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African Human Rights Law Journal

On-line version ISSN 1996-2096
Print version ISSN 1609-073X

Afr. hum. rights law j. vol.11 n.2 Pretoria  2011


Unique in international human rights law: Article 20(2) and the right to resist in the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights



Shannonbrooke Murphy

PhD Candidate, Department of Law, Middlesex University, London, UK




This article analyses article 20(2) of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights codifying the human right to resist, a unique provision without equivalent in other international treaties, affirming that '[c]olonised or oppressed peoples' have a right 'to free themselves from the bonds of domination by resorting to any means recognised by the international community'. It proposes a two-part test which assesses the grounds for a claim under article 20(2) based on 'oppression' and the scope of consequently permissible means separately, incorporating a consideration of necessity and proportionality. Applying the primary 'grounds' test, positive findings are possible in more than foreign invasion and occupation cases. Peoples facing massive violations amounting to crimes against humanity or genocide, coups d'état or other unconstitutional rule could qualify. Provided all other required conditions are convincingly established, minority peoples facing systematic discrimination and exclusion could also qualify, as could majorities or minorities in situations of foreign economic domination amounting to an interference with the right to self-determination. Systematic violations of economic and social rights of either a majority or a minority people could also produce a valid claim to a right to resist economic 'oppression'. Regarding the secondary 'means' test, adjudicators are constrained by the lack of clear permissions in established customary law on the right to employ armed force to resist domestic oppression. For otherwise illegal means short of armed force - those peaceful and other means that are at the illegal end of the spectrum of tactics and therefore not generally authorised due to ordinary limitations under the lex generalis - the gaps in the law resulting from both 'constructive ambiguity' and limited findings in the universal system may provide greater latitude. These create openings for fresh African construction, particularly as to exceptionally authorised peaceful but otherwise illegal means.



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* BA (Hons) (Toronto), LLM (Ireland Galway); This article was first presented as a paper at the conference Thirty years of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: Looking forward while looking back, Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, 11 July 2011.
1 Art 20(2) African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, adopted 27 June 1981, entered into force 21 October 1986, OAU Doc CAB/LEG/67/3/Rev.5 (1982); reprinted in C Heyns & M Killander (eds) Compendium of key human rights documents of the African Union (2010) 29.         [ Links ]
2 H Lauterpacht International law and human rights (1950) 116.         [ Links ]
3 UN Human Rights Council 'Progress report of the Human Rights Council Advisory Committee on the right of peoples to peace' 1 April 2011, UN Doc A/HRC/17/39 (2011) 9-10 paras 35-37.         [ Links ]
4 See S Murphy 'The "right to resist" reconsidered' in DP Keane & Y McDermott (eds) The challenge of human rights: Past, present and future (forthcoming 2012).         [ Links ]
5 Lauterpacht (n 2 above) 73-126 326.
6 Eg the Athenian doctrine of tyrannicide, found in Solon's Law and in the Decrees of Eucrates and Demophantus, transposed into Roman law; see JF McGlew Tyranny and political culture in ancient Greece (1993) 88 185-187;         [ Links ] O Jászi & JD Lewis Against the tyrant: The tradition and theory of tyrannicide (1957);         [ Links ] the Confucian doctrine of tyrannicide according to Mencius; see Mencius (trans) DC Lau (2003) bk 1 pt B:8, bk II pt B:14, bk VII pt A: 31 and CS Lo 'Human rights in the Chinese tradition' in UNESCO 'Human rights: Comments and interpretations' (July 1948) UNESCO Doc PHS/3(rev) 25 185-186;         [ Links ] and the Islamic doctrine of jihad in The Qur'an trans MAS Abdel Haleem (2004) 4:75 with explanation at xxii. Likewise, in pre-colonial Africa, Ashanti kings were 'ritually warned against dictatorship and abuse of office' according to UO Umozurike The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (1997) 15.         [ Links ] See also CH Heyns 'A "struggle" approach to human rights' in C Heyns & K Stefiszyn (eds) Human rights, peace and justice in Africa: A reader (2006) 28 on the analogous traditional norms in African customary law.         [ Links ]
7 Eg Locke's 'doctrine of the lawfulness of resisting all unlawful exercises of power'; J Locke Two treatises of government P Haslett (ed) (1988), esp 'Of tyranny' and 'Of the dissolution of government' Second treatise ch XIX 415 para 226; ch XIX 427-428 para 243; ch XVIII 402-403 paras 206-207.         [ Links ]
8 Eg H Grotius The law of war and peace: Selections from De jure belli ac pacis (trans) WSM Knight (1939) bk I ch IV paras i3, vii4, viii4; bk II ch XXV para viii2; E de Vattel The law of nations: Or, principles of the law of nature applied to the conduct and affairs of nations and sovereigns trans CG Fenwick (1916) bk I ch IV para 54.
