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Water SA

On-line version ISSN 1816-7950
Print version ISSN 0378-4738

Water SA vol.34 n.3 Pretoria Mar. 2008


Oestrogenicity and chemical target analysis of water from small-sized industries in Pretoria, South Africa



SI MahomedI; KVV VoyiI; NH Aneck-HahnII; C de JagerI

ISchool of Health Systems and Public Health, University of Pretoria, PO Box 667, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
IIDepartment of Urology, University of Pretoria, PO Box 667, Pretoria 0001, South Africa





Increasing concern about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on humans, animals and the environment resulted in this study being conducted. Water from 7 sites in the Pretoria West area (South Africa), with significant numbers of small-sized industries, was screened for oestrogenicity, using the Recombinant Yeast Cell Bioassay (RCBA). Target chemical analyses were carried out to establish the presence of EDCs, including p-nonylphenol (p-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). p-NP, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were detected using LECO Pegasus II MSTOF and BPA and phthalates were detected using the GC-MS method. Oestrogenic activity was detected in all the samples collected from these sites. Lindane, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected at one site. p-NP, PCBs and phthalate esters were detected at some of the other sites. Small-size industries were found to contribute to EDC pollution of water in the Pretoria West area.

Keywords: oestrogenicity, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), p-nonylphenol (p-NP), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT), lindane


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Received 26 November 2006;
Accepted in revised form 13 June 2008.

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