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African Human Rights Law Journal

On-line version ISSN 1996-2096
Print version ISSN 1609-073X

Afr. hum. rights law j. vol.9 n.1 Pretoria  2009

 

ARTICLES

 

Public declaration of assets in Nigeria: Conflict or synergy between law and morality?

 

 

Ilias B Lawal

Lecturer and Sub-Dean (Postgraduate), Faculty of Law, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 

 


SUMMARY

The Nigerian Constitution seeks to prevent corruption and abuse of office through its provisions on the declaration of assets by public officers. Although they are not obliged to do so, many public officers have publicly declared their assets. This has in turn put pressure on others to do so. In forging a synergy between the law and practice of asset declaration in Nigeria, the paper examines the human rights implications of the recent trend and proffers suggestions for improvement.


 

 

“Full text available only in PDF format”

 

 

* LLB (Hons) (Ibadan), LLM (Ife); iliaslawal@yahoo.com
1 See para 11 of the Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
2The Punch 29 June 2007 4.
3 As above.
4 For the different reactions, see This Day 3 July 2007 7; The Nation 10 July 2007 48.
5 The Guardian 10 July 2007.
6 The Guardian 1 August 2007 1.
7 The Guardian 7 August 2007 1.
8 As above.
9The Vaunguard 9 August 2007 1.
10 IE Craig (ed) Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy (1998) 544.         [ Links ]
11 B Jones 'A' level law (1981) 4.         [ Links ]
12 Craig (n 10 above) 460.
13 As above.
14 RMW Dias Jurisprudence (1985) 215.         [ Links ]
15 Jones v Randall (1774) 1 Cowp 17 39; R v Delaval (1963) 3 Burr 1438.
16 Eg Scrutton LJ in In Re Wigzell, ex parte Hart (1921) 2 KB 835 859.
17 For further explication on this, see HLA Hart The concept of law, cited in LB Curson Jurisprudence (1995) 234-235;         [ Links ] Dias (n 14 above) 111.
18 Para 1, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
19 Para 2, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
20 Para 3, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
21 Para 4, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
22 Para 5, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
23 Para 6, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
24 Para 7, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
25 Para 8, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
26 Para 9, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
27 Para 10, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
28 Para 11, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
29 Para 12, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
30 Para 13, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
31 Para 14, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
32 Para 15, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
33 Para 16, Part II, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
34 See secs 161 & 196 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution; see also JOA Akintayo 'Pension rights of political office holders in Nigeria' (2005) 4 University of Ibadan Journal of Private and Business Law 107.         [ Links ]
35 See secs 152 & 196(4) of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution; see also Akintayo (n 34 above) 107.
36 BO Nwabueze Ideas and facts in constitution making (1993) 156.         [ Links ]
37 As above.
38 Para 1 Part I, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
39 Para 2(a) Part 1, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
40 Para 2(b) Part 1, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
41 Nwankwo v Nwankwo (1995) 30 LRC 24 33.
42 O Aguda Understanding the Nigerian Constitution 1999 (2000) 247.         [ Links ]
43 IB Lawal 'The code of conduct and the fight against corruption in Nigeria: A conspectus' (2006) 2 Abakaliki Bar Journal 107.         [ Links ]
44 Onyeukwu v The State (2000) FWLR (Part 6) 983.
45 Para 3 Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
46 Para 4 Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
47 The justification of this provision is seriously doubted with the recently-introduced contributory pension scheme by the Pension Reforms Act of 2004.
