SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.34 issue3 author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand



Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Water SA

On-line version ISSN 1816-7950
Print version ISSN 0378-4738

Water SA vol.34 n.3 Pretoria Mar. 2008


Sample preparation using liquid membrane extraction techniques



Titus MsagatiI; Luke ChimukaII; Ewa CukrowskaII

IUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Chemistry, Private Bag X54001 Westville Campus, Durban 4000, South Africa
IISchool of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, WITS 2050, Jorissen Street, Braamfontein, Johannesburg, South Africa





A brief review is given of membrane extraction techniques that are seen as suitable for the extraction of various chemicals in water samples. Membrane-based extraction methods have now gained popularity as methods of choice in the extraction of both ionisable and non-ionisable molecules from different samples. The main attractive features for these techniques include the use of minimal organic solvents, high selectivity and clean-up efficiency, with high enrichment factors. In most cases the overall cost involved is low due to the simplicity of the techniques which normally involve relatively fewer steps and handling procedures as compared to many other sample-preparation techniques. The various forms and the configurations of membrane-based techniques are another attractive feature which allows the possibility of hyphenation with separation instruments such as gas/liquid chromatographs and even capillary electrophoresis.

Keywords: liquid membrane extraction techniques, sample preparation, water monitoring, organic and inorganic compounds


 "Full text available in PDF"



AMARA M and KERDJOUDJ H (2007) A modified anion-exchange membrane applied to purification of effluent containing different anions. Pre-treatment before desalination. Desalination 206 205-209.         [ Links ]

AROUS O, GHERROU A and KERDJOUDJ H (2004a) Removal of Ag(I), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions with a supported liquid membrane containing cryptands as carriers. Desalination 161 295-303.         [ Links ]

AROUS O, KERDJOUDJ H and SETA P (2004b) Comparison of carrier-facilitated silver (i) and copper (ii) ions transport mechanisms in a supported liquid membrane and in a plasticized cellulose triacetate membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 241 177-185.         [ Links ]

AUDUNSSON GA (1986) Aqueous-aqueous extraction by means of a liquid membrane for sample cleanup and preconcentration of amines in a flow system. Anal. Chem. 58 2714-2723.         [ Links ]

BARTOLOME L, LEZAMIZ J, ETXEBARRIA N, ZULOAGA O and JÖNSSON JA (2007) Determination of trace levels of dinitroph-enolic compounds by microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction in environmental water samples. J. Sep. Sci. 30 2144-2152.         [ Links ]

BASHEER C and LEE HK (2004) Hollow fiber membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction of triazine herbicides in bovine milk and sewage sludge samples. J. Chromatogr. A 1047 189-194.         [ Links ]

BASHEER C, BALASUBRAMANIAN R and LEE HK (2003) Determination of organic micropollutants in rainwater using hollow fiber membrane/liquid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A 1016 11-20.         [ Links ]

BERHANU T, LIU JF, ROMERO AR, MEGERSA N and JONSSON JA (2006) Determination of trace levels of dinitrophenolic compounds in environmental water samples using hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 1103 1-8.         [ Links ]

CHAO JB, LIU JF, WEN MJ, LIU JM, CAI YQ, and JIANG GB (2002) Determination of sulfonylurea herbicides by continuous-flow liquid membrane extraction on-line coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 955 183-189.         [ Links ]

CHIMUKA L, MEGERSA N, NORBERG J, MATHIASSON L and JONSSON JA (1998) Incomplete trapping in supported-liquid membrane extraction with a stagnant acceptor phase. Anal. Chem. 70 3906-3911        [ Links ]

CHIMUKA L, CUKROWSKA E and JONSSON JA (2004) Why liquid membrane extraction is an attractive alternative in sample preparation. Pure and Appl. Chem. 76 707-722        [ Links ]

CHIMUKA L, CUKROWSKA E, SOKO L and NAICKER K (2003) Supported-liquid membrane extraction as a selective sample-preparation technique for monitoring uranium in complex matrix samples. J. Sep. Sci. 26 601-608.         [ Links ]

CHIMUKA L, NINDI MM and JONSSON JA (1997) Supported liquid membrane enrichment studies of natural water samples applied to liquid chromatographic determination of triazines. Intem. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 68 429-445.         [ Links ]

CUKROWSKA E, NSENGIMANA H and CHIMUKA L (2007) Speciation of alkylead in aqueous samples with application of liquid membrane probe for extraction and preconconcentration. J. Sep. Sci. 30 2754-2759.         [ Links ]

CUKROWSKA E, CHIMUKA L, NSENGIMANA H and KWARAMBA V (2004) Application of supported liquid membrane probe for extraction and preconcentration of organotin compounds from environmental water samples. Anal. Chim. Acta 523141-147.         [ Links ]