9 Magna Carta (1215) clause 61.
10 'Draft outline of an International Bill of Human Rights (prepared by the Division of Human Rights of the Secretariat)' 1947 UN Yearbook of Human Rights 484 (Humphrey draft) art 29; 'Suggestions submitted by the Republic of France for articles of the International Declaration of Human Rights' 1947 UN Yearbook of Human Rights 495-498 (Cassin draft) art 25.
11 T Honoré 'The right to rebel' (1988) 8 Oxford ¡ournal of Legal Studies 34 35-36.         [ Links ]
12 A Eide 'The right to oppose violations of human rights: Basis, conditions and limitations' in UNESCO Violations of human rights: Possible rights of recourse and forms of resistance (1984) 44-53;         [ Links ] TV Minh 'Political and juridical sanctions against violations of human rights' UNESCO (above) 157 163;         [ Links ] C Tomuschat 'The right of resistance and human rights,' UNESCO (above) 20 24; Honoré (n 11 above) 38-40.
13 Eide (n 12 above) 54; Minh (n 12 above) 161-162; Tomuschat (n 12 above) 25; RE Schwartz 'Chaos, oppression, and rebellion: The use of self-help to secure individual rights under international law' (1994) 12 Boston University International Law journal 255 256-257.
14 Eide (n 12 above) 34-35 54-58 60-63; Tomuschat (n 12 above) 19 27 30; JJ Paust 'The human right to participate in armed revolution and related forms of social violence: testing the limits of permissibility' (1983) 32 Emory Law journal 545 569;         [ Links ] A Kauf-mann 'Small scale right to resist' (1985-1986) 21 New England Law Review 571 574;         [ Links ] Honoré (n 11 above) 43 52; Schwartz (n 13 above) 265-269 273-276 278-284.
15 n 3 above, 10 sec D 'proposed standards'.
16 UN Human Rights Council 'Resolution on Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace' 10 June 2011 UN Doc A/HRC/17/L.23 (2011) paras 14-17 deferred substantive consideration of the proposed draft text until 2012.
17 Murphy (n 4 above).
18 As above.
19 According to Heyns & Kaguongo, as of 2006, 16 African constitutions protected this right, as follows: Benin (arts 19 & 66); Burkina Faso (art 167); Cameroon (Preamble); Cape Verde (art 19); Chad (Preamble); Congo (art 10); Democratic Republic of Congo (art 28); The Gambia (art 6); Ghana (art 3); Guinea (art 19); Mali (art 121); Mozambique (art 80); Niger (art 13); Rwanda (art 48); Togo (arts 21, 45 & 150); and Uganda (arts 3(5) & (6)). C Heyns & W Kaguongo 'Constitutional human rights law in Africa' (2006) 22 South African journal on Human Rights 673 678 fn 20. It is not, however, clear that the Cameroon and Guinea provisions cited above should be included in this list. In addition, the correct provision numbers for the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda are as in n 20 below. In subsequent developments, at the time of writing the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan (2011) contains a duty-only provision at art 4(3) modified from the Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan (2005)'s binary right/duty to resist at art 4(2). The Constitution of the Republic of Kenya (2010) does not contain such a provision.