48 Para 5 Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
49 JO Akande Introduction to 1999 Nigerian Constitution (2000) 522.
50 n 49 above.
51 See The Punch 29 June 2007 54 and The Vanguard 9 August 2007 1, respectively.
52 Y Akinseye-George Legal system, corruption and governance in Nigeria (2000).         [ Links ]
53 S Rose-Ackerman Corruption in government (1999) 92.         [ Links ]
54 As above.
55 As above.
56 B Lightower Corruption: Who cares? (2008) 30.         [ Links ]
57 As above.
58 CR Snyman Criminal law (1995) 372.
59 Para 11(2) Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
60 Para 11(3) Part 1, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
61 Para 13 Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
62 Para 14(b) Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
63 Akande (n 49 above) 55 56.
64 As above.
65 Lakanmi v Attorney-General, Western Nigeria (1971) IUILR 218.
66 The Nigerian Observer 20 July 2005 4.
67 The Vanguard 9 August 2007 1.
68 See secs 140, 185, 52, 94 & 152 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution on the President, Governor, Members of the National Assembly, Members of State Houses of Assembly and Special Advisers.
69 This is contained on the asset declaration form.
70 Eg, in July 2007 the Code of Conduct Bureau cried out that many state governors were yet to declare their assets about two months after assumption of office; The Nation 9 July 2007 1.
71 See sec 149(c) of the Evidence Act, Cap E 14 Laws of Federation of Nigeria, 2004.
72 Aguda (n 42 above) 249-250.
73 As above.
74 As above.
75 As above.
76 Akande (n 49 above) 105.
77 Sec 2, Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act Cap C 151 Laws of Federation of Nigeria, 2004.
78 Paras 1(a) & (b) Part I Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
79 See sec 154(1) of the 1999 Nigeria Constitution.
80 The Federal executive bodies are the Code of Conduct Bureau, the Council of State, the Federal Character Commission, the Federal Civil Service Commission, the Independent National Electoral Commission, the National Defence Council, the National Judicial Council, the National Population Commission, the National Security Council, the Police Service Commission and the Revenue Mobilisation and Fiscal Commission.
81 Secs 156(1) & (b) of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
82 See proviso to sec 156(b)(2) of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
83 Part I para 3(a) Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
84 Para 3(b) Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
85 Para 3(c) Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
86 Para 3(d) Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
87 Para 3(e) Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
88 Para 3(f) Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
89 Para 3(g) Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
90 See sec 84(4) of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution. According to Akintayo (n 34 above), the consolidated revenue fund relates to accounts maintained for the benefit of the Federal Government.
91 See sec 158(1) of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
92 See sec 157(1) of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
93 Lawal (n 43 above) 114.
94 Cap E 14 Laws of Federation of Nigerian, 2004. See also sec 7 of the Ugandan Leadership Code Act, 2002.
95 B Owasanoye 'Transparency, accountability and good government under the 1999 Constitution' in IA Ayua et al (eds) Nigeria: Issues in the 1999 Constitution (2000) 234-238.
96 Para 15(1) Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
97 Para 15(2) Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
98 Para 15(3) Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
99 A Emiola Public servants and the law (2001) 31.         [ Links ]
100 As above.
101 Para 17(1) Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
102 Para 17(2) Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
103 Para 17(3) Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
104 BO Nwabueze Nigerian presidential Constitution (1979-8) (1985) 297.         [ Links ]