DJANE NK, NDUNGU K, MALCUS F, JOHANSSON G and MATHIASSON L (1997a) Supported liquid membrane enrichment using an organophosphorus extractant for analytical trace metal determination in river waters. Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 358 822-827.         [ Links ]

DJANE NK, BERGDAHL IA, NDUNGU K, SCHUTZ A, JOHANSSON G and MATHIASSON L (1997b) Supported liquid membrane enrichment combined with atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of lead in urine. Analyst 122 1073-1077.         [ Links ]

DJANE NK, NDUNGU K, JOHANSSON C, SARTZ H, TORNSTROM T and MATHIASSON L (1999) Speciation of chromium in natural waters using serially connected supported liquid membranes. Talanta 48 1121-1132.         [ Links ]

DJANE NK, ARMALIS S, NDUNGU K, JOHANSSON G and MATHIASSON L (1998) Supported liquid membrane coupled on line to potentiometric stripping analysis at mercury-coated reticulated vitreous carbon electrode for trace metal determination in urine. Analyst 123 393-396.         [ Links ]

DRAPALA A, JONSSON JA and WIECZOREK (2005) Peptides analysis in blood plasma using on line system of supported liquid membrane and high performance liquid chromatography. Anal. Chim. Acta 553 9-14.         [ Links ]

DZIARKOWSKA K, JONSSON JA and WIECZOREK PP (2008) Single hollow fiber SLM extraction of polyamines followed by tosyl chloride derivatization and HPLC determination. Anal. Chim. Acta 606 184-193.         [ Links ]

DŻYGIEL P and WIECZOREK P (2001) Supported liquid membrane extraction of glyphosate metabolites. J. Sep. Sci. 24 561-566.         [ Links ]

EISERT R and PAWLISZYN J (1997) New trends in solid-phase micro-extraction. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27 103-135.         [ Links ]

FONTAS C, HIDALGO M, SALVADO V and ANTICO E (2005) Selective recovery and preconcentration of mercury with a benzoylthiou-rea-solid supported liquid membrane system. Anal. Chim. Acta 547 255-261.         [ Links ]

GAMEIRO MJF, BENTO P, ISMAEL MRC, REIS MTA and CAR-VALHO JMR (2007) Extraction of copper from ammoniacal medium by emulsion liquid membranes using LIX 54. J. Membr. Sci. 293 151-160.         [ Links ]

FOUAD EA and BART HJ (2008) Emulsion liquid membrane extraction of zinc by hollow fibre contactor. J. Membr. Sci. 307 156-168.         [ Links ]

GASSER MS, EL-HEFNY NE and DAOUD JA (2008) Extraction of Co (II) from aqueous solution using emulsion liquid membrane. J. Hazard. Mater. 151 610-615.         [ Links ]

HO WSW and WANG B (2002) Strontium removal by new alkyl phenylphosphonic acids in supported liquid membranes with strip dispersion. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41 381-388.         [ Links ]

HOU L and LEE HK (2002) Application of static and dynamic liquid-phase microextraction in the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J. Chromatogr. A 976 377-385.         [ Links ]

HOU L, SHEN G and LEE HK (2003) Automated hollow fiber-protected dynamic liquid-phase microextraction of pesticides for gas chromatography - Mass spectrometric analysis. J. Chromatogr. A 985 107-116.         [ Links ]

HYLTON K and MITRA S (2007) Automated, on-line membrane extraction. J. Chromatogr. A 1152 199-214.         [ Links ]

JÖNSSON JA and MATHIASSON L (1999) Liquid membrane extraction in analytical sample preparation II. Applications. Trends Anal. Chem. 18 325-334.         [ Links ]

JÖNSSON JA and MATHIASSON L (2000) Membrane extraction techniques in bioanalysis. Chromatographia 52 (Suppl. S) S8 - S11.         [ Links ]

JÖNSSON OB, NORDLOF U and NILSSON UL (2003) The XT-Tube extractor: A hollow fiber-based supported liquid membrane extractor for bioanalytical sample preparation. Anal. Chem. 75 3506-3511.         [ Links ]

JUANG RS and HUANG IP (2000) Hollow-fiber membrane extraction of copper (II) from aqueous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solutions with Aliquat 336. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 39 1409-1415.         [ Links ]

JUANG RS, CHEN JD and HUAN HC (2000) Dispersion-free membrane extraction: case studies of metal ion and organic acid extraction. J. Membr. Sci. 165 59-73.         [ Links ]

JUANG RS, KAO HC and WU WH (2004) Analysis of liquid membrane extraction of binary Zn(II) and Cd(II) from chloride media with Aliquat 336 based on thermodynamic equilibrium models. J. Membr. Sci. 228 169-177.         [ Links ]

