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Water SA

On-line version ISSN 1816-7950
Print version ISSN 0378-4738

Water SA vol.34 n.2 Pretoria Feb. 2008


Management of hydrogen sulphide generation at a Kraft mill effluent plant



E RavaI; JJ SchoemanI; PJ AllisonII; V DilsookIII

IUniversity of Pretoria, Department of Chemical Engineering, Water Utilisation Division, 0002, South Africa
IIBuckman Laboratories (Pty) Ltd, PO Box 591, Hammarsdale, KwaZulu-Natal, 3700, South Africa
IIISappi Management Services - Technology Centre, PO Box 6, Pretoria, 0087, South Africa





Communities surrounding an integrated Kraft mill noticed odours from the mill's effluent treatment plant. A project was therefore commissioned by the mill to proactively manage the odours from both the pulp-processing operations and the effluent treatment plant. This project formed part of a co-ordinated study that was implemented by the mill to limit emissions of the total reduced sulphur (TRS) components from the pulp mill operations. It was found that sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted the sulphates present in the effluent to hydrogen sulphide (H2S) by dissimilatory respiration. The combined use of a nitrate-releasing biomodifier (Bulab® 9518) and an anthraquinone sulphate-reduction inhibitor (Busperse® 2432) was effective in reducing both SRB activity and H2S levels. The average aqueous H2S levels (40 mg/) were reduced to between 92% and 99%.

Keywords: biomodifiers, hydrogen sulphide, Kraft mill effluent plant, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), anthraquinone, sulphate reduction inhibition, sodium nitrate


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Buckman Laboratories (Pty) Ltd, PO Box 251
Bedfordview 2008, South Africa
+27 11 997-5100; Fax: +27 11 455-4495

Received 10 July 2007
Accepted in revised form 13 March 2008

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