105 JO Sokefun 'Independence of the judiciary' in JO Sokefun (ed) Issues in constitutional law and practice in Nigeria (2002) 199.         [ Links ]
106 B Raoul Impeachment: The constitutional problems (1974) 183-184.         [ Links ]
107 Rees v Crane (1994) 2 AC 173.
108 Para 15(4) Part I Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Constitution.
109 (1995) 30 LRCN 24.
110 See also Oguagbu v Ogbuagbu 1981 2NCLR 600; Oloyo v Alegbe (1982) 3 NCLR 346.
111 (1982) 3 NCLR 339 341.
112 (1982) 3 NCLR 342 345. Since the Supreme Court's decision in Nwankwo v Nwankwo is the later in time, these cases seem to have been wrongly decided.
113 Para 18(2)(a) Part 1, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
114 Para 18(2)(b) Part I, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
115 Para 18(2)(c) Part I, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
116 Para 18(3) Part I, Fifth Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
117 BO Nwabueze Military rule and constitutionalism (1992),         [ Links ] cited in Akinseye-George (n 52 above) 108.
118 As above.
119 Cap C 15 Laws Federation of Nigeria, 2004.
120 Cap C 31 Laws of Federation of Nigeria, 2004.
121 BO Nwabueze Constitutional democracy in Africa (2003) 305.         [ Links ]
122 FW Jjuuko 'The state and constitutionalism in Africa' (1995) 2 East African journal of Peace and Human Rights 20.         [ Links ]
123 A Lien A fragment of thought concerning the nature and fulfillment of human rights (1973) 24.         [ Links ]
124 These are the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights GA Res 2200 A (xxi), UN GAOR 21st session Supp No 1652 UN Doc A/6316 (1966) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights GA Res 2200A (xxi) UN GAOR 21st session Supp No 16 49 UN Doc A/6316 (1966).
125 Nwabueze (n 121 above) 305.
126 UO Umozurike The African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (1997) 1.         [ Links ]
127 See eg Universal Declaration of Human Rights arts 1-21, GA Res 217A (iii) UN GAOR, 3rd session UN Doc A/RES/810 1948, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and ch IV of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution, secs 33-44.
128 See International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and ch II of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution secs 13-24.
129 PR Schmidt 'African configuration in the right to a cultural heritage' (1995) 2 East African Journal for Peace and Human Rights 41.         [ Links ]
130 As above.
131 http://goliath.ecnext.Com/coms2/summary_0199-2719260199-2719246_ITM (accessed 31 January 2009).
132 As above.
133 GA Res 217A (iii) UN GAOR, 3rd sesson UN Doc A/RES/810 (1948).
134 RB Lillich 'Global protection of human rights' in T Meron (ed) Human rights in international law: Legal and policy issues (1989) 147.         [ Links ]
135 As above.
136 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950) 213 UNTS 221 136 140.         [ Links ]
137 American Convention on Human Rights (1969) 1144 UNTS 123, OASTS No 36; 124.
138 Lillich (n 134 above).
139 African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights (Banjul Charter) 1981 OAU Doc CAB/ LEG/67/3Rev 5, 21 International Legal Materials 58.
140 Art 4 African Charter.
141 Art 5 African Charter.
142 Art 6 African Charter.
143 K Malherbe 'Stretching solidarity too far: The impact of fraud and corruption on social security in South Africa' 2000 5 Law, Democracy and Development 121.         [ Links ]
144 AO Obilade 'The Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act and the right to privacy' in AO Obilade et al (eds) Contemporary issues in the administration of justice: Essays in honour of Justice Atinuke Ige (2001) 126.         [ Links ]
145 J Bentham An introduction to the principles of morals and legislation, cited in Obilade (n 144 above) 126.
146 As above.
147 As above.
148 T Osipitan et al 'Structuring measures against corruption for sustainable development' in NALT Proceedings of the 38 Annual Conference Faculty of Law LASU (2002) 334.         [ Links ]
149 As above.
150 As above.
151 As above.
152 As above.
153 GA Res 59 UN Doc A/64/Add. 1 a 95 (1946).
154 JP Humphrey 'Political and related rights' in Meron (n 134 above) 182.