20 Eg Constitution of the Republic of Honduras (1982) art 3; Constitution of the Republic of Uganda (1995) arts 3(4) & 3(5).
21 Eg American Declaration of Independence (1776) Preamble para 2; Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (1976) art 21; Constitution of the Republic of Cape Verde (1992) art 19; Constitution of Slovakia (1992) art 32.
22 'Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law.' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted 10 December 1948, GA Res 217A (III) UN Doc A/810 71 (1948) (Universal Declaration) Preamble para 3.
23 See the accounts in J Morsink 'The philosophy of the Universal Declaration' (1984) 6 Human Rights Quarterly 309 322-325;         [ Links ] J Morsink The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Origins, drafting and intent (1999) 308-312.         [ Links ]
24 Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation Among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, UNGA Res 2625 (XXV) UN Doc A/5217 (1970) 121 (UNGA Res 2625). See principle 1 para 7; principle 3 para 3; and especially principle 5 paras 5 & 7.
25 Conclusions affirming the right to resist appear in the respective reports of the former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan, Special Rapporteur on Palestine, Richard Falk, and Judge Richard Goldstone. Report of the UN Secretary-General to the UN General Assembly 'In larger freedom: Towards development, security and human rights for 'Human rights situation in Palestine and other Occupied Arab Territories: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967' 11 February 2009, UN Doc A/HRC/10/20 18 paras 40-41; UN Human Rights Council 'Human rights situation in Palestine and other Occupied Arab Territories: Report of the United Nations fact finding mission on the Gaza conflict' 15 September 2009, UN Doc A/HRC/12/48 520 pt 5 XXX A para 1672.
26 See discussion in F Ouguergouz The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: A comprehensive agenda for human dignity and sustainable democracy in Africa (2003) 230-236.         [ Links ]
27 Specifically at principle 5 para 7 (n 24 above).
28 See discussion in Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 230-236.
29 'All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.' International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976 GA Res 2200A (XXI) UN Doc A/6316 (1966) (ICCPR) art 1; International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted 16 December 1966 entered into force 3 January 1976, GA Res 2200A (XXI) UN Doc A/6316 (1966) art 1.
30 'Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without [discrimination] and without unreasonable restrictions ... [t]o take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives ... [t]o vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors.' ICCPR (n 29 above) art 25; 'Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes . [t]o ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy.' ICCPR (n 29 above) art 2(3)(a). See M Nowak UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - CCPR commentary (1993) 23 para 34; A Rosas 'Article 21' in G Alfredsson & A Eide (eds) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A common standard of achievement (1999) 432 434 441-442 449 451.
31 Murphy (n 4 above).
32 Art 20(1) African Charter.
33 Art 20(2) African Charter.
34 Art 20(3) African Charter.
35 Art 2(4) Arab Charter on Human Rights, League of Arab States adopted 22 May 2004, entered into force 15 March 2008.
36 UN Human Rights Council Advisory Committee 'Progress report on the right of peoples to peace' 22 December 2010 UN Doc/A/HRC/AC/6/CRP.3 para 22(d).
37 The phrase used in art 25 of the Cassin Draft of the Universal Declaration; see n 10 above.
38 Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 203-269, especially 261-269.
39 E Kodjo 'The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights' (1990) 11 Human Rights Law journal 271 272-274 281-282.
40 F Viljoen 'The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: The travaux préparatoires in the light of subsequent practice' (2004) 25 Human Rights Law journal 315-316 325. Viljoen compiles and compares the few available records on the substantive provisions as research complementary to BG Ramcharan 'The travaux préparatoires of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights' (1992) 13 Human Rights Law journal 307. See also NS Rembe The system of protection of human rights under the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: Problems and prospects (1991) 4-5.
