SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.34 issue3Long-term emissions from mechanically biologically treated waste: Influence on leachate quality - Part IIPrevalence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: H7 in drinking water and its predicted impact on diarrhoeic HIV/AIDS patients in the Amathole District, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Water SA

On-line version ISSN 1816-7950
Print version ISSN 0378-4738

Water SA vol.34 n.3 Pretoria Mar. 2008

 

Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa

 

 

SI MahomedI; KVV VoyiI; NH Aneck-HahnII; C de JagerI

ISchool of Health Systems and Public Health, University of Pretoria, PO Box 667, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
IIDepartment of Urology, University of Pretoria, PO Box 667, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

Correspondence

 

 


ABSTRACT

Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogenicity, using the Recombinant Yeast Cell Bioassay (RCBA). Target chemical analyses were carried out to establish the presence of EDCs, including p-nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). p-NP, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were detected using LECO Pegasus II MSTOF and BPA and phthalates were detected using the GC-MS method. Oestrogenic activity was detected in all the samples collected from these sites. Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected at one site. p-NP, PCBs and phthalate esters were detected at some of the other sites. Small-size industries were found to contribute to EDC pollution of water in the Pretoria West area.

Keywords: oestrogenicity, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), p-nonylphenol (p-NP), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT), lindane


 

 "Full text available in PDF"

 

References

AITKEN RJ, KOOPMAN P and LEWIS SEM (2004) Seeds of concern. Nature 432 48-52.         [ Links ]

ANECK-HAHN NH (2003) Screening for Anti-Oxidant Pollutants and Estrogenicity in Drinking Water in Poverty Stricken Areas of South Africa. D. Tech. Thesis, Tecknikon Pretoria, Pretoria.         [ Links ]

ANECK-HAHN NH, DE JAGER C, BORNMAN MS and DU TOIT D (2005) Oestrogenic activity using a recombinant yeast screen assay (RCBA) in South African laboratory water sources. Water SA 31 253-256.         [ Links ]

ANECK-HAHN NH, SCHULENBURG GW, BORNMAN MS, FARIAS P and DE JAGER C (2007) Impaired semen quality associated with environmental DDT exposure in young men living in a malaria area in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. J. Androl. 28 (3) 423-434.         [ Links ]

ARNOT TC and ZAHIR N (1996) Membrane bioreactors as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment processes. Resour. Environ. Biotechnol. 1 145-162.         [ Links ]

BARNHOORN IEJ, BORNMAN MS, PIETERSE GM and VAN VUUREN JHJ (2004) Histological evidence of intersex in feral sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from an estrogen-polluted water source in Gauteng, South Africa. Environ. Tox. 19 603-608.         [ Links ]

BORNMAN MS, VAN VUREN JH, BOUWMAN H, DE JAGER C, GENTHE B and BARNHOORN EJ (2007) The Use of Sentinel Species to Determine the Endocrine Disruptive Activity in an Urban Nature Reserve. WRC Report No 1505/1/07. Water Research Commission, Pretoria, South Africa.         [ Links ]

BRIAN JV, HARRIS CA, SCHOLZE M, KORTENKAMP A, BOOY P, LAMOREE M, POJANA G, JONKERS N, MARCOMINI A and SUMPTER JP (2007) Evidence of estrogenic mixture effects on the reproductive performance of fish. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 337-344.         [ Links ]

COLBORN T, VOM SAAL FS and SOTO A (1993) Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans. Environ. Health. Perspect. 101 (5) 378-384.         [ Links ]

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AFFAIRS AND FORESTRY (1996) South African Water Quality Guidelines. Vol. 1: Fresh Water (2nd edn.) DWAF, Pretoria, South Africa.         [ Links ]

DE JAGER C, BORNMAN MS and VAN DER HORST G (1999) The effect of p-nonylphenol, an environmental toxicant with oestrogenic properties, on fertility potential in adult male rats. Andrologia 2 99-106.         [ Links ]

DE JAGER C, BORNMAN MS, ANECK-HAHN N, FOURIE MH and BAILEY JL (2001) Additive Effects of p-Nonylphenol and Phytoestrogens on Reproductive Parameters in Male Rats. Poster Presentation, 2nd Int. Conf. Male Mediated Development Toxicity. 20-23 June, Montreal, Canada.         [ Links ].