155 As above.
156 As above.
157 S Hameso 'Politics of freedom of information in Africa' (1995) 26 Focus on International and Comparative Librarianship 156.         [ Links ]
158 V Ogwezzy 'Freedom of information as the fountain of all constitutional freedoms' unpublished LLB thesis, University of Ibadan, 2008 3.         [ Links ]
159 As above.
160 T Mendel Freedom of information: A comparative legal survey (2008) 3.         [ Links ]
161 As above.
162 Universal Declaration (n 127 above).
163 Humphrey (n 154 above) 182.
164 CCPR (n 124 above).
165 American Convention (n 137 above).
166 European Convention (n 136 above).
167 See also arts 19(3)(a) & (b) CCPR; art 13(2)(a)(b) American Convention; art 10(2) European Convention.
168 African Charter (n 139 above).
169 JA Yakubu Press law in Nigeria (1999) 10.         [ Links ]
170 A Ibidapo-Obe Essays on human rights law in Nigeria (2005) 120.         [ Links ] The First Amendment to the American Constitution provides that 'Congress shall make no law ... abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press.'
171Tony Momoh v The Senate (1981) 1 NCLR 105.
172 (1982) 3 NCLR 897.
173 (1961) 1 ALL NLR 199.
174 (1961) 1 ALL NLR 1.
175 (1985) 6 NCLR 228.
176 See, eg, Amakiri v Iworari (1974) 1 RSLR 5.
177 Ogwezzy (n 158 above) 2.
178 The countries are Albania (1999); Armenia (2003); Bosnia and Herzegovina (2000); Bulgaria (2000); Croatia (2003); Czech Republic (1999); Estonia (2000); Georgia (1999);Hungary (1992);Latvia (1998);Lithuania (2000);Macedonia (2006); Moldova (2000); Montenegro (2005); Poland (2001); Romania (2001); Serbia and Montenegro (2004); Slovakia (2000); Slovenia (2003); Ukraine (1992); and Kosova (2003). These are as listed in JA Goldstone 'Public interest litigation in Central and Eastern Europe: Roots, prospects and challenges' (2006) 28 Human Rights Quarterly 520-521.         [ Links ]
179 These are South Africa (2001); Zimbabwe (2002); Angola (2005); and Uganda (2005).
180 South Africa Promotion of Access to Information Act http://www.info.gov.za Vol 466 No 20852 - Cape Town 3 February 2000.         [ Links ]
181 Secs 9(a)(i) & (ii) of the Act.
182 Sec 9(d) of the Act.
183 Sec 9(e) of the Act.
184 Sec 11(e) of the Act.
185 Sec 50 of the Act.
186 See secs 25(1) & 56 of the Act respectively.
187 See sec 12(a) of the Act.
188 Secs 12(b) (i) & (ii) of the Act.
189 Sec 12(b)(iii) of the Act.
190 Secs 12(b) & (c) of the Act.
191 For a critique of the provisions of the Act, see J de Waal et al The Bill of Rights handbook (2001) 525-553.         [ Links ]
192 For a detailed discussion of the Freedom of Information Bill in Nigeria, see Oguezzy (n 158 above) 5-10.
193 Para 3(c) Part 1 Third Schedule to the 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
194 L Diamond Developing democracy (1999) 3.         [ Links ]
195 As above.
196 See generally JS Dryzek & C List' Social theory and deliberative democracy: A reconciliation' (2003) 33 British Journal of Political Science 1.         [ Links ]
197 As above.
198 J Rawls 'The idea of public reason revisited' (1997) 64 University of Chicago Law Review 771-772.         [ Links ]
199 Dryzek & List (n 196 above) 2.
200 K Arrow Social choice and individual values (1963),         [ Links ] cited in Dryzek & List (n 196 above) 2.
201 As above.
202 R Dahl Democracy and its critics (1989) 88-89.         [ Links ]
203 As above.
204 n 202 above, 88-89.
205 Diamond (n 194 above) 3.
206 As above.
207 Nwabueze (n 36 above) 4.
208 n 207 above, 5.
209 D Beetham 'Liberal democracy and limits of democratisation' in D Held (ed) Prospects for democracy (1999) 55,         [ Links ] cited in Nwabueze (n 121 above) 8.
210 As above.
211 Beetham (n 209 above) 9
212 F Turkmen 'The European Union and democratisation in Turkey: The role of the elites' (2008) 30 Human Rights Quarterly 146.         [ Links ]
213 n 212 above, 8.
214 PJ Kubicek 'International norms, European Union and democratisation: Tentative theory and evidence' in PJ Kubicek (ed) The European Union and democratisation (2003) 4-21,         [ Links ] cited in Turkmen (n 212 above).
215 NJ Udombana Human rights and contemporary issues in Africa (2003) 53.         [ Links ]