41 Art 60 African Charter: 'The Commission shall draw inspiration from international law on human and peoples' rights, particularly from the provisions of various African instruments on human and peoples' rights, the Charter of the United Nations, the Charter of the Organization of African Unity, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, other instruments adopted by the United Nations and by African countries in the field of human and peoples' rights as well as from the provisions of various instruments adopted within the Specialized Agencies of the United Nations of which the parties to the present Charter are members.' Art 61 African Charter: 'The Commission shall also take into consideration, as subsidiary measures to determine the principles of law, other general or special international conventions, laying down rules expressly recognized by member states of the Organization of African Unity, African practices consistent with international norms on human and peoples' rights, customs generally accepted as law, general principles of law recognized by African states as well as legal precedents and doctrine.'
42 Nigeria Media Rights Agenda & Others v Nigeria (2000) AHRLR 200 (ACHPR 1998) paras 65-70.
43 Art 23(1) African Charter: 'All peoples shall have the right to national and international peace and security.'
44 Art 23(2) African Charter: 'For the purpose of strengthening peace, solidarity and friendly relations, states parties to the present Charter shall ensure that: (a) any individual enjoying the right of asylum . shall not engage in subversive activities against his country of origin or any other state party to the present Charter; (b) their territories shall not be used as bases for subversive or terrorist activities against the people of any other state party to the present Charter.'
45 Definition of Aggression UNGA Res 3314 (XXIX) (17 December 1974) UN Doc A/9619 and Corr 1.
46 Charter of the United Nations adopted 26 June 1945, entered into force 24 October 1945, as amended by UNGA Res 1991 (XVIII) of 17 December 1963 entered into force 31 August 1965, 557 UN Treaty Series 143; 2101 of 20 December 1965 entered into force 12 June 1968, 638 UN Treaty Series 308; and 2847 (XXVI) of 20 December 1971 entered into force 24 September 1973, 892 UN Treaty Series 119 (UN Charter) art 2(4); Charter of the Organisation of African Unity entered into force 13 September 1963, 479 UN Treaty Series 39 (OAU Charter) art 3.
47 Democratic Republic of the Congo v Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda (2004) AHRLR 19 (ACHPR 2003) paras 76-77.
48 In addition, Umozurike has noted a general preference for reconciliatory approaches rooted in African traditions of dispute settlement, which are also bound to influence recommendations, even in the event of positive findings on art 20(2). See Umozurike (n 6 above) 92.
49 Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 345, esp fn 1211.
50 Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 353. That the art 23 right to peace is effectively a right of peoples against states is emphasised in C Baldwin & C Morel 'Group rights' in M Evans & R Murray (eds) The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights: The system in practice, 1986-2006 (2008) 279-282.
51 Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 334-335.
52 At the time of writing, decisions of the African Commission on individual communications were only available up to the 28th Activity Report covering the period to July 2010.
53 Katangese Peoples' Congress vZaire (2000) AHRLR 72 (ACHPR 1995). The African Commission found no merit in the claim to a right to self-determination of the 'Katangese people' under art 20(1) and an alleged consequent right to recognition of the claimant organisation as a national liberation movement and to assistance in their secession bid under art 20(3), as the claimant failed to adduce any evidence of the status of the Katangese as a 'people' within the meaning of the African Charter, and to provide further evidence establishing their exclusion from the political process.
54 jawara vThe Gambia (2000) AHRLR 107 (ACHPR 2000). In considering this claim taken by an ousted head of state, the African Commission held that a military coup d'état constitutes a 'grave' violation of the right to self-determination under art 20(1), and that such conditions preclude availability of an effective remedy through the courts.
55 Gunme & Others v Cameroon (2009) AHRLR 9 (ACHPR 2009). While the African Commission found that the Southern Cameroonians have a valid claim to self-determination as a 'people' based upon their distinct identity, it found no violation of their right to self-determination because no violation of their right to political participation within the unitary state had been established.