DE JAGER C, MYBURGH J, VAN DER BURG B, LEMMEN JG and BORNMAN MS (2002) Estrogenic Contamination of South African River Waters: A Pilot Study. American Waterworks Water Association (AWWA) April 18-20, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.         [ Links ]

DUTY SM, SILVA MJ, BARR DB, BROCK JW, RYAN L, CHEN Z, HERRICK RF, CHRISTIANI DC and HAUSER R (2003) Phthalate exposure and human semen parameters. Epidemiol. 14 269-277.         [ Links ]

EDSTAC (1998) Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee, Final Report, EPA, Washington, USA.         [ Links ]

ESKENAZI B, MARKS AR, BRADMAN A, FENSTER L, CAROLINE J, BARR D and JEWELL NP (2006) In-utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and neurodevelopment among young Mexican American children. Pediatrics 118 (1) 233-241.         [ Links ]

GARRETSON L and KONING S (2001) Analysis of semi-volatile organics according to EPA Method 8270. Veldhoven, The Netherlands. http://www.atasgl.com.         [ Links ]

JEYARATNAM J (1992) Occupational health services and developing nations. In: Jeyaratnum J (2nd edn.) Occupational Health in Developing Countries. Oxford Medical Publications. 3-30.         [ Links ]

JOBLING S and SUMPTER JP (1993) Detergent components in sewage effluent are weakly oestrogenic to fish: An in vitro study using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Aquat. Toxicol. 27 361-372.         [ Links ]

JOOSTE S (2005) Personal communication. Resource Quality Services, Roodeplaat Dam, Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Gauteng, SA.         [ Links ]

KAISER J (2005) Endocrine disruptors trigger fertility problems in multiple generations. Sci 308 (5727) 1391-1392.         [ Links ]

KAMRIN MA (1996) The mismeasure of risk: a review of 'Our Stolen Future'. Scientific American: Reviews and Commentaries. 1-4. Accessed on 20 October 2007. http://www.sciam.com/0996issue/0996review2.htm        [ Links ]

KAVLOCK R, BOEKELHEIDE K, CHAPIN R, CUNNINGHAM M, FAUSTMAN E, FOSTER P, GOLUB M, HENDERSON R, HINGERG I, LITTLE R, JENNIFER S, SHEA K, TABACOVA S, TYL R, WILLIAMS P and ZACHAREWSKI T (2002a) NTP Centre for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate. Reprod. Toxicol. 16 489-527.         [ Links ]

KAVLOCK R, BOEKELHEIDE K, CHAPIN R, CUNNINGHAM M, FAUSTMAN E, FOSTER P, GOLUB M, HENDERSON R, HINGERG I, LITTLE R, JENNIFER S, SHEA K, TABACOVA S, TYL R, WILLIAMS P and ZACHAREWSKI T (2002b) NTP Centre for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: Phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Reprod. Toxicol. 16 529-653.         [ Links ]

KILIAN E, DELPORT R, BORNMAN MS and DE JAGER C (2007) Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, deltamethrin, nonylphenol and phytoestrogens has negative effects on the reproductive parameters in male Spraque-Dawley rats. Andrologia 39 128-135.         [ Links ]

KIRKHORN SR and SCHENKER MB (2002) Current health effects of agricultural work: Respiratory disease, cancer, reproductive effects, musculoskeletal injuries and pesticide-related illnesses. J. Agric. Saf. Health 8 199-214.         [ Links ]

LONDON L, DALVIE MA, NOWICKI A and CAIRNCROSS E (2005) Approaches for regulating water in South Africa for the presence of pesticides. Water SA 31 53-59.         [ Links ]

LUTZ D (1996) Anecdotal evidence. No conception. Masquerading as sex hormones, chemicals ubiquitous in the environment could threaten our children's ability to reproduce. The Sciences 36 (1) 12-15.         [ Links ]

MATSUI S, TAKIGAMI H, MATSUDA T, TANIGUCHI N, ADACHI J, KAWAMI H and SHIMIZU Y (2000) Estrogen andestrogenmimics contamination in water and the role of sewage treatment. Water Sci. Technol. 42 (12) 173-179.         [ Links ]