216 As above.
217 N Woods (1999) 5 Global Governance 43.         [ Links ]
218 UN Development Programme, 'Governance for sustainable human development, UNDP Policy Document' http://magnet,undp.org/policy/defaut.html (accessed 31 January 2009).         [ Links ]
219 'Promotion and consolidation of democracy' in UN ESCOR 53 session paragraph 81 UN Doc E/CN 4/Sub 2/2001/32 17 (2001).
220 TM Franck 'The emerging right to democratic governance' (1992) 86 American Journal of International Law 46.         [ Links ]
221 As above.
222 As above.
223 As above.
224 As above.
225 See 'Promotion of the right to democracy' Commission on Human Rights Res 1999/57, UN Doc E/CN.4/RES/1999/57 (1999).
226 Udombana (n 215 above) 157.
227 Art 1(2) of the United Nations Charter proclaims the principle of equal rights and self-determination.
228 The Universal Declaration provides for democratic governance thus: 'Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives' (art 21(1)).
229 Art 1(1) CCPR.
230 Opened for signature on 21 December 1965, 660 UNTS 85.
231 Opened for signature 1 March 1980, 1249 UNTS 14.
232 African Charter (n 139 above).
233 Art 13 African Charter.
234 See OAU Declaration on the political and socio-economic situation in Africa and the fundamental changes taking place in the world, adopted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on 11 July 1990.
235 Algiers Declaration, OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government 35th ordinary session Res AHG/Dec 1 (xxxv), OAU Doc DOC/OS/(XXVI) INE 17a (1999).
236 Lomé Declaration, OAU Doc AHG/Dec/.2 (XXXVI) 12 July 2000.
237 Declaration on the Framework for an OAU Response to Unconstitutional Change of Government, OAU Doc AHG/Dec/5 (XXXVI) (2000). This might be responsible for the random condemnation of the military coup of 24 December 2008 in Guinea by both the ECOWAS and the AU. The coup was led by Moussa Dadis Camara, an army captain.
238 African leaders adopted the AU on 11 July 2000, to replace the OAU Charter. See Constitutive Act of the AU (2000) 8 African Yearbook of International Law 479, art 33(1) 494.         [ Links ]
239 See OAU The New Partnership for Africa's Development (October 2001) http://www.iss.co.za/African_facts/RegOrganisations/unity_to_union/pdfs/oau/keydocs /NEPAD-PDF (accessed 31 January 2009).         [ Links ]
240 See OAU/AU Declaration on the Principles Governing Democratic Election in Africa, OAU Assembly of Heads of State and Government, 38th ordinary session, Durban, South Africa, 8 July 2002 AHG/Decl 1 (XXXVIII).
241 J O Akande Introduction to 1979 Nigerian Constitution (1982) 2.         [ Links ]
242 As above. In addition to this provision, the people can revolt against military adventurists through civil unrest and armed resistance. This has been effectively employed in Uganda, Somalia, Ethiopia, Mali and Liberia. In Nigeria, the former military leader, Ibrahim Babangida, was forced to 'step aside' due to intense civil unrest by pro-democracy groups and human rights activists after the annulment of the June 1993 elections, generally believed to have been won by Chief MKO Abiola.
243 Nwabueze (n 121 above) 37.
244 The last of such military takeover as at the time of writing this paper was in Guinea on 24 December 2008. The coup was led by Moussa Dadis Camera, an army captain who is thought to be in his mid-40s, and used to be in charge of fuel supplies. See International Herald Tribune 25 December 2008 1, and,for mixed reactions of African leaders, see All Cambia.net Editorial 12 January 2009 1.
245 Sec 14(2)(a) 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
246 FC Nwoke et al 'The rule of law as a cornerstone of democracy and good governance' in 39th Proceedings of Nigerian Annual Law Teachers Conference (2003) 85.         [ Links ]
247 Nwabueze (n 207 above) 140.
248 Secs 13-24 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
249 EEO Alemika 'Fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy within the framework of a liberal economy' in IA Ayua et al (eds) Issues in 1999 Nigerian Constitution (2000) 199.         [ Links ]
250 n 250 above, 156.
251 Nwabueze (n 207 above) 260.
