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