56 Gunme (n 55 above) paras 169 & 174.
57 Gunme (n 55 above) para 171.
58 Gunme (n 55 above) para 178.
59 Gunme (n 55 above) para 181.
60 Katangese Peoples' Congress vZaire (n 53 above) para 6. Art 13 reads '(1) Every citizen shall have the right to participate freely in the government of his country, either directly or through freely chosen representatives, in accordance with the provisions of the law ... (3) Every individual shall have the right of access to public property and services in strict equality of all persons before the law.'
61 Constitutional Rights Project & Another v Nigeria (2000) AHRLR 191 (ACHPR 1998) paras 51-53.
62 Gunme (n 55 above) paras 194 & 199-200, citing Katangese Peoples' Congress vZaire (n 53 above) para 6.
63 Gunme (n 55 above) para 190.
64 Gunme (n 55 above) para 191.
65 Gunme (n 55 above) para 188, citing Katangese Peoples' Congress vZaire (n 53 above) para 4.
66 Gunme (n 55 above) para 197.
67 jawara v The Gambia (n 54 above) paras 72-73.
68 jawara v The Gambia (n 54 above) paras 28-40.
69 jawara v The Gambia (n 54 above) paras 31-32.
70 jawara v The Gambia (n 54 above) para 38.
71 jawara v The Gambia (n 54 above) paras 34-37 & 40.
72 Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 208 fn 694.
73 Viljoen (n 40 above) 325-326.
74 The French version reads: 'Les peuples colonisés ou opprimés ont le droit de se libérer de leur état de domination en recourant a tous moyens reconnus par le Communauté internationale.'
75 A Stevenson (ed) Oxford dictionary of English (2010).
76 M Kennedy (ed) The Oxford dictionary of law enforcement (2007).
77 BA Garner (ed) Black's law dictionary (1999) 1121.
78 Garner (n 77 above).
79 JB Saunders (ed) Words and phrases legally defined (1989) 281.
80 Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 208 fn 694.
81 See the discussion in Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 227-241; A Cassese Self-determination of peoples: A legal reappraisal (1995) 150-155 108-120 takes the more conservative approach, limiting the application to racial and religious groups constituting a minority 'people'.
82 Ouguergouz (n 26 above) 235 242-243.
83 The issue of the right to resist was never openly aired nor directly stated. However, the resolutions themselves contain implicit recognitions, as did the contributions of certain Security Council members during the debates; see UN Security Council UNSC Resolution 1970 26 February 2011, UN Doc S/Res/1970 (2011); UNSC Resolution 1973 17 March 2011, UN Doc S/Res/1973 (2011); UNSC Verbatim Record 26 February 2011, UN Doc S/PV 6491; UNSC Verbatim Record 17 March 2011, UN
84 Art 21 ICCPR: 'The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.'
85 Art 19(2) ICCPR: 'Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds ... through any ... media of his choice.' Art 19(3) ICCPR: 'The exercise of [this right] carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary (a) for respect of the rights or reputations of others; (b) for the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.'
86 Communication 412/1990, Kivenmaa v Finland UN HR Committee 10 June 1994, UN Doc C/50/D/412 paras 6.2 & 9.3.
87 Communication 628/1995, Tae Hoon Park v Republic of Korea UNHR Committee 3 November 1998, UN Doc C/64/D/628/1995 paras 2.4, 9.3 & 10.3.
88 Nowak (n 30 above) 439 445.
89 Communication 384/1989, GB v France, UNHR Committee 1 November 1991, UN Doc C/43/D/348/1989 para 5.2; Communication 347/1988, SG v France, UNHR Committee 1 November 1991, UN Doc C/43/D/347/1988.