252 BO Okere 'Fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy under the Nigerian Constitution' (1983) 32 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 214.         [ Links ]
253 See IB Lawal 'The role of the judiciary in the promotion of human rights and sustenance of democracy (2008) 2 Igbinedion University Law Journal 53.         [ Links ]
254 As above.
255 Sec 45(1)(a) 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
256 Sec 45(1)(b) 1999 Nigerian Constitution.
257 K Weyland 'The politics of corruption in Latin America' (1998) 9 Journal of Democracy 112.         [ Links ]
258 Weyland (n 257 above) 112.
259 Weyland (n 257 above) 113.
260 GR Montinola & RW Jackman 'Sources of corruption: A cross-country study' (2003) 32 British Journal of Political Science 147.         [ Links ]
261 As above.
262 IB Lawal 'Is executive immunity coterminous with executive corruption? (2006) 1 International Journal of Law and Contemporary Studies 325-346.         [ Links ]
263 4 of 2003.
264 Sec 25(1) Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
265 Sec 26(1) Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
266 Sec 29 Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
267 Sec 29(4)(a) Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
268 Sec 29(4)(b) Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
269 Sec 29(4)(b) Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
270 Sec 29(4)(c) Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
271 Sec 27(5) Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
272 Sec 4(a) Leadership Code Act 2002.
273 Sec 4(b) Leadership Code Act 2002.
274 Sec 4(3) Leadership Code Act 2002.
275 Sec 7 Leadership Code Act 2002.
276 Sec 35 Leadership Code Act 2002.
277 This section is substantially based on Global Integrity 2006 Country Report on Ghana; available at http://www.globaintegrity.org/reports/2006/Ghana/index.cfm, and 'Money laundering in relation to anticorruption commitments' http://www.iss.co.za/pubs/other/ahsi/Goredema_Botha/pt1chap4.pdf (accessed 31 January 2009).
278 Act 550.
279 Sec 4 of the Public Office Holders (Declaration of Assets and Disqualification) Act 1998; art 286 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana.
280 As above.
281 See 'Money laundering' (n 277 above) 39.
282 n 278 above.
283 As above.
284 E Westermarck The origin and development of moral ideas (1971) 314.         [ Links ]
285 AOO Ekpu 'Curbing corruption in Nigeria: The role of the Code of Conduct Bureau' (2004) 20 Benin Journal of Public Law 68-69.         [ Links ] See also sec 27(5) of Kenyan's Public Officers' Ethics Act 2003.
286 (1995) 30 LRC 24 33.
287 Eg, President Olusegun Obasanjo allegedly nullified the nation awards conferred on some Nigerians by General Abdusalami Abubakar in 1998 because some murder suspects were included on the list.
288 Diepreye Solomon Peter Alamieyeseigha, the impeached Governor of Bayelsa State, was convicted and sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment for corruption and money laundering offences in 2007. The sentences ran concurrently from the day he was incarcerated in December 2005. On his release from prison, he was accorded a heroic welcome, a motorcade of four kilometres reportedly heralded his entry into Yenagoa, the state capital. A sitting government also joined the welcome team. For an incisive comment on this action, see 'Alams the hero' The Vanguard Editorial 6 September 2007 18.         [ Links ]
289 As at the time of writing this paper, apart from the President, the Vice-President and the Secretary to the Government of the Federation, only three ministers had declared their assets publicly out of 39, four state governors out of 36 and one member of the National Assembly out of 469.
290 Cap E 14 Laws of Federation of Nigeria 2004.
291 Cap C 31 Laws of Federation of Nigeria 2004.
292 (2002) 27 WRN 1 SC. The constitutionality of the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act was challenged in this case. The Nigerian Supreme Court applied the blue pencil rule when all seven justices held that the plaintiff's action succeeded in part by holding that the Act is generally constitutional, while voiding secs 26(3) and 35 of the Act.

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