KAGHAZCHI T, KARGARI A, YEGANI R and ZARE A (2006) Emulsion liquid membrane petraction of L-lysine from dilute aqueous solutions by D2EHPA mobile carrier. Desalination 190 161-171.         [ Links ]

KHROLENKO M, DZYGIEL P and WIECZOREK P (2002) Combination of supported liquid membrane and solid-phase extraction for sample pretreatment of triazine herbicides in juice prior to capillary electrophoresis determination. J. Chromatogr. A 975 219-227.         [ Links ]

KHROLENKO MV and WIECZOREK PP (2005) Determination of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid in fruit juices using supported-liquid membrane preconcentration method with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride. J. Chromatogr. A 1093 111-117.         [ Links ]

KUMBASAR RA and TUTKUN O (2008) Separation of cobalt and nickel from acidic solutions by emulsions using alamine 300 (TOA) as mobile carrier. Desalination 224 201-208.         [ Links ]

LEE SC (2008) Development of a more efficient emulsion liquid membrane system with dilute polymer solution for extraction of penicillin G. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 14 207-212.         [ Links ]

LINDEGARD B, JONSSON JA and MATHIASSON L (1992) Liquid membrane work-up of blood-plasma samples applied to gas-chromatographic determination of aliphatic-amines. J. Chromatogr. 573 191-200.         [ Links ]

LUTHJE K, HYOTYLAINEN T and RIEKKOLA ML (2004) On-line coupling of microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography in the analysis of organic pollutants in water. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 378 1991-1998.         [ Links ]

MA M, KANG S, ZHAO Q, CHEN B and YAO S, (2006) Liquid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of local anaesthetics in human urine. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 40 128-135.         [ Links ]

MAJORS RE (2003) Trends in sample preparation. LC-GC Europe (Feb.) 2-8.         [ Links ]

MEGERSA N and JÖNSSON JA (1998) Trace enrichment and sample preparation of alkylthio-s-triazine herbicides in environmental waters using a supported liquid membrane technique in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyst 123 225-231.         [ Links ]

MEGERSA N, CHIMUKA L, SOLOMON L and JONSSON JA (2001) Automated liquid membrane extraction and trace enrichment of triazine herbicides and their metabolites in environmental and biological samples. J. Sep. Sci. 24 567-576.         [ Links ]

MITRA S, ZHU N, ZHANG X AND KEBBEKUS B (1996) Continuous monitoring of volatile organic compounds in air emissions using an on-line membrane extraction-microtrap-gas chromatographic system. J. Chromatogr. A 736 165-173.         [ Links ]

MITRA S and KEBBEKUS B (1998) Environmental Chemical Analysis. Chapman and Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Florida.         [ Links ]

MSAGATI TAM and NINDI MM (2001) Determination of benzimidazole anthelmintic compounds by supported liquid membrane extraction and liquid chromatography. J. Sep. Sci. 24 606-614.         [ Links ]

MSAGATI TAM and NINDI MM (2004a) Multiresidue determination of sulfonamides in a variety of biological matrices by supported liquid membrane with high pressure liquid chromatography-electro-spray mass spectrometry detection. Talanta 64 87-100.         [ Links ]

MSAGATI TAM and NINDI MM (2004b) The use of supported liquid membranes in the extraction of macrolides in biomatrices. Michrochim. Acta 148 199-214.         [ Links ]

MSAGATI TAM AND NINDI MM (2005a) Supported liquid membrane extraction of anabolic androgenic compounds in biological matrices and detection by LC-ESI-MS. S. Afr. J. Chem. 58 67-73.         [ Links ]

MSAGATI TAM and NINDI MM (2005B) Application of supported liquid membranes in the multi-residue extraction of aminoglyco-side antibiotics in milk and urine. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 78 2135-2141.         [ Links ]

MSAGATI TAM and NINDI MM (2006) The use of liquid membranes in the multi-residue extraction of stilbenes in a variety of biological matrices and their detection with LC-ES-MS. Ann. di Chim. 96 635-646.         [ Links ]

MULUGETA M and MEGERSA N (2004), Carrier-mediated extraction of bipyridilium herbicides across the hydrophobic liquid membrane. Talanta 64 101-108.         [ Links ]

NDUNGÚ K, DJANE NK and MATHIASSON L (1998) Determination of trace metal ions by ion-pair chromatography after enrichment using supported liquid membrane. J. Chromatogr. A 826 103-108.         [ Links ]

NORA-ADISAK N and VARANUSUPAKUL P (2006) A simple supported liquid hollow fiber membrane microextraction for sample preparation of trihalomethanes in water samples. J. Chromatogr. A 1121 (2) 236-241.         [ Links ]