90 Nowak (n 30 above) 477 485-487. See also JP Humphrey 'Political and related rights' in T Meron (ed) Human rights in international law: Legal and policy issues (1984) 188, cited and concurred with in the dissenting opinion of Kurt Herndl in Kivenmaa v Finland (n 86 above) dissenting opinion of Kurt Herndl paras 3.1-3.5.
91 Nowak (n 30 above) 487.
92 Nowak (n 30 above) 487-488.
93 As above.
94 Nowak (n 30 above) 494.
95 On necessity and proportionality in relation to the right to resist, see Eide (n 12 above) 54-56 60-63; Tomuschat (n 12 above) 19 27 30; Paust (n 14 above) 569; Kaufmann (n 14 above) 574; Schwartz (n 13 above) 265-269 273-276 278-284.
96 Communication 386/1989 Koné v Senegal, UNHR Committee 27 October 1994, UN Doc C/52/D/386/1989 paras 2.1, 2.3, 3, 6.8, 7.4, 7.7 & 8.5.
97 Communication 518/1992, Sohn v Republic of Korea, UNHR Committee 3 August 1995, UN Doc C/54/D/518/1992 paras 7.1-7.2, 8.1, 9.1, 9.3 & 10.2.
98 Communication 1014/2001, Baban v Australia, UNHR Committee 18 September 2003, UN Doc C/78/D/1014/2001 paras 3.4, 4.5 & 6.7.
99 General Comment 10 Freedom of Expression (art 19) UNHR Committee, UN Doc A/29/06/83 (1983) para 4.
100 It is unfortunate that the complainant's submissions under art 20(1) in Courson v Equitorial Guinea, challenging a prosecution for high treason allegedly on the basis of political opinion manifest in participation in an election boycott, relying in part on art 20(1), failed to adduce evidence sufficient to enable the African Commission to consider this question and the claim was therefore dismissed. Courson vEquitorial Guinea (2000) AHRLR 93 (ACHPR 1997) paras 17-19.
101 Art 45 African Charter; Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Establishment of an African Court of Human and Peoples Rights 9 June 1998, OAU Doc OAU/LEG/EXP/AFCHPR/PROT (III) arts 3-5.
102 See eg AU Peace and Security Council Communique 23 February 2011, AU Doc PSC/ PR/COMM (CCXLI); African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights 'Resolution on the human rights situation in the Great Socialist Republic of the Libyan Arab Jama-hiriya' 1 March 2011, AU Doc ACHPR/Res/181 (EXT.OS/IX) (2011); Libya AU Peace and Security Council Communique 10 March 2011, AU Doc PSC/PR/COMM.2 (CCXLV) ('AU roadmap for resolution to the Libyan crisis'); African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights v Great Socialist Peoples' Libyan Arab jamahiriya (App 004/2011) Order for Provisional Measures (ACtHPR 25 March 2011); AU Peace and Security Council Communique (26 April 2011) AU Doc PSC/MIN/COMM.2 (CCLXXV) and AU Peace and Security Council 'Report of the chairperson of the commission on the activities of the AU high level ad hoc committee on the situation in Libya' (26 April 2011) AU Doc PSC/PR/2 (CCLXXV); UN Human Rights Council 'Report of the International Commission of Inquiry to investigate all alleged violations of international human rights law in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya' (1 June 2011) UN Doc A/HRC/17/44.
103 Art 3(h) Constitutive Act of the African Union, entered into force 26 May 2001, OAU Doc CAB/LEG/23.15: 'The objectives of the Union shall be to ... promote and protect human and peoples' rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other relevant human rights instruments .'
104 Art 4(p) Constitutive Act of the African Union: 'The Union shall function in accordance with the following principles [including] . condemnation and rejection of unconstitutional changes of government.' OAU Declaration on the Framework for an OAU Response to Unconstitutional Changes of Government (2000) OAU Doc AHG/Decl.5 (XXXVI); and African Union, art 3.1 African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance 30 January 2007, (accessed 15 June 2011).

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