McLACHLAN JA and ARNOLD SF (1996) Environmental Estrogens. The AmericanScientist. Accessed on 20 October 2007. http://www.amsci.org/amsci/articles/96articles/McLachla.htm.         [ Links ]

MELNICK R, LUCIER G, WOLFE M, HALL R (2002) Workshop Summary: Summary of the National Toxicology Program's Report of the Endocrine Disruptors Low-Dose Peer Review. Environ. Health Perspect. 1101 (4) 427-431.         [ Links ]

MULLER AW, WENTZEL MC, SAAYMAN GB, VAN DE MERWE SA, ESTERHUYSE CM, SNYMAN JS and EKAMA GA (2004) Full-scale implementation of external nitrification biological nutrient removal at the Daspoort Waste Water Treatment Works. Water SA 30 (5) 37-43.         [ Links ]

NAUDE Y (2002) Extraction of persistent organic pollutants from environmental samples from selected sites: Proc. Analytika Symposium. Dec 2002, Stellenbosch, South Africa.         [ Links ].

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES (NIEHS) (2006) Endocrine disruptors. Accessed on 21 October 2007. www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/endocrine/docs/endocrine.pdf        [ Links ]

PORTER W, JAEGER JW and CARLSON IH (1999) Endocrine, immune and behavioural effects of aldocarb (carbamate), atrazine (triazine) and nitrate (fertilizer) mixtures at groundwater concentrations. Toxicol. Ind. Health 15 133-150.         [ Links ]

ROUTLEDGE EJ and SUMPTER JP (1996) Estrogenic activity of surfactants and some of their degradation products assessed using a recombinant yeast screen. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15 (3) 241-248.         [ Links ]

ROZATI R, REDDY PP, REDDANNA P and MUJTABA R (2002) Role of environmental estrogens in the deterioration of male factor fertility. Fertil. Steril. 78 1187-1194.         [ Links ]

SHARPE R and SKAKKEBEAK NE (1993) Are oestrogens involved in falling sperm counts and disorders of the male reproductive tract? The Lancet 341 1392-1395.         [ Links ]

SAAYMAN GB (2004) Personal communication. Operations of Waste-water Treatment Works, Daspoort Wastewater Treatment Works, Tshwane, Gauteng SA.         [ Links ]

SWAN SH (2006) Semen quality in fertile US men in relation to geographical area and pesticide exposure. Int. J. Andrology 29 62-68.         [ Links ]

SWAN SH, BRAZIL C, DROBNIS EZ, LIU F, KRUZE RL, HATCH M, REDMON JB, WANG C and OVERSTREET JW (2003) Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile U.S. males. Environ. Health Perspect. 111 (4) 414-420.         [ Links ]

TOPPARI J, LARSEN JC, CHRISTIANSEN P, GIWERCMAN A, GRANDJEAN P, GUILLETTE LJ, JEGOU B, JENSEN TK, JOUANETTE P, KEDING N, LEFFERS H, MCLACHLAN JA, MEYER O, MULLER, RAJPERT-DE MEYTS E, SCHEIKE T, SHARPE R, SUMPTER J and SKAKKEBAEK NE (1996) Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens. Environ. Health Perspect. 104 (4) 741-776.         [ Links ]

UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME (UNEP) (1996) Lindane, Decision Guidance Documents. Joint FAO/UNEP Programme for the Operation of Prior Informed Consent. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations. United Nations Environment Programme. Geneva.         [ Links ]

US-EPA. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC/MS) Revision 3 METHOD 8260C (2006) US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH.         [ Links ]

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2002) International Programme on Chemical Safety: Global Assessment of the State-of-the-Science of Endocrine Disruptors, WHO, Geneva.         [ Links ]

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003) Lindane. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality: World Health Organisation (3rd edn.) Geneva, Switzerland.         [ Links ]

 

 

 Correspondence:
+2712 354-2072
Fax: +2712 354-2071
E-mail: tiaan.dejager@up.ac.za

Received 26 November 2006;
Accepted in revised form 13 June 2008.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License