ORTIZ I, SAN ROMAN MF, CORVALAN SM and ELICECHE AM (2003) Modeling and optimization of an emulsion pertraction process for removal and concentration of Cr(VI). Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 42 5891-5899.         [ Links ]

PÁLMARSDÓTTIR S, MATHIASSON L, JÖNSSON JA and EDHOLM LE (1997) Determination of a basic drug, bambuterol, in human plasma by capillary electrophoresis using double stacking for large volume injection and supported liquid membranes for sample pre-treatment. J. Chromatogr. 688 127-134.         [ Links ]

PAPANTONI M, DJANE NK, NDUNGU K, JÖNSSON JA and MATHIASSON L (1995) Trace enrichment of metals using a supported liquid membrane technique. Analyst 120 1471-1477.         [ Links ]

PARTHASARATHY N, PELLETIER M and BUFFLE J (1997) Hollow fiber based supported liquid membrane: A novel analytical system for trace metal analysis. Anal. Chim. Acta 350 183-195.         [ Links ]

PATNAIK P (1997) Handbook of Environmental Analysis - Chemical Pollutants in Air, Water, Soil and Solid Wastes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.         [ Links ]

PAWLISZYN J (2003) Sample preparation: Quo Vadis? Anal. Chem. 75 2543-2558.         [ Links ]

QIN Y, SHETH JP and SIRKAR KK (2002) Supported liquid membrane-based pervaporation for VOC removal from water. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 41 3413-3428.         [ Links ]

ROMERO R and JÖNSSON JA (2005) Determination of free copper concentrations in natural waters by using supported liquid membrane extraction under equilibrium conditions. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 381 1452-1459.         [ Links ]

SABRY R, HAFEZ A, KHEDR M and EL-HASSANIN A (2007) Removal of lead by an emulsion liquid membrane: Part 1. Desalination 212 165-175.         [ Links ]

SANDAHL M, JONSSON JA and MATHIASSON L (2002) On-line automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography using parallel supported liquid membrane extraction and microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction. J. Chromatogr. A 975 211-217.         [ Links ]

SANDAHL M, MATHIASSON L and JONSSON JA (2000) Determination of thiophanate-methyl and its metabolites at trace level in spiked natural water using the supported liquid membrane extraction and the microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction techniques combined on-line with high-performance liquid chromato-graphy. J. Chromatogr. A 893 123-131.         [ Links ]

SHEN Y, GRONBERG L and JONSSON JA (1994) Experimental studies on the enrichment of carboxylic-acids with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide as extractant in a supported liquid membrane. Anal. Chim. Acta 292 31-39.         [ Links ]

SENGUPTA B, BHAKHAR MS and SENGUPTA R (2007) Extraction of copper from ammoniacal solution into emulsion liquid membrane using LIX 84 ®. Hydrometallurgy 89 311-318.         [ Links ]

SMITH JJ (1997) The Extraction of Nickel with the Use of Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM). WRC Report No. 617/1/97. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa.         [ Links ]

SMITH WF (2004) Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering (3rd edn.) McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.         [ Links ]

TADEO JL, SÁNCHEZ-BRUNETE C, ALBERO B and LORENA GONZALEZ (2004) Analysis of pesticide residues in juice and beverages, Critical Rev. Anal. Chem. 34 165-175.         [ Links ]

VALENZUELA F, CABRERA J, BASUALTO C and SAPAG J (2007) Separation of zinc ions from an acidic mine drainage using a stirred transfer cell-type emulsion liquid membrane contactor. Sep. Sci. Technol. 42 363-377.         [ Links ]

VAN DE VOORDE I, PINOY L and DE KETELAERE RF (2004) Recovery of nickel ions by supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction. J. Membr. Sci. 234 11-21.         [ Links ]

YANG C and CUSSLER EL (2000) Reaction dependent extraction of copper and nickel using hollow fibers. J. Membr. Sci. 166 229-238.         [ Links ]

YANG MJ, HARMS S, LUO YZ and PAWLISZYN J (1994) Membrane extraction with a sorbent interface for capillary gas-chromatography. Anal. Chem. 66 1339-1346.         [ Links ]

ZHAO L and LEE HK (2002) Liquid-phase microextraction combined with hollow fiber as a sample preparation technique prior to gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem. 74 2486-2492.         [ Links ]

ZORITA S, BARRI T and MATHIASSON L (2007) A novel hollow-fibre microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction for determination of free 4-isobutylacetophenone concentration at ultra trace level in environmental aqueous samples. J. Chromatogr. A 1157 30-37.         [ Links ]



+2711 717-6703, +27 724978041
Fax: +2711 717-6749
E-mail: or

Received 12 December 2007;
Accepted in revised form 20 March 2008.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License