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Water SA

On-line version ISSN 1816-7950
Print version ISSN 0378-4738

Water SA vol.40 n.4 Pretoria Oct. 2014


MYODA SP, CARSON CA, FUHRMANN JJ, HAHM BK, HARTEL PG, YANPARALQUISE H, JOHNSON L, KUNTZ RL, NAKATSU CH, SADOWSKY MJ and SAMADPOUR M (2003) Comparison of genotypic-based microbiological source tracking methods requiring a host origin database. J. Water Health 4167-180.         [ Links ]

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+27 12 841-3950
Fax: +27 12 841-2560

Received 10 July 2007;
Accepted in revised form 13 November 2007.


Cyclodextrin polyurethanes polymerised with carbon nanotubes for the removal of organic pollutants in water



KL Salipira; BB Mamba; RW Krause; TJ Malefetse; SH Durbach

University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemical Technology, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, Johannesburg, South Africa





Organic compounds are some of the major pollutants of water worldwide. They can be toxic or carcinogenic even at low concentrations. The non-reactivity of these species makes it difficult to remove them from water, particularly when present at concentration levels of nanograms per litre (ng·-1) or lower. Reasonably inexpensive yet effective methods for the removal of these organic pollutants to below ppb levels are therefore required.
Insoluble cyclodextrin polyurethanes have demonstrated the ability to remove organic species from water at concentration levels of nanograms per litre. Carbon nanotubes have also been reported to efficiently adsorb some organic molecules such as dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans. However, these nanotubes are currently too expensive to be used on their own in water treatment.
An investigation into the use of cross-linked cyclodextrin polyurethanes copolymerised with functionalised multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for organic pollutants has yielded very useful results which may have an impact in future water treatment applications.

Keywords: multiwalled carbon nanotubes, cyclodextrins, polymer composites, adsorption, trichloroethylene, endocrine disruptors


"Full text available in PDF"



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+27 11 559 6516
Fax: +27 11 559 6425

Received 10 September 2007;
Accepted in revised form 14 November 2007.

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Fatty acids composition in South African freshwater fish as indicators of food quality



Erasmus ChaukeI; Ewa CukrowskaI; Mary-Jane Thaela-ChimukaII; Luke ChimukaI; Hermogene NsengimanaI; Hlanganani TutuI

ISchool of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050, Johannesburg, South Africa
IIAgricultural Research Council, Private Bag X2, Irene 0062, South Africa





Lipid classes and fatty acid composition of three commercially important freshwater fish species Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia), Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) and Cyprinus carpio (carp) obtained from an aquaculture, different river systems and fish markets from different provinces in South Africa were investigated. Fatty acids were extracted from the fish fillets through the Folch extraction method (using chloroform: methanol at the ratio of 2:1). Generally, tilapia fish species was found to be the richest in fatty acid composition. In all fish species analysed, palmitic acid (16:0) was found to be the most abundant fatty acid ranging from 18.24 to 21.84%. Appreciable quantities of essential polyunsaturated fatty acid such as docosahexaenoic (DHA) (22:6 n-3, 3.92 to 6.16%), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5 n-3, 1.91 to 2.92%) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6, 7.19 to 8.50%) were also found. Observations show that fish species obtained from Gauteng Province are richer in fatty acids compared to those in Limpopo Province. The study points out that all fish species investigated contain appreciable levels of Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and are therefore suitable for an unsaturated low-fat diet. This is important especially for poor communities who cannot afford to get a balanced diet, rich in some essential fatty acids.Therefore, it is important to determine the nutritional value of local fish, since it significantly contribute to a healthy diet in rural